Skip to main content

Full text of "Wiltshire archaeological and natural history magazine"

See other formats



Archaeological & Natural History 


$lttbflt«lycii un^jetr tlje ^ivection of tij« ^ocieivi 


Edited by Rev. E. H. Goddard, F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

Nos. 142—146. June, 1925— June, 1927. 

C. JB. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, 

June, 1927. 



No, CXLII. June, 1925. 
Excavations of the Priories of Bradenstoke, Monkton Farleigh, 

and Kington : By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A 1 — 25 

Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present. Part III. (Continued). 

The Newspapers of 8outh Wilts : By Mrs. Herbert Bichard- 

son, B.A., sometime Scholar of St. Hugh's College, Oxford... 26— 38 
The Seventy-First General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeological 

and Natural History Society, held at Salisbury, August 11th, 

12th, and 13th, 1924 39— 47 

Figsbury Rings. An account of Excavations in 1924 : By Mrs. 

M. E. Cunnington 48— 58 

An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. date, on Swallowcliffe Down : 

By R. C. C. Clay, M.R.C.S., L.R.O.P., F.S.A., F.R.A.1 59- 93 

A Pagan Saxon Cemetery at Broadchalke : By R. C. C. Clay, 

M.K.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A., F.R.A.1 94—101 

A Pagan Saxon Burial at Ebbesbourne Wake , By R. G. C. Glay, 

M.R.G.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A., F.R.A.1 101 

Wilts Obituary 102—115 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles , 115—139 

Additions to Museum and Library 140—142 

No. CXLIII. December, 1925. 

Savernake Forest Fungi, Part II. : By Cecil P. Hurst 143—155 

Flint Implements from the Nadder Valley, South Wilts : By R. 

C. C. Glay, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A., F.R.A.I 156—162 

The Church of St. John the Baptist, Inglesham, Wilts : By G. E. 

Pouting, F.S.A 163—167 

The Evans Family of North Wilts : By Canon F. H. Manley 168—174 

A Complete List of the Ancient Monuments in Wiltshire scheduled 

under the Ancient Monuments Act, 1913 (up to March, 1925) 175—179 
Objects found during Excavations on the Romano- British Site at 
Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell, 1924 : By R. de C, Nan 

Kivell 180—191 

The Customs of the Manors of Calstone and Bremhill : By the 

Earl of Kerry 192—206 

The so-called " Kenward Stone " at Chute Causeway, Wilts : By 

H. St. George Gray , , 207—212 

The Seventy-Second General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeolo- 
gical and Natural History Society held at Cirencester, August 

6th, 7th, and 8th, 1925 213—220 

Wilts Obituary ,, 221 226 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 227—251 

Additions to Museum and Library 251—252 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1924 ,. 253—255 

List of Officers and Members of the Society 256—266 


No. OXLIV. June, 1926. 

List of Bronze Age Drinking Cups found in Wiltshire : By Mrs. 

M. E. Cunnington 267-284 

The Society's MSS. The Deeds' of Seagry House : By Canon F. 

H. Manley 285-310 

Report on Human Remains received from Mr. A. D. Passmore : 

By Sir Arthur Keith, M.D., F.R.S 311-312 

The Woodminton Group of Barrows, Bowerchalke : By R. C. C. 

Clay, M.U.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A 313—326 

Objects found during Excavations on the Romano-British Site at 

Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell, Wilts : By R. de C. 

Nan Kivell '. 327-332 

Notes 333-353 

Wilts Obituary 353—358 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 358 — 383 

Additions to Museum and Library , 384—385 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1925 ..., 386—388 

NTo. CXLV. December, 1926. 

Objects found during Excavations on the Romano-British Site at 

Stockton Earthworks, 1923 : By R. de C. Nan Kivell 889—894 

Notes on Recent Prehistoric Finds : By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington 
(Beakers, W. Overton and Beckhampton ; Cinerary Urns, 
Figheldean, Lavington, and Knoyle ; Barrows, Market 
Lavington and Shepherds' Shore) 895 — 400 

The Society's MSS. Abstracts of Deeds relating to the Family 
of Methuen at Bradford, Corsham, Melksham, Chitterne, 
and Beckington: By Canon E. P. Knubley 401—431 

The Barrows on Middle Down, Alvediston : By R. C. C. Clay, 

M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A .* 432—439 

The Seventy-Third General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeologi- 
cal and Natural History Society, held at Chippenham, 
August 9th, 10th, and nth, 1926 440—448 

Sheep Farming in Wiltshire, with a short History of the Hamp- 
shire Down Breed : By G. B. Hony 449—464 

Savernake Forest Fungi, Part IIL : By Cecil P. Hurst , .... 465—476 

Notes on Purton Tithe Books : By S. W. Shaw 477—482 

Guy's Rift, Slaughterford, Wilts : An Early Iron Age Habita- 
tion : ByT. F. Hewer 483—489 

Two Bronze Age Beaker Burials at Netheravon : By Mrs. M. E. 

Cunnington 490—491 

A Bibliographical Catalogue of Printed Materials for the History 
and Topography of Wiltshire, arranged alphabetically under 
Parishes : By Rev. E. H. Goddard 492—493 

Wilts Obituary 493—496 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 496—508 

Additions to Museum and Library , 509—510 


No. CXLVI. June, 1927. 

Corsham: By Harold Brakspear, F.S. A 511—539 

Supplementary Report on the Early Iron Age Village on Swallow- 

cliffeDown: By R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A 540—547 

The Barrows on Marley combe Hill, Bowerchalke (1926) : By R. 

O. C. Clay, F.S.A 548—556 

Wilts Obituary 557—559 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles f 560 — 571 

Additions to Museum and Library 572 — 573 

Index to Vol. XLIII. ' 574—640 


Bradenstoke Priory, plan of precinct, 3. Monkton Farleigh Priory, plan of 
precinct, 13, Kington Priory, plan of precinct, 21. Views of Bradenstoke 
Priory ; Views of Kington Priory ; Plans of Bradenstoke Priory, Monk- 
ton Farleigh Priory, and Kington Priory, 24. Sections of Ditches and 
Ramparts, Figsbury Rings, 55, 56. Figsbury Camp, Plan, 58. Portion 
of Wooden Loom Frame, Swallowcliffe Down, 63. Sections of Stratified 
and Impressed Ring Eye Beads, 89. Plates I. — XIII. — Plans of Pits* 
Swallowcliflfe Down, and Drawings of Objects found in them, 92. Plate 
I. — Plan of Saxon Cemetery, Broadchalke, 94, Plate IL— Iron objects 
from Saxon Cemetery, Broadchalke, and Barrow, Ebbesbourne, 95. 
Plates I. and IL — Flint Implements from the Greensand Terrace, S, 
Wilts, 161. Figs. 1—6, Inglesham Church, Wilts, 162. Moredon House. 
Rodbourne Cheney, 168. Plates I. — XV.— Objects found during Ex- 
cavations at Cold Kitchen Hill, 182-190. Map A.— The Open Fields 
of Calstone Manor, showing the Strips or Lynchets into which 
they were divided c 1725, 194. Map B. — The Coombes of Calstone 
Down. From air photographs taken by Alex. Keiller, F.S.A., Scot., 194. 
The so-called " Ken ward Stone" at Chute Causeway, 208, Excavation 
of the so-called " Kenward Stone " at Chute Causeway. 209. Plan of 
Cuttings made at the Excavation of the so-called "Kenward Stone," 
Chute Causeway, 209. Map of Seagry and District, 290. Objects from 
the Woodminton Group of Barrows, Bowerchalke, Plates I, — V., 322. 
Objects found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell, Plates I. — VIIL, 
330. Plan of a New Stone in the Kennett Avenue as excavated, 342. 
Objects of Early Iron Age from N. Wilts (Passmore Collection), Plates 
I. and II. , 342—343. Stone perforated Mace Head found near Bilbury 
Camp, Wylye, 344. Recumbent Gravestone of the 12th century found in 
Court Street, Trowbridge, 1924, 345. The Devizes Skippett (14th century 
or earlier), 346. Late Celtic Bronze Enamelled Cheek-piece of Bit from 
Middle Chase Farm, Bowerchalke, 352, Plan of Stonehenge, 358. Ob- 
jects found at Stockton Earthworks, Plates I. — V., 392. Notes on Recent 
Prehistoric Finds, Plates I.— IV., 396. Sections of Barrows, Market 


Lavington and Bishops Cannings, 396—397. The Barrows on Middle 
Down, Alvediston, Sections of Barrows, 433—435 ; Plan, 436. The Old 
Wiltshire Horned Sheep and the Hampshire Down, Plates I. — VII., 460. 
Guy's Rift, Slaughterford, and Skull, 483—489. Two Bronze Age Beaker 
Burials at Netheravon, 490. Corsham, Map and 10 Plates, 526- Section 
of Pit, Swallowcliffe Down, 541. Objects from Early Iron Age Pits, 
Swallowcliffe Down, 542—543. The Barrows on Marleycombe Hill, 
Bowerchalke, 548 — 554. 


iC'f f SP' 

m 28 0CT195S 

No. CXLII. JUNE, 1925. Vol. XLIII. 



Archaeological & Natural History 


Published under the Direction of the 

A. D. 1 8 5 3, 


REV. E. H. GODDARD, Clyfte Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
statements made therein]. 


Printed foe the Society by C. H. Woodward, 
Exchange Buildings. Station Road. 

Price 8s. Members, Gratis. 


TAKE NOTICE that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
volumes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. Tlie subsequent Volumes are 
each fully indexed separately, 

The annual subscription is now raised to 15s. ^d., the entrance fee 
for new Members remaining 10s. Qd. as before. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society /br 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owen, Bank Chambers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of tliis Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
Subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
tary: the Eev. E. H. Goddaud, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 


To be obtained of Mr. D, OWEN, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev, A. C. Smith, M.A. One Volume, Atlas 
4to, 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. Price £,1 2s. 
One copy offered to each Member of the Society at £'1 lis. ()d. 

504 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev. T. A. Preston, M.A. Price to the 
Public 16s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society at half-price. 

IN THE SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

Part II. 1911. Fully illustrated. Price 2s, 

Price Is. APPENDIX No. L, IL, and IIL, 3d. each. 

LIBRARY at the MUSEUM. Price Is. 6d. 

COLLECTION. Price 6d. 

BACK NUMBERS of the MAGAZINE. Price to the Public, 8s., 5s. 6d., 
and 3s. 6d. (except in the case of a few numbers, the price of which is raised). 
Members are allowed a reduction of 25 per cent, from these prices. 

Archaeological & Natural History 


No. CXLII. JUNE, 1925. Vol. XLIII. 

Contents. PAGE. 

Excavations of the Priories of Bradenstoke, Monkton 

Farleigh, and Kington : By Harold Brakspear,Esq.,F.S.A. 1 — 25 

Wiltshire Newspapers— Fast and Present. Part III. 
(Continued). The Newspapers of South Wilts : By- 
Mrs. Herbert Richardson, B.A., sometime Scholar of St. 
Hugh's College, Oxford 26— 38 

The Seventy-First General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Arch^ological and Natural History Society, held 
AT Salisbury, August 11th, 12th, and 13th, 1924 39— 47 

Figsbury Rings. An Account of Excavations in 1924 : By 

Mrs. M. E. Cunnington ,... 48— 58 

An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. date, on Swallowcliffe 
Down: By R. C. C. Clay, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A., 
F.R.A.1 59— 93 

A Pagan Saxon Cemetery at Broadchalke : By R. C C. 

Clay, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A., F.R.A.1 94-101 

A Pagan Saxon Burial at Ebbesborne Wake : By R. C. C 

Clay, M.R.C.S., L.R.CP., F.S.A., F.R.A.1 101 

Wilts Obituary , 102 — 115 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 115—139 

Additions to Museum and Library 140—142 


Bradenstoke Priory, plan of precinct 3 

Monkton Farleigh Priory, plan of precinct 13 

Kington Priory, plan of precinct 21 

Views of Bradenstoke Priory. Views of Kington Priory. 

Plans of Bradenstoke Priory, Monkton Farleigh Priory, 

and Kington Priory 24 

Sections of Ditches and Ramparts, Figsbury Rings ... 55, 5^ 

Portion of Wooden Loom Frame, Swallowcliffe Down 63 

Sections of Stratified and Impressed Ring Eye Beads 89 

Plates I.— XIIL— Plans of Pits, Swallowcliffe Down and 

Drawings of Objects found in them 92 

Plate I. — Plan of Saxon Cemetery, Broadchalke 94 

Plate II. — Iron objects from Saxon Cemetery, Broadchalke, 

and Barrow, Ebbesbourne 95 

Devizks :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 




No. CXLII. June, 1925. Vol XLEII. 


By Harold Brakspear, Esq., F.S.A. 
[Reprinted by permission from Archa&ologia^ LXXIII., 225—252.] 

Wiltshire had at the Suppression fifteen religious houses, of which six 
were of over ^200 a year value and escaped the first attack by King Henry 
VIII One had licence to continue. With the exception of five they 
were all in the northern half of the county, and six were in the Avon valley 
between Bath and Malmesbury 

It has always be^-n the hope of the writer to deal with this group in 
detail as he was able to do with three of them, Lacock, Stanley, and 
Malmesbury ; but time passes, and it does not seem likely that opportunity 
will arise for any extensive excavations to be made on the sites except 
perhaps in one case. Therefore, so that the researches already made may 
not be altogether lost, this paper is laid before the Society with a very 
sincere apology for its incompleteness. 


The priory of Bradenstoke is placed, in the unusual position for a monastic 
house, on the top of a hill on the east side of the Avon river some six miles 
north-east of Chippenham. The remaining fragment of the priory can be 
seen from a great distance, and the view from it extends over three counties. 
In spite of the elevated position, the indispensable necessity of every 
monastery, water, wells up within the precinct in vast quantities that have 
never been known to fail. 

The priory was founded in 1142 by Walter of Salisbury, for canons of the 
order of St. Augustine, and was hallowed in honour of our Lady.^ The 
eastern part of the Church and the buildings round the cloister were 
doubtless erected with little delay. The house was richly endowed by the 
founder, who, after the death of his wife, became one of the canons. He 
\ and his wife were buried in the same grave juxta preshyterium. His son, 
William, who was father of Kla, Countess of Salisbury, founder of Lacock 

* Mon. Aug. (Lon.ion, 1849), vi., 337. 

2 Excavations at the Priories of BradenstoJce, etc. 

Abbey, was buried with his wife Elinor under a marble slab juxta vestihulum} 
In the thirteenth century a new aisle and porch were added to the nave 
of the church, after which the claustral buildings seem to have been re-built, 
and this rebuilding was continued gradually until the completion of the 
western range in the early part of the fourteenth century. The great barn 
was built at the end of that century. 

A western tower was added to the nave at the end of the fourteenth or 
the beginning of the fifteenth century. Later in the fifteenth century a 
chapel was added on the south side of the nave, east of the porch. The 
prior's lodging was remade by Prior Thomas Walshe about 1490. 

In 1535 "the king's visitors" came to Bradenstoke *' where after exact 
and diligent inquisicion we coulde not prove any cryme ageinst the Prior 
but ij or thre of the convent were found convict of incontinencie."^ 

The house was valued at ^6270 10s. Sd., so it escaped the suppression of 
smaller houses only to share their fate four years later, on the 18th January, 
1539, when there were thirteen canons and a prior.^ The prior, William 
Snow, was appointed first Dean of Bristol by the charter founding that see 
on 4th June, 1542, and it is interesting to find that the head of another 
"Wiltshire house, Edington, was made the first bishop.* Bradenstoke was 
granted to one William Pexhill in exchange^ and since then has passed 
through many hands. 

John Aubrey, the Wiltshire antiquary, was familiar with the remains of 
this priory as they existed in his day, and it is a pity he says so little about 
them. In his collections the references are very slight, and most of his 
short notes refer to wild ideas of the name of the place which is known 
locally as Clack. However, he tells us, 

At Broadstock Abbey is an overshot mill . . . Broad- Hinton 
House, Broniham House, and Cadnam House were built of the Ruines 
of Bradstock Abbey. The two former were burnt in the late Warres 
and Cadnam is propt for fear of falling.^ 
In his Natural History of Wilts ^ he says ; — 

The cellar, in which was a strong spring of water, the stateliest in 

Wilts. The church had long been destroyed and the foundations digged 

up. On the west of the hall had once been the King's lodgings which 

stood till 1 588. 

In 1732 the first known view of the place occurs in the collections of the 

iDrothers Buck and is of great value. It shows the western range complete 

to its northern gable and the porch remaining to the guest hall. The prior's 

lodging is also shown complete with a buttress of the church adjoining it 

^ Register of Lacoch, B.M. Cott. Vit. A. viii.^ vide Mon. Aug., vi., 501. 

^ Letters and Papers For. and Pom., Hen. VIII„ ix., 139. 

2 Mon. Ang., vi., 337. ' 

* Survey of Cathedrals, Browne Willis (London, 1727), 777 and 784. 

^ Mon. Ang.,V\.,ZZl. 

^ Wiltshire Collections, Aubrey and Jackson (Devizes, 1862), 186 and 189: 


By Harold Brakspear^ F.S.A, 3 

to the south. The northern bay of the range was pulled down in the 
seventeenth century but the western wall was left standing. The prior's 
lodging was pulled down early in the nineteenth century and replaced by a 
two-storied building. The fireplace remained until about 1870 and was 
then removed to Corsham Court. 

In 1917 the property was bought by the Baron de Tuyle, who intended 
to erect new buildings to form a large house, and during his ownership 
excavations 'were made on the site of the nave of the Church and the 
northern range of the cloister under the direction of the writer. It is to be 
hoped that at some future time the remaining parts of the site may be 

Fig. 1.— Bradenstoke Priory, plan of precinct. 

The Precinct. 

The bounds of the precinct are nowhere clearly traceable either by ditch 
or wall. The gatehouse was probably to the south-west of the great barn 
<Fig. 1). 

B 2 

4 Excavations at the Priories of BradenstoJce, etc. 

The Chuech. 

The Church occupied the south side of the cloister in spite of the sit& 
being virtually level from north to south. It is a curious coincidence that 
of the six monasteries along the Avon valley in Wiltshire four have their 
Churches on the south side of the cloister, namely, Malmesbury,Bradenstoke,, 
Stanley, and Lacock. 

Canons' Churches are notoriously varied on plan, and it is useless to 
suggest the nature of the eastern part of that at Bradenstoke until it has 
been traced by excavation. 

The nave has been carefully examined, and Aubrey was perfectly correct 
in saying that the foundations had been grubbed up. A few fagmentary 
bits of foundation remained, but the greater part had been removed. This^ 
however, does not mean that they could not be traced. It must be re- 
membered that when a building was first erected on a clear site trenches 
were cut in the untouched ground to receive the footings of the walls, and 
if the line of the unmoved ground is carefully followed it is possible ta 
trace the complete area of the foundations. This method was adopted and 
the result has been the discovery of an interesting and unexpected group 
of buildings. 

The nave was approximately 126ft. long by 24ft. wide between the 
foundations, or about 25jft. between the neat work, and was originally 
aisleless. The foundations of the south wall, 6ift. wide, remained for 
almost the whole length of the nave. The reason why they were not 
removed like the rest was that they formed a sleeper-wall under the main 
arcade, and their existence was not suspected. The foundations of the west 
wall were 9ft in thickness. 

In the thirteenth century an aisle was added on the south side of the 
nave, Sgft wide between the foundations or lO^ft. wide in the clear of the 
walls. The foundations of the outer wall were 7ft. wide and had offsets on 
the inner face to carry the vaulting shafts. These offsets show that the 
width of the bays was only 12|ft. : on the outside face were large projections 
for buttresses. 

The nave was divided into ten bays, but it is doubtful if the arcade was 
continued up to the crossing. If the quire occupied the eastern part of the 
nave, as was usually the case, the arcade was doubtless stopped before it 
reached the quire, as it did at Haughmond and Torre. The foundation of 
the west end of the aisle was not so wide as that of the original nave, and 
there was a large block of foundation lOft. square at the south-west angle 
to take a vice. 

Opposite the eighth bay from the east was a large square porch of the^ 
sam.e date as the aisle, with square buttresses at the angles. 

The nave and aisle were paved with pattern tiles of fourteenth century 
date which were found at about 2jft. below the present ground. They 
were much shattered by fallen debris and frost, and no definite arrangement 
was traceable in those parts which were exposed. All that were found I 
were of two variations of a four-tile pattern of quatrefoils. In 18.51 other! 
tiles were found on the site of the Church ; on some were the arms of the! 
de Clares and on the others the arms of Hungerford, and some of these were! 

By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. 5 

removed to pave the porch at Dauntsey Rectory.' Stone coffins were also 
found, and for many years were kept as objects of curiosity. 

Late in the fourteenth century the great abbey of Malmesbury built a 
new west tower, and at Bradenstoke, whether in emulation of its richer 
neighbours, or because its own central tower showed signs of weakness, a 
new tower was added at the west end of the nave. The foundations of the 
south wall remained, 6|ft. wide, but the other sides could not be traced. 
The tower was about 30ft. square over all. 

On the south side of the nave, outside the fifth, sixth, and seventh bays, 
a chapel was added presumably in the fifteenth century. This was about 
33ft. long by 16ft. wide and had small buttresses on its south side dividing 
it into only two bays, which shows that the chapel probably had a wooden 
roof.^ The original ground in the north-east part of the chapel had been 
disturbed, possibly for burials, but a square sinking at the east end may 
mark the foundation of the altar. Eastward of the chapel was a narrow 
building, occupying two bays of the aisle, which may have been a vestry in 
connexion with the chapel. 

In Buck's view the buttress at the north-west angle of the nave is shown 
standing to a considerable height, and had upon it an attached shaft with 
capitals and springers of wall arcading, indicating that the original west 
end had considerable architectural pretensions. 

The Cloister. 
The cloister was approximately 110ft. square, but nothing has yet been 
found of the foundations of the inner walls of the surrounding alleys. The 
weathering remains on the western range of the lean-to roof of the western 

The Eastern Range. 

The eastern range of buildings usually contained the chapter-house and 
the canons' dorter, but nothing of it has yet been excavated, except a short 
length of the wall next the northern range. This had the beginning of a 
cross wall in line with the north wall of the cloister and a buttress-like 
projection some H^ft. farther north. 

In connexion with the dorter was the rere-dorter, and the position of 
this is indicated by the present outlet of the pond. The pond was used 
as a dam from which the water was drawn periodically to flush the drain. 

The Frater. 
The northern side of the cloister was covered by the frater, over a subvault 
in the usual manner, but had in addition another building at its east end 
without a subvault. Owing to the hard nature of the subsoil in this part 
of the site the foundations were not carried down to any depth and nothing 
"definite was discovered of this eastern building. At the canons' house of 

' Wiltshire Collections, 188. 
' At Lacock a Lady chapel was added in the fourteenth century on the 
south side of the Church of only two bays but occupying three bays of the 
earlier work. 

6 Excavations at the Priories of Bradenstoke, etc. 

Lilleshall, in Shropshire, is a similar building at the east end of the frater^ 
and there it certainly was the warming house, which it doubtless was at 

The frater subvault was traced and it was 75^ft. in length by 25ft. wide. 
It was divided down the middle by a row of columns and was six bays in 
length. The vaulting was carried on the side walls by semi-octagonal half- 
piers 15|in. wide with chamfered plinths. Portions of the subvault were 
found standing some feet above its floor level, particularly at the west end 
of the north wall, the east end, and the eastern part of the south wall. The 
foundations of the side walls were 5ft. wide and those of the west wall 7ft. 
wide. It dated apparently from the end of the thirteenth century, and 
seems to have had buttresses on the north side marking the bays. In the^ 
westernmost bay was a coffin embedded in the floor for use as a water- 
trough. The west end of the frater overlapped the north end of the western 
range in the same way as it did at Croxton. 

Western Range. 

The western range, with the exception of the northernmost bay, remains 
complete with its roof, and the west wall stands to its full length. (Fig. 2). 
It all dates from the fourteenth century and was built over a subvault. 
This subvault was 92ft. long by 235ft. wide ; it was seven bays in length 
with a row of octagonal columns down the middle. The four southern bays^ 
were divided from the rest by a couple of arches to carry a wall above. 
These had half-octagonal responds of which the easternmost remains com- 
plete. The three southern bays retain their vaulting, which has bold semi- 
octagonal ribs supported on the walls by heavily moulded corbels. (Fig. 3). 
The remainder of the vaulting has been destroyed with the exception of 
the springer and corbel on the west wall of the first bay of the northern half. 

In the west wall of the first and third bays from the south are remains of 
the original windows, which were square- headed with pointed relieving 
arches above. (Fig 4). In the fourth bay are remains of an original 
doorway. (Fig. 2), In the sixth bay is a large pointed doorway of two 
hollow chamfered members with a hood mould, and in the last bay is a 
similar doorway, at a slightly higher level, which is now blocked up with 
masonry. (Fig. 5.) 

Over the four southern bays of the sub-vault was the Prior's Hall for 
for the entertainment of superior guests.' It was 51ft. long by 24ft. wide^ 
and was lighted from the west by three large two-light windows having 
pointed heads and transoms. The southernmost window is larger than 
the rest to give extra light to the dais. In the fourth bay are the remains^ 
of the entrance doorway which had detached columns in the jambs, but 
the arch is destroyed and the whole is built up with masonry. 

There is no indication of a contemporary fireplace, so that in monastic 
times the fire would have been on a central hearth with a louvre in the- 

The hall was covered with a fine open timber roof divided into four bays^ 
with arched principals, having mouldings on the edges enriched with ball , 
flowers. In the fifteenth century the hall seems to have been ceiled with a. 

By Harold Braks'pear, F.S,A, 7 

flat wooden ceiling of which part remains at the south end ; but it is 
possible that this ceiling never extended beyond the bay over the dais. 

Externally the bays are marked by buttresses having two sets-off and 
bold plinths, which show that the original ground level was higher than it 
is at present. The building is capped by a low parapet supported on a 
corbel course. Projecting from the west wall, in line with the north end of 
the wall, is a square turret which contained garderobes at the first and 
second floor levels. 

The hall was approached by a flight of steps up to a projecting porch 
opposite the fourth bay. The weathering of the apex of its roof remains in 
the parapet but all else has been removed. The porch is clearly shown 
in Buck's view and consisted of a stone basement in which there was a 
two-light window in the west wall and a smaller two-light window in the 
north wall. Over this was a timber structure, forming the porch itself^ 
with a gable placed east and west. The stairs remained on the south side. 

The portion of the western range northward of the hall had two stories 
above the sub-vault. (Fig. 5). The storey level with the hall was very 
low, being only 7^ft. from floor to ceiling. It was lighted on the west side 
by a pair of two-light square-headed windows in each bay, and was probably 
divided up into cubicles for superior guests. The storey above has a large 
two-light traceried window with a segmental head in each bay, and Buck 
shows a large two-light pointed window in the north gable. The room, 
was apparently a common sleeping room for guests. One bay remains of 
the original roof, which is of similar character but slightly different in detail 
from that of the hall. 

At the north-west angle of the range is a large square turret containing 
a vice which starts at the first floor and connects it with the second floor, 
after which it continues up to the gutter of the roof. (Fig. 5). 

Outside the two northern bays was a pentice, over the two doorways, 
from the subvault, of which the weathering remains under the first floor 
windows, and the sloping weathering from this survives on the middle 
buttress and the angle vice. 

The Kitchen, 

The kitchen was doubtless arranged to the northward of this pentice so 
as to be conveniently placed for serving the frater and the guest hall. 

The Prior's Lodging. 

Between the south end of the guest hall and the Church was a building, 
20ft. from east to west, by 12ft, wide. It is clearly shown in Buck's view 
and consisted of three stories. The bottom storey had a pointed doorway 
in the middle of the west wall and was the outer parlour and cloister entry. 
In the north wall is a moulded and pointed doorway that has a flight of 
steps to the sub-vault. The storey above was known as the Prior's room 
until its destruction, and there is no question that this was its use. In the 
west wall was a large eight-light window with two transoms and tracery in 
the head under a flat lintel. In the string-course under this window was a 

8 Excavations at the Priories of Bradenstoke, etc, 

series of arms and badges ^ which have been preserved by being built into 
the present building occupying the site. 
These consist of : — 

(1) A shield bearing a cross charged with five roses, for Thomas Langford, 

Bishop of Salisbury from 1484 to 1493. 

(2) A large letter ©. 

(3) A rebus with the letter ® under a wall from which issues a tree. 

(4) A rebus as the last but without the letter. These three devices are 

commemorative of the prior who built the window, Thomas Walshe, 
the rebus being a wall and ash-tree. 
{5) A shield bearing the leopards of England. 

(6) A shield bearing France (modern) and England quarterly. 

(7) A shield with three feathers per pale. 

(8) A shield bearing three pales vair on a chief a leopard of England, said 

to have been used by Patrick, the son of the Founder. 

Inside the room was a large fireplace which is shown in position in a 
sketch published in 2^he Builder for 1849.^ (Fig. 6). It was afterwards 
taken down and removed to Corshara Court, where it was used for the fire- 
place in the billiard-room ; but it has recently been returned to Bradenstoke. 
The fireplace was 6ft. wide with a very flat arched head, the stone of which 
is richly decorated with two rows of traceried panelling. The top row con- 
sists of five foliated quatrefoils with shields in the middle of each, but none 
is carved with charges. The bottom row has six lozenge-shaped panels with 
foliated quatrefoils and large carved bosses in the middle of each, on which 
are the letters ®^ W. A. L. S. ije. These letters have been noticed by more 
than one writer, but it does not seem to have occurred to them to read the 
letters into the simple T. Walshe, the name of the prior who built the room. 
Buck shows that there was a high octagonal chimney over this fireplace. 
On the east side of where the fireplace stood was a moulded and pointed 

Buck shows that there was another storey over the Prior's room which 
had a gabled roof placed east and west, and there was a large transomed 
window in the west end. The gable was set back from the wall face below 
and seems to have been of timber construction. Even with this added 
storey the Prior's lodging was very small for a rich foundation, but there 
may have been other chambers and a chapel over the south alley of the 
cloister like the abbess's lodging at Lacock. 

The reference by Aubrey to the king's lodging to the west of the hall is 
interesting as showing that the remaining buildings were not all that 
formerly existed for the entertainment of guests. Nothing is known of the 
date of this lodging, but in connexion with it may be mentioned that King 
John visited the priory nine times, and King Henry III. in 1223. 

' These are shown in Buck's view beginning at the north end : (1) Rebus. 
<2) Cross and roses. (3) France and England. (4) Cheeky. (5) Three 
feathers. (6) Rebus. (7) Leopards of England. (8) Blank. (9) Three 
pales vair in chief a leopard of England. 

= Vol. vii., p. 387, August 18th, 1849. 

By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. 9 

A necessary building in connexion with all monastic houses was the 
infirmary, the position of which at Bradenstoke is very uncertain. It was 
generally to the east of the cloister, but that position is occupied by a large 
pond which seems to have existed in monastic days. At Haughmond it 
was parallel with the frater, but this could not have been its position here 
as there is a sharp drop in the ground just northward of the northern range. 
At the White canons' house of St. Agatha, in Yorkshire, it adjoined the 
Church on the opposite side to the cloister, and this was probably its 
position at Bradenstoke. 

The Baen. 

The priory barn still remains 40 J ft. to the south-west of the south end of 
the western range and is placed with its centre line north-east and south- 
west. It dates from the middle of the fourteenth century and measures 
104ft. in length by 25ft. in width. It is divided into nine bays of which 
the middle one is wider than the rest to take a large porch 20ft. by 13ft. 
which projects from the north-west side. (Figs. 7 & 8). 

The roof is of the same date as the walls and is made with heavy principals 
having collars at half height supported by arched braces. There are three 
purlins on each side all supported by arched wind-braces. The side walls 
are 15ft. high and have bold buttresses behind each couple, but there are 
no buttresses at the angles, a logical design as there is no thrust from the 
end gables. There is a wide segmental doorway in the north-west wall in 
the south-west bay. In the south-east wall there are modern openings in 
the second bay from the east, in the middle bay, and in the ninth bay. 
There are narrow square-headed loops in each remaining bay. 

The porch has a wide segmental arched doorway of the full width of the 
porch with deep buttresses to take the abutment on each side. In the 
south-west wall is the usual small doorway of access to the barn after the 
big doors are bolted. At the north-east end are two buttresses, one in the 
middle of the gable seems to be original but the other near the north-west 
.angle is apparently an addition. There is also an added buttress on the 
south-east side in line with the north-east gable. 


Like Bradenstoke, Monkton Farley is placed on high land just within 
the borders of Wiltshire, three and a half miles due east of Bath. There is 
an excellent water supply from land springs, but there is>o natural water- 
course for drainage. 

Fifty years after the conquest the Manor of Farley was in the hands of 
the great family of Bohun, but how they became possessed of it is not clear. 
Humphry, the son of the Humphry Bohun, who accompanied the Con- 
queror, married Maud, the daughter of Edward of Salisbury and sister of 
Walter who founded Bradenstoke. This Humphrey and his wife gave to 
the priory of Lewes land at Bishopstrow, called the Buries, and in the event 
of their founding a Cluniac house at Farley they would convey to the priory 
of Lewes the manor and tithes of that place on condition that the house of 
Lewes should supply a colony of monks for the priory of Farley who would 

1,0 Excavations at the Priories of Bradenstoke, etc, 

enjoy the said endowments for their own use.^ A small priory was erected 
and the Church at any rate was built in stone. 

The original endowments were very considerably increased by Humphry 
Bohun, son of the founders, the Empress Maud, and one Ilbert de Chaz^ 
a follower of the Bohuns. These endowments were confirmed to the monks 
by this third Humphry Bohun and by King Henry III. in the eleventh 
year of his reign. ^ In consequence of this accession of wealth new build- 
ings were erected including a larger Church. 

In 1280 a dispute arose between the Bohuns and the Prior of Lewes 
over the nomination of a new prior which resulted in a lawsuit that ended 
in the usual medieval manner of settlement by compromise.^ 

In 1298 the Crown seized two of the priory manors ^ which the prior 
farmed on behalf of the alien nunnery of Martigniac. But it ultimately 
gave back the manors and seems in consequence to have claimed the status 
of hereditary founder. 

During the fourteenth century considerable alterations were made to the 
Church and a new presbytery was erected with new choir stalls. 

In 1409 the priory and its estates were in the hands of Sir Walter 
Hungerford and Lord Sturton, doubtless on behalf of the Crown in con^ 
sequence of forfeiture for not maintaining the full complement of brethren. 
Sir Walter Hungerford petitioned the Commons in that year 

that whereas certain commissioners sent into Wiltshire had reported 
that he and Lord Sturton had suffered the priory of Farley to fall inta 
dilapidation whilst it was in their ,care, he prays that the matter be 
tried by a jury of his peers.^ 
Whether the accusation was proved or not there certainly was great 
truth in it, for in April, 1438 the tower of the Church fell down. 

On the third of February of the following year a release was granted for 
seven years 

to John Brugge, the prior and the convent of the house of Farleigh of 
the yearly form of 55 marks payable to the king for lands belonging ta 
the alien nunnery of Mortigniake on condition that the amount be ex- 
pended under the survey of the Bishop of Bath and the lord of 
Hungerford, in the repair of the convent Church ; which tower fell down 
in April last crushing the quire and destroying their books, bells, and 
other ornaments. The petitioners shewed that they will never be able 
to repair their losses and resume divine service as it should be held 
without the king's generous help.^ 
The fall of the tower so damaged the presbytery and transepts that no- 
attempt was made to re-edify them ; but a new sanctuary was built on the 
site of the crossing and the quire was made in the nave, 

' Wilts Arch. Mag., iv., 269. 

2 ^Q^ ^^g (London, 1849), v., 26 and 27. 

^ Mon. Aug., v., 127. 

^ Ibid. V. 28. 

' Wilts Arch. Mag , iv., 275. 

« Bot. Pat. 17 Hen. VL, p. i, m. 20. 

By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. 11 

At the end of the Lewes cartulary is a long deed in which Farley is 
described as of the foundation of King Edward III. for thirteen monks to 
sing daily service for the King's welfare, and that they once incurred for- 
feiture for having maintained only ten brethren instead of thirteen for nine 
years .^ 

In 1535 the visitation of monastries was begun with the idea of their 
suppression and in August of that year Farley was visited by Cromwell's 
creatures Layton and Legh. On the 7th of that month the former wrote 
to his master : " Farley sell to Lewis the trewthe is a vara stewys " ; and 
a few days after he wrote : " I sende yowe also Mare Magdalensgirdell and 
that is wrappyde and coveride with white, sent also with gret reverence to 
women traveling whiche girdell iVtatilda thempresse founder of Ferley gave 
unto them as saith the holy father of Ferley." - 

The act to suppress all monasteries of under .£200 a year revenue was 
passed in the same year ; but it did not come into operation immediately, 
as in many cases it was doubtful what houses came within the category. 
In order to ascertain this commissioners were appointed for each county, 
and their report on Farley, dated 1st August, 1536, is as follows : — 

A. A hedde house of Clunasents of Seint Bennetts rule (former valuation) 

£153 14s. 2|^. (present valuation) £195 2s. ^d. with £18 4s. Qd. for 
the demaynes of the same. 

B. ( Religious) six all being preests of honest con versacion, holley desy ryng 

continuance in religion. 

C. (Servants) eighteen — viz. wayting servants five ; officers of the house- 

hold eight and hinds five. 

D. Church and mansion with outehouses in convenient state. The lead 

and bells viewed and estemed to be sold to ^28 8s. 

E. (Goods) £89 18s. Id. viz. juells and plate i;30 3s. M.\ ornaments 

£8 15s. Ad. ; stuff e of household £10 13s. ; stokkes and stores £39 7s. 

F. Owing by the house £245 2s. Id. Owing to the house £51 10s. 

G. Great woods 100 acres and copis woods 66 acres ; all to be solde 

estemed to £62 16s.^ 

The last prior Lewis Breknok had a pension of £24.^ 

Farley was granted on 6th June, 1536, to Sir Edward Seymour though 
not formally dissolved at the time. It was in 1550 exchanged with the see 
of Salisbury 5 under whom it was held by various owners. 

In 1744— 

Three Labourers being employed to level a very uneven Piece of 
Ground used for a Coney-Warren belonging to Webb Seymour, Esq., 
at Monkton-Farley found the Pillar of a Church and about four Foot 
under the Rubbish discover'd a Chancel of a very curious Roman 
Pavement in Chequer- Work adorn'd with various Figures ; the Bricks 

^Wilts Arch. Mag., iv., 275. 

Letters and Papers, Men. III., ix., 42 and 168. 

^ P. R. O. Chantry Certificates, 100 m. 2. 

^ P. R. O. Augmentation Book, 232, 21 f. 

^ Wilts Arch. Mag., iv., 276 and 277. 

12 Excavations at the Priories of Bradenstoke, etc, 

about four Inches square and an Inch thick : this place consists of 
about 24 Foot each Way its Situation being East and West. In the 
Front are four flat Stones under which Persons are interr'd : The second 
stone from the Southward has a French Inscription on it and Prior 
Lawrence, who is represented in his Prior's Habit, in the Posture of 
Praying : He was buried A.D. 616 [sic). The substance of his Inscription 
is He desires you to pray for his sins, etc. The other three stones are 
without Inscriptions. In the North Angle of the Chancel is a Tomb 
like a Seat with the following Inscription on its surface in Characters 
thus render'd. 
(The inscription given is that on the monument of Ilbert de Chaz, which 
will be referred to later.) 

It has also the same Inscription on the Side in Roman and Saxon 
Characters after the present Way of Writing. About two Thirds of 
the Chancel, to the Eastward, is a Step ascending to the Altar, in which 
is a Sepulchre open'd, and the Skeleton of a stout Man, who was 
upwards of six Foot high. On the flat Stone of this Sepulchre is 
carved in Basso Relievo his Bust, and under that a Lyon, as an 
Hieroglyphical Emblem of his Character. This Person, by his near 
Interment to the Altar, I suppose might be the Founder of this Abby 
or Monastery. To the South Side of the Altar is a Floor, about four 
Foot under the Rubbish of the same Pavement with the former, and 
about ten Foot square, but no Body interr'd there. On the North 
Side of the Altar, which I imagine was in the Church-yard, is another 
Sepulchre open'd, with the lower Part of a Skeleton, but the upper 
Part wanting. Farther to the Northward is a Yew-tree, which is a 
plain Demonstration that this was a Church yard belonging to the 
Abby. To the West and Northward are several very large Stone Pillars 
with various Figures cut on them which appear as fresh as if im- 
mediately hewn out of a Quarry. As to the Dimensions of this Church 
'tis impossible to give an exact Account how far it extended — For 
there were, about 20 years ago, to the Southward, at a considerable 
Distance, dug up three more Sepulchres but without any Inscriptions 
upon them. Also an Heap of Bones, from which it is evident there 
was a Charnel House belonging to this Church : 'Tis very probable as 
the Rubbish is clear'd away, many more Curiosities will be discovered 
in the Body of the Church. The Labourers have found a Silver Cup, 
Spoon and Thimble.' 
Dr. William Evetts was at this time staying at Chippenham and he wrote 
to Dr. Ducarel, secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, of these discoveries 
and sent him some sketches of the various monuments, but this communi- 
cation does not seem to have been laid before the Society and his sketches 
are lost. 

The late Canon Jackson records that 
in 1841 during some further alterations of the ground by the late Mr. 

^ Gentleman^ s Magazine^ xiv., 139. 
^ Literary History of the Eighteenth Century (J. G. Nichols), iii., 585. 

By Harold Brahspear, F.S.A, 


Wade Browne a large slab, once the covering of a stone coffin, was 
found. On it is the effigy of a cross-legged knight in chain armour, 
sculptured in low relief. On the shield, which lies not at his side but 
over the whole body occupying the full width of the stone, are the arms 
of Dunstanville (fretty on a canton a lion passant surmounted by a 
Further excavations were made on the site of the Church by the late Sir 
Charles Hobhouse, and are briefly recorded by him, in the Wiltshire Arch' 
seological Magazine for 1882.^ In 1911 Sir Charles caused further excava- 
tions to be made and the earlier discoveries were again exposed. These 

The PARie»H cHURCH-OF^" 

Fig. 9. — Monkton Farleigh Priory, plan of precinct. 

^ Wilts Arch. Mag.^ iv., 283. 

Wilts Arch Mag.t xx., 74. 

14 Excavations at the Priories of B.radenstoke, etc. 

excavations were supervised by the writer, and though it was not possible 
to continue them as far as might be wished, they have thrown considerable 
light on the plan and story of this Church. 

The Peecinct. 

The bounds of the precinct are nowhere clearly defined, but the present 
roads on the north and west seem to indicate its extent on those sides, and 
there are indications of the other sides which give it an area of about 20 
acres. The Church and cloisters were placed in the north-west of this area. 

The site is peculiar, the highest point being in the north-west angle and 
it falls rapidly to the south-east and again from the west end of the Church 
to the north-east. The Church was oriented slightly to the south of east, 
and at the present time the ground drops suddenly on its south side, but 
this is not an original feature as is shown by the only fragment of building 
that remains above ground. The reason of the present level is that the 
makers of the house after the suppression used up the claustral buildings 
and dropped the ground around the house to the level of the frater sub- 
vault. This dropping of the ground was continued at the building of the 
present house in 1762, and has apparently destroyed the foundations of the 
chief buildings south of the church. 

The gatehouse was probably opposite the cross roads near where the 
present south lodge stands. The conduit for the water supply is on the 
high ground 300 yards to the west of the Church. 

The Church. 

The only part of the first Church that has been found is the apse of the 
north transept chapel. The rest of the site of this Church has been re- 
moved by the lowering of the ground already referred to. 

This apse was 1 3ft. wide by 9|ft. deep, with an outer wall 3ft. in thick- 
ness. The wall had a chamfered plinth externally and a pilaster buttress 
remained on the north-east side. The entrance from the transept was by 
an arch of two members of the full width of the apse. The inner member 
rested on a bold half-round column with moulded base that had toes at the 

The north-east angle of the transept itself remained and had pilaster 
buttresses on each face and its main walls were 4ft. thick. 

The Church to which this fragment belonged was of course smaller than 
its successor and apparently consisted of a presbytery with eastern apse, 
transepts with apsidal chapels, and an aisleless nave. 

As usual when the building of a new Church was decided upon it was 
constructed alongside the original one on the side farthest from the cloister 
in order that the existing structure might not be interfered with until the 
new building was ready for occupation.' The new Church at Farley was 
erected clear of the old one except for the apsidal chapel of the north tran- 
sept, which was retained as the chapel of the southern transept of the new 

Cf. Waverley {Surrey Archmological Collections, 1905), Haughmiind 
{Archaeological Journal ^ Ixvi ,281), and Tintern {Official Guide). 

By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. 15 

Only the middle portion of the later Church has been excavated so that 
the complete plan cannot be definitely described though the parts un- 
covered reveal a very interesting story. 

The second Church when first built consisted of a short presbytery with 
eastern apse and ambulatory aisle, transepts with eastern chapels, and a 
nave with aisles. There was a tower over the crossing. Of this Church 
the western piers of the crossing, the junction of the transepts and aisles, 
and the south side of the presbytery remained from 12in. to 3ft. above the 
floor. The floor area was covered with pattern tiles divided by stone 

The presbytery was 25|ft. wide and the south aisle was 9ift. wide with 
an outer wall 4ft. in thickness. At 14ft. from the transept was a pilaster 
buttress 3ft. wide. The paving of the aisle remained complete and had at 
ll^ft. from the transept a cross band of stone of which the west side was 
square with the aisles, but the east side tapered from 8|in. at the north 
end to I3in. at the south. This tapering band indicated that the pavement 
to the east radiated from the centre, and the only reason for it doing so 
was the existence of an apse, with an ambulatory aisle. If the tapering 
sides of the band are continued to the middle of the presbytery it gives the 
centre from which the apse was struck. 

The crossing was approximately 25ft. square and the western piers re- 
mained complete. These show that the north and south arches were of 
two members of which the inner was carried by a pair of half-round 
columns. There were no responds for the western arch, which was doubt- 
less carried on corbels as at Malmesbury. 

The south transept was apparently 35ft. long by 25ft. wide, but no re- 
mains of the south wall were found. The west wall had, next the crossing, 
an arch into the nave aisle of three members carried on responds having 
triple moulded columns on square bases of the same plan as the main piers 
at Wells Cathedral. In the angle formed by the transept and south aisle 
was a vice 65ft. in diameter which opened from the transept by a door- 
way of a single square member. The apse of the original north transept 
was retained as the eastern chapel of this transept which is shown by the 
paving of the thirteenth century being found within it. There were two 
steps across the original arch from the transept, which had tiles on the 
risers as well as on the treads. In front of the chapel were two grave slabs 
ornamented with foliated crosses. The tile paving of the rest of the tran- 
sept was almost complete and had stone bands 5ft. apart in line with the 
nave aisle and others, the same distance apart, in the opposite direction 
down the middle of the transept. 

The north transept was doubtless similar to the south but was not ex- 
posed, except the arch into the nave aisle, which was precisely like its 
companion on the south and had similar bands in the tile flooring to the 
east of it. 

The main span of the nave was the same as that of the presbytery, but 
the aisles were lift. Sin. in width. The responds of both arcades remained 
near the crossing and were each of three members like the arches into the 

16 Excavations at the Priories of Bradenstoke, etc. 

In the fourteenth century the presbytery was lengthened eastward with 
a square east end, and the old apse and ambulatory were removed. The 
eastern end of this building was that uncovered in 1744 and the remains 
then found appear to have been grubbed up, which is particularly unfortunate 
as the exact position of them with respect to the rest of the building cannot 
be determined. The monument of Ilbert de Chaz which had been removed 
from the earlier Church, was placed on the north side of the altar apparently 
in a recess, as is indicated by it having the first part of the later inscription 
cut on a detached stone which was evidently placed at the head of the 
monument to fit an opening. The stone of the "stout man" was in front 
of the altar and the four other slabs were in a row on the step below. The 
floor described as about 10ft. square to the south of the altar must have 
belonged to a chapel added at the east end of the south aisle. Dr. Evetts 
describes this more fully as "another place lower in the ground than the 
former which seems to me to have been a private chapel for confession and 
in the wall is a place for holy water. The pavement the same as the other. 
The walls are perfect above a yard high almost quite round it up to the 
bottom of a window in one part."* 

Of the altered presbytery the 1911 excavations revealed a considerable 
piece of the south wall, next the crossing, in which at 7ft. from the transept 
was an opening 4ft. wide with chamfered angles but no door. A portion 
of the north wall remained but there was no corresponding opening to that 
on the south. Eastward of the opening in the south wall was a step across 
the presbytery. There was another step 9ft. to the west of this and the 
platform between was paved with tiles. It had at the north end a grave 
slab bearing an incised cross. 

Below the western step was the monks' quire belonging to the new 
presbytery. On either side, l4ft. apart, was a stone base-course having a 
row of little projecting buttresses to take the wooden fronts of the stalls. 
At 8ft on either side below the step was a half-round step which led to a 
gangway between the fronts of the stalls. The stalls were probably con- 
tinued down to the west side of the crossing, where they were returned 
against the pulpitum which divided the quire from the nave. 

The fall of the tower in 1438 was due to the failure of one or both of the 
eastern piers of the crossing, and its collapse caused so much damage to the 
presbytery and transepts that no attempt was made to reinstate the ruin. 
A new sanctuary was built on the site of the crossing and a new quire was j 
made in the uninjured nave. The new work had walls only 3ft. in thickness 
and had double buttresses at the angles. The north wall was found with a i 
plain chamfered plinth and the rest of the work has been destroyed to the j 
foundations. In the first arch of the nave on the south side a recess was ! 
added at this time perhaps for sedilia. The eastern jamb remains, and this i 
has a wide panelled chamfer with beaded angles and moulded bases. ( 

The nave has not yet been excavated, so it is not possible to speak 
definitely of the arrangements which must have been added after the fall 
of the tower. The first bay was probably left clear and the new quire 

* Literary History of the Eighteenth Century ^ iii. 585. 

By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A, 17 

erected in the second and third bays with a pulpitum at the third pair of 
pillars. Owing to the destruction of the eastern chapels the nave aisles 
were probably parted off to form chapels to take their place. 

The Western Range. 

The only building of which any remains exist is a late twelfth-century 
liall on the west side of the western range placed east and west and slightly 
out of square with the range. The fragment is only 20ft. long but stands 
to a considerable height : it retains the northwest angle of the building, 
which had a pilaster buttress and two lancet windows of its north side. 
These have moulded jambs and arches, and rest on a bold string-course 
externally ; internally they have deep splays and the sills have notches to 
receive the wooden frames of the glass. 

Near this fragment is a shed containing a number of architectural 
fragments and floor tiles. With them are the remains of the tombs which 
had been discovered on the site : — 

(1) The monument of Ilbert de Chaz, which is a grave slab 5ft. lOin. in 
length by 2ft. wide at the head and 18in. at the foot. Down the middle is 
an inscription formed of large letters containing smaller ones which reads : — 
HicjacetIlberT:de Chaz bonitate referT: qi c Krotona dedit hie pplurima dona. 

When the monument was refixed in the new fourteenth-century presbytery 
a new expanded inscription of the same reading was cut on the edge, and 
this began on a stone which had been added at the head to make out the 
original slab to the full length of the recess it occupied, 

(2) The Dunstanville slab as already described by the late Canon 
Jackson. The label has five points. 

(3) The trunk and head of an effigy in chain mail from an altar tomb, 
but the shield has gone so that it cannot be identified. 

Unfortunately there is no record where these last two objects were found. 

The Conduit House. 

The conduit house is a stone building 9ft. square externally and has a 
deep splayed plinth. It is entered by a segmental-headed doorway and has^ 
over the doorway and in the opposite wall a square-headed loop. It is 
covered by a steep roof made of stone slabs with rebated edges to keep out 
the weather. On the east face of the top quoin of the north-east angle is 
cut SQ' X TURNER 1784, and on the top stone of the south jamb of the 
doorway E BATCHELOR 1784 

The conduit is apparently of fourteenth -century date but the upper part 
and the roof were rebuilt in 1784. 

There is a similar conduit of fourteenth-century character though actually 
built 1540—53 on the top of Bowden hill, some nine miles away, in con- 
nexion with Lacock Abbey, 

^ This is illustrated in Canon Jackson's paper already referred to ( Wilts 
Arch. Mag.,\v., 283),and Bowles and Nichols, Zacoc^ il666'?/(Lond.l835),352. 

18 Excavations at the Priories of Bradenstoke, etc, 


The remains of this little priory of Benedictine nuns are in a secluded 
depression three miles north-west of Chippenham. The actual founder is 
not known with certainty and in Aubrey's time the Empress Maud was 
credited with the good deed. Among the charters printed in the Monasticon 
are three which throw some light on the matter. 

(1) Robert of Brinton and Eva his wife during the episcopate of Jocelyn, 
of Sarum (1142—84), gave the Church of Iwerna (Ewerne Stapleton in 
Dorset) to the nuns of Kington.' 

(2) About the same time A(dam) of Brinton gave " to God and our Lady 
and the nuns of Kyngton all the land in that place which the said nuns 
hold of me." 2 

(3) Also about the same date Hugh de Mortimer confirms the last gift 
as follows : — 

know thet I have granted to God, our Lady and the nuns of Kington 

serving God there ... all the lands which A(dam) of Brinton 

holds of my fee in the same vill . . . which R. the son of Weyfer 

of Brinton gave to them when he founded the place,^ 

One of the witnesses is li. de Brinton and is presumably the same as 

Robert of the first deed. In the book of obits drawn out anew in 1493 

there is no mention of Robert, but " Adam, sonne of Waifere of Kynton,^ 

Roger Mortimer and Sir Hugh Mortimer that gave us all our lands in 

Kyngton " are to be prayed for on 7th January ."* 

The priory was built in stone probably by the founder and was never a 
large house. 

In 1121 there existed a corrody under the patronage of the Crown for 
two poor girls.^ 

The Church was apparently reconstructed early in the fifteenth century, 
for on the 15th March, 1435, " the altar of the church at Kynton was 
dedicated in honour of the Holy Mother of our Saviour by Ralph, Bishop 
of Sarum." ^ 

Considerable other works were done including the rebuilding of the whole 
of the western range with the prioress's lodging. 

In 1493 the obituary was "drawn out anew by K. Moleyns, prioress, 
during Lent," and at the foot of the page of March obits is the following 
interesting entry : — 

In the days of Dame Kateryne Moleyns Prioress here, John Baker 
gave to this House at Minchyn Kyngton, 

A Bone of St Christopher closed in cloth of gold, a noble Relyke. 
Thys boke, for to be their Mortiloge. 
A boke of Seynts Lyves yn Englishe. 

^ Mon. Aug., iv., 400, No. x. 

^Ibid, iv., 398, No. ii. 

^ Mon. Ang., iv., 399, No, iii. 

'^ Wilts Arch. Mag., iv., 61. 

^ Rot Glaus., 1221, et seq. 

® Book of Obits printed by Canon Jackson, Wilts Arch. Mag., iv., 60 — 7. 

By Harold Braks'pear, F.S.A. 19 

A Spruse table and a cubbord that be in their parlor. 
The mendyng and renewyng of an old iMas Boke of theirs. 
A Fetherbed, a bolster, a Pylow and two fair Coverlettes. 
The half of the money that was paid for the Ymage of Seynt 8avyor 
stonding upon the Auter for their quire. And for the images of iSt. Mighel 
and St. Kateryne in St. James's Chapell. 

Also the Aulter cloth of the Salutacyon of oure Lady, being in St. James's 
Chapell and 3 yards of Canvass annexed thereto to lie upon the Auter. 

A Tester and a Seller that hangeth over my Lady's Bed. A Grail. A 
fair Matyns Boke with Dirige and many good Prayers. A dozen of round 
pewter dishes with heires.^ 

This entry is most valuable in being the only evidence of St James's 
chapel, which would seem to have been something more than one of the 
altars in the church. If the three yards of canvas can be taken as the length 
of the altar it must have belonged to a chapel of considerable size. 

In the days of this prioress there were nine nuns in the house, which 
decreased to three at the Suppression. 

In 1535 the emissaries of Cromwell made themselves particularly offensive 

on the occasion of their visit to Kington. John ap Rice wrote to Cromwell : 

At Keynton where there is but thre ladies in the house we have 

founde ij convict of incontinencie. Thone whereof bicause she was 

under age of xxiiij and not very desirous to continue in religion Mr. 

Doctor hath discharged. And one Dame Marie Denys, a faire yong 

woman of Laycock is chosen Prioresse at Kyngton aforesaid."^ 

The commissioners of the county in the following year reported of this 

priory : — 

Priory of Kington. 

A. A hedde house of Minchins seint Benedicts rule, (former valuation,) 

£25 9s, 1|g? ; (present valuation) £35 15s. with 100s. for the demaynes 
of the same. 

B. (Religious) four, by reporte of honeste conversacion, all desyring 

continuance in religion. 

C. (Servants) eleven — viz. chapleyn one ; clerk one ; women servants 

four ; wayting servants one ; hinds four. 

D. Church and mansion in good state. The oute houses in summe 
ruyne for lacke of coveringe. The lead and bells there estemed be 
solde to 105s. 

E. (Goods) £17 Is. — viz, ornaments 8s. Qd. ; stuffe 2s. IQd. ; and stoores 

of corne and catall £12 19s. 80? 

F. Owynge by the house ^50 and owyng to the house nil. 

G. Great woods none, copyswoods 36 acres : estemed to be solde .£24.^ 
The prioress Mary Dennys, the "faire young woman of Laycok" had a 

pension of 100s. "She dyed in Bristowe, 1593, a good olde maid, verie 

^Wilts Arch. Mag., iv., 62, foot-note. 

2 Letters and Papers, For. and Dom., Hen. VIII., ix., 160. 

3 P. R. O. Chantry Certificate, 100, m. 2, 

c 2 

20 Excavations at the Priories of Bradenstoke, etc, 

vertuose and god lye and is buried in the church of the Gauntes on the 
Orene." ^ 

At the Suppression the site was granted to Sir Richard Long of Wraxall 
and Draycot^ and has since passed through many hands. 

John Aubrey lived within a mile of the priory and has left a number of 
notes upon it in his collections, from which the following may be taken as 
referring to the buildings. 

This is a very pleasent seate and was a fine Nunnery. 
On the east side of the howse is ground . . . called the Nymph- 
hay. Here old Jaques, who lived on the other side, would say, he hath 
seen 40 or 50 sisters, nunnes, in a morning spinning with their rocks, 
and wheeles, and bobbins ... 

Their last Priest was parson Whaddon whose chamber is that on the 
right hand of the porch with the old fashion chimney. 

The Lady Cicelie Bodenham was Lady Prioresse here. In the 
parlour windowe was, and in the Buttery yet, the coat of Bodenham 
with a mitre to which were two chains, or. Also the coat of Bodenham 
. . . quartering G three bars cheeky A and S. Also in the parlour 
window this coat, G. two bars nebule O. above the coat a mitre . . . 
In divers panelis of glass about the howse are the letters B.D. 

In the Chapell, which was very fayre, is neither glasse, chancell nor 
monument remaynyng. B^ormerly and lately in the garden where 
chancell and consecrated ground was, have been digged up severall 
coffins of freestone and one stone was found of about two foote 
diameter . . . having in the centre on one side a heart held be- 
tween two hands : it was found at the foote of a grave in which there 
was found a Chalice. 

The windowes of the Chapell of Priory St. Maries like those in the 

Tower of Merton Coll., Oxon.^ 

The house was considerably altered shortly after Aubrey's time by the 

insertion of larger windows and a large gable added on the west side. All 

that now remains above ground is the western range, and the frater on the 

south side of the cloister. 

Small nunneries existed all over the country, but only a very few have 
been traced by excavation. These houses were mostly very poor, and the 
buildings, though arranged on a systematic plan around the cloister, were a 
great contrast to those of their rich neighbours. In many cases the buildings 
were of wood, and the roofs sometimes had no more permanent covering 
than thatch. 

Some years ago our Fellow Mr. William Brown published a valuable 
paper upon some Suppression documents containing detailed descriptions 
of eleven small nunneries in Yorkshire, of which five were Benedictine 
houses, and a few words upon these houses may throw some light upon the 
remains at Kington."* 

^ Lib. Corp. Christi Coll., Oxon., No. ccxx. f. 36, b. ; vide Wilts Arch. 
Mag.^ iv., 55. 

^Wilts Arch. Mag., iv.,li. 

^ Wilts Collections, 143, 144, and 145. 

* Yorkshire Arch. Journ., ix., 197—215, and 321-33. 

By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. 


The Churches in all cases were parallelograms varying from 80ft. by 
20ft. to oOft. by 18ft ; there was a high altar and two other altars in the 
quire. The quire stalls were of wood and in one case there were " 22 f ayre 
stalles carved and boarded with waynscott." The portion of the Church 
below the quire was merely an antechapel containing one altar. In each 
case the roof was covered with lead. The cloisters were all 60ft. square 
save one which was 48ft., and the alleys varied from 5ft. to 10ft in width. 
In three cases the buildings on the first floor covered the alleys. The 
chapter-houses were very small, one being only 12ft. by 8ft., but they were 
always next the Church on the east side of the cloister. The dorter always 
occupied the whole of the east side of the cloister on the first floor. The 
f rater was in its usual position on the side of the cloister opposite to the 
Church, but it only remained, and that in a contracted form, in three cases, 
and in the other two it had been converted into a garner. The west side 
of the cloister was in all cases occupied by the prioress's lodging, the guest- 
hall, and a parlour. The kitchen was of various sizes placed at the lower 
end of the hall, and in one case there were two kitchens, but the second 
was only 8ft. square. 

The warming-house is nowhere mentioned, but it seems to have been 
supplanted by a parlour with a fireplace, and this is generally in the western 
range. The infirmary is also omitted, as the legitimate use of the place had 
apparently died out, and one of the various chambers was doubtless used 
in cases of sickness. 

The priest's room occurs in two cases, in one it follows the list of farm 
buildings and in the other it was actually without the gates. A corrody 
occurs in one instance, and the chamber allotted to the recipient was over 
the kitchen. 

Besides the buildings round the cloister there were generally a brew- 
house with a bulting-house, and a bakehouse near the kitchen, though in 

one case the former were beneath the frater. 
'I'here was also an outer court entered by 
the gatehouse and surrounded by stables, 
cow or ox houses, hay and corn barns, and 
other outhouses. There was generally a 

The Precinct. 

The precinct at Kington seems to have 
contained only some three acres, and part 
of the enclosing wall remains with its stone 
coping on the east and north. The site of 
the gatehouse is not clear. On the south 
side is a large brook, and outside the west 
side of the precinct is a fish-pond (fig. 10). 

The farm buildings seem to have been 
where they are now on the north side of the 
precinct outside the wall. 


100 O lOO aoo 500 „_^ 

U-o,-.! \ 1 1 FEET. 

Fig. 10. Kington priory, 
plan of precinct. 

22 Excavations at the Priories of Bradenstoke, etc. 

The Church. 

The Church was on the north side of the cloister, but nothing is standing 
and its foundations have not yet been traced. The western part stood 
until about the middle of the eighteenth century, but the eastern parts 
with St. James's Chapel had gone in Aubrey's time. Writing in the 
Gentleman's Magazine in 1803, John Britton says that " a very large circular 
arch that belonged to the chapel yet remains ; but the site of this sacred 
building is now occupied by pig-sties."* A capital of mid-twelfth century 
date belonging to a doorway was dug up some years ago and probably be- 
longed to the Church. 

The chapel of St. James was doubtless a side chapel on the north side of 
the presbytery similar to the Lady chapel at Lacock. 

The Cloister. 

The cloister was ST^ft. from east to west by 54jft. from north to south, 

but nothing of the alleys remains, except a short length of the weathering 

over the lean-to roof at the north-west angle. None of the surrounding 

buildings oversets the alleys like the majority of the Yorkshire examples. 

The Eastern Range. 

The east side of the cloister was occupied by a range of building 14^ft. 
wide of which the foundations have been traced. 

The lower storey was divided by a cross wall 2ft. thick at 22jft. from the 
north end. In the west wall next the Church was an opening apparently 
for the stairs to the upper floor, and there was a second opening south of 
the cross wall. The northern division from its position must have been 
the chapter-house, the size of which, 19ft. by 14|ft., compares very favourably 
with the Yorkshire examples. The southern division was 30ft. long, and 
the northern end was probably parted off to form a passage through the 
range to the cemetery on the east. The south end of the range stands to a 
considerable height and retains its original quoins at the south-east angle. 
The eastern half of the south wall is occupied by a large fireplace with a 
wooden head which indicates that this chamber was the warming-house. 
As already shown, the warming-house seems in nunneries to have become 
before the Suppression a regular parlour where the inmates might sit and 
work in bad weather. 

The upper floor of the range was the dorter of the nuns in connexion 
with which must have been a rere-dorter, but no remains of this have been 
found up to the present. 

The Frater. 
The south side of the cloister does not seem to have been occupied by a 
continuous range of building in the usual manner. A building apparently 
occupied the eastern end for about 1 4ft., but the site is covered by pigsties 
and cannot be excavated. From the western end of this building for some 
10ft. the cloister wall retains its original stone coping. The western part 
of the south side of the cloister is occupied by a two-storied building 25ft. 

* Gentleman's Mag., Ixxiij., 717. 

By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. 23 

from east to west by IVjft. wide, which appears to date from the thirteenth 
century. Towards the eastern end of this building are the remains of a 
segmental-headed doorway leading from the cloister to the upper floor. 
(Fig. 11.) 

This upper floor was the frater of the convent. It had a square-headed 
window to the west of the entrance over the cloister roof, now blocked, and 
a square-headed loop in the east wall. The south wall, for two-thirds its 
length, is thickened out to Sjft. and seems to have contained the pulpit. 
A roughly constructed roof of fifteenth-century date with cambered and 
chamfered tie-beams remains above the building. There must have been a 
serving-hatch or doorway in the west wall from the kitchen. 

The room below retains the jambs of an original doorway at the west end 
and a small square-headed loop in the east wall. In the block under the 
pulpit a large fireplace has been inserted, the jambs and head of which have 
since been removed. The original use of the room was doubtless a cellar 
in connexion with the kitchen, but if the fireplace was monastic its use 
must have been changed. 

The Kitchen. 
The kitchen was to the west of the frater so as to be convenient for that 
place and the guest-hall ; but nothing of it remains but a small square 
window in a piece of the south wall next the frater and a four-centred 
moulded doorway in the north wall. The site is covered by a two-storied 
building of the eighteenth century. 

The Western Range. 

The whole of the west side of the cloister was covered by a range of 
building which continued northward in front of the west end of the Church 
and measures 60ft. in length by l7Jft. in width. The main walls and the 
roof stand almost as the nuns left them and form an interesting group of 
buildings. (Fig. 12.) 

At the south end of the range is a chamber 12^ft. from north to south 
with a two-light cusped window in the west wall where in Aubrey's time 
were the arms of Bodenham. It was doubtless the buttery, and had origin- 
ally, as now, a passage cut off its east end to communicate from the kitchen 
to the guest-hall. 

Over the buttery and passage is a room with a fireplace in the south wall 
and the remains of a similar window to that below in the west wall. This 
room is apparently that which Aubrey says was the priest's room, and it 
must have been gained by a flight of steps next the passage. 

Northward of the buttery the range was occupied by the guest-hall 31ft. 
in length. This was open to the roof, which had tie-beam principals like 
the frater and curved wind-braces under the purlins. The south end is 
occupied by a passage 6ft. wide which in a normal arrangement was placed 
behind the screens at the lower end of the hall ; but recently a wide fireplace 
with chamfered jambs has been found backing upon the western half of the 
passage. This is probably an original arrangement and is an exact counter- 
part of the fourteenth-century guest-hall at Birkenhead Priory. The hall 
is now lighted by two seventeenth-century windows and divided by a floor 

24 Excavations at the Priories of BradenstoJce, etc, 

into two stories, but in Aubrey's time it retained a pair of original two-light 
pointed windows. The passage is entered from the west by a four-centred 
moulded doorway and seems to have had a small doorway opposite into 
the cloister. 

The entrance is protected by a low porch having an open archway with 
a modern head, and it retains its original roof of arched rafters. Built into 
the gable over the archway is a twelfth-century beast's head exactly similar 
to the label terminals of the main arcades at Malmesbury. 

At .the north end of the hall is a room 1 2ft. from north to south in which 
there was a fireplace in the south wall ; but the original window in the west 
wall has been destroyed. In this window were the arms of Bodenham with 
a mitre crest and Bodenham quartering gules three bars cheeky argent and 
sable, as noticed by Aubrey. The room was probably connected with the 
hall by a small doorway and was used as a guest-chamber or parlour. 
Opposite the entrance from the hall was another doorway into a room to 
the north. 

This room is beyond the line of the range and measures 10ft. from north 
to south by 8|ft. wide. In the west wall is a four-centred doorway from 
without ; but the other original arrangements have been destroyed. Along 
the north wall must have been a garderobe pit, and there was doubtless a 
garderobe in the room itself. Outside the hall and parlour are three 
buttresses each of two sets-off. 

Eastward of the garderobe is a chamber, 13|ft. from east to west by 10ft. 
wide, placed along the north side of the cloister. This room has in the east 
wall a pointed doorway from without and a three-light Tudor window in 
the north wall. On the south side is a slight projection in which is a tall 
four-centred doorway with a rebate for a door opening inwards. The room 
formed the entrance to the prioress's lodging and was from its position used 
as an outer parlour for interviewing visitors. 

The doorway in the south wall entered a large vice 7^ft. in diameter, that 
is contained in a square turret occupying the north-west angle of the cloister, 
and leads to the upper floor. 

The upper floor, over the guest-chamber, garderobe, and outer parlour 
was the prioress's lodging. The room over the guest-chamber has an 
original fireplace in the south wall, a two-light cusped window in the west 
wall, and a four- centred arched doorway at the east end of the north wall. 
The entrance from the vice was in the middle of the east wall, but the 
original doorway has been destroyed. The roof is of the same character as 
that over the hall. The little doorway in the north wall was the entrance 
to the garderobe, which has an original cusped loop in the west wall ; but 
its other arrangements have been removed. 

The room over the outer parlour was apparently entered from the top of 
the vice and was the prioress's bed-chamber. It has a two-light Tudor 
window in the north wall, and a small square window with moulded jambs 
and head in the east wall which has stone window seats. 

Between the outer parlour and the west end of the Church was an entrance 
to the cloister of which the western jamb remains. 

The royal corrody house within the priory of Kington seems to have been 











Fig. 4. — Bradenstoke Priory, south end of western range. 

Fig. 5.— Bradenstoke Priory, north end of western range. 

Fig. 6. — Bradenstoke Priory, the Prior's room. 
(Reproduced by permission from " The Builder.") 









I^^T" fflomBini! 1 1 


I'^u i 1 P— ^'i 

13^ r n i^Lji 


^ PO=T-Jp1«,0» 


By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A, 25 

of early foundation, though its origin is unknown. The house was being 
rebuilt in 1221 at the charge of the king, and the Close Rolls contain a 
number of orders for the supply of timber and money for tnis purpose. 
The corrody was for two eleemosynary girls to reside therein at the king's 
pleasure, and there are grants of money to the prioress for their maintenance 
during 1221 and the two following years. No sign of this house remains, 
and the corrody seems to have lapsed long before the suppression. 


Part III. {Continued.^ 


By Mks. Herbert Richardson, B.A., sometime Scholar of St. Hugh's 

College, Oxford. 

Section 3. — The Salisbury Times and other Salisbury papers of the 


(c) — Literary and other Salisbury papers of the nineteenth century. 
The Topographer (1821). 
The Western Literary Advertiser {\M\). 
Glapperton^s Register (1860). 
The Wilts County Council Record (1889—1890). 
The Gasper {\Q\b—\mQ). 

The following group of publications, though not technically newspapers, 
come within the latitude of definition originally allowed for by the writer. 
They are interesting either in themselves or as records of local activities, 
and deserve for these reasons a brief inclusion in any detailed history of 
the South Wilts Press. 

The Topographer. 

The Topographer (1821). This is a single issue'of an antiquarian magazine 
privately printed at Salisbury. It is an octavo of sixty pages, measuring 
8jin. X 5in., and its title runs : — 

" The Topographer. / Originally / edited by / Rev. S. Shaw, / and 
Sir E. Brydges, / now /continued/ by Thomas Phillipps, Esq. / Vol. V., 
/ pt. 1. / (Privately printed :) Salisbury, /"Printed by J. Gilmour.^ / 1821." 

^ For Parts I. and IL, by Mr. J. J. Slade, and Sections 1, 2, and 3 of 
Part III., by Mrs. Richardson, see Wilts Arch. Mag.^ xl., pp. 37 — 47, 129 — 
141, 318-351 ; xli., pp. 53—69, 479—501 ; xlii., 231—241, 313—324. 

^ In the British Museum. One copy only, apparently, extant. 
^ James A. Gilmour was a Salisbury printer, carrying on business in the 
Market Place'since 1817 (a Hymn printed by him in this year is extant), and 
probably earlier. Francis Gilmour, of Catherine Street, a printer who does 
much poster work in the Election controversies of 1841, was a member of 
the same family. 

Wiltshire Newspa'pers — Past and Present, 27 

The sub-title on the opening page reads :— "The Topographer. Numb. 1. 
For March, 1821." 

It was a Salisbury-printed continuation of a London periodical of the 
same name, illustrative of the local history and antiquities of England, 
which ran from 1789 to 1791. Sir Thomas Phillipps, F.S.A., who now 
continued it, was the noted antiquary and bibliophile (a " Velio-maniac " he 
called himself), whose activities in seeking and purchasing early MSS., of 
which he had an enormous and unique collection, did so much to raise 
public interest in such memorials. For him Gilmour had already printed 
Collections for Wiltshire^ in 1819. 

The 1821 continuation of The Topographer opens with a letter dated : — 

"Whitchurch, 1819. 
Sir, — As you are about to continue that useful publication, The 
Topographer^ I beg to send the following Church notes for a few parishes 
in Hampshire. Yours, etc., W.H." 

Its contents include Church notes and family history of various counties ; 
but three-quarters of the part is occupied by an " Oxfordshire Visitation," 
and the last page contains a pedigree headed :— " Ex Harl, MSS. No. 1559. 
Stemma familise de Banfield de Hardington." 

The short-lived Salisbury 'Topographer is chiefly memorable as the earliest 
local periodical of an exclusively antiquarian character. 

The Western Literary Advertiser. 
The Western Literary Advertiser (1841 ) was a short-lived literary venture. 
Its full title runs : — 

" The Western Literary Advertiser and Salisbury Bibliographical 

Gazette. A Miscellany of Literary Information, Local and General. 

No. 1, Saturday, April 5th, 1841, Price 3d. Printed and Published 

by J. Hearn, Poultry Cross, Salisbury. London agents, Simpkin, 

Marshall, & Co., Stationers' Hall Court.^" 

Hearn was a second-hand bookseller on a large scale, as well as a printer, 

and had been established in Salisbury since 1836, or earlier, working at 

26, Catherine Street, and 6, Queen Street, before moving to the Poultry 

Cross. Several of his catalogues, interleaved and elaborately annotated in 

beautiful script, exist in the Salisbury Public Library, and prove him to 

have been a man of wide reading and precise methods. His Western Literary 

Advertiser was a crown quarto publication (lOin. X Vjin.) of sixteen pages, 

and its prospectus adequately describes its scope : — 

"To be published six times a year, combining, 1, amusing Miscellany 
of Literary and Scientific Memoranda (under headings Western Port- 
folio, Bookworm, Student, Literary and Scientific Chit-Chat, Brief 
Notices of new books) ; 2, complete classified list of all books published 
within the period embraced by each number, with their sizes, prices, 
etc. ; 3, Advertisements of a Literary character alone, as Lists of Books 

* Phillipps later published other works on Wiltshire : Institutiones 
Clericorum in Comitatu Wiltonim, 1297—1810, in 1825; and JVorth 
Wiltshire Musters, in 1834, &c., &c. 

2 Numbers 1—5 are in the British Museum. 

28 Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present. 

for sale, announcements of new publications, etc. A desideratum to 
both Book-buyers and Booksellers at the very trifling cost of eighteen- 
pence a year, a body of information not otherwise obtainable in a 
concentrated form." 
The Salisbury Journal commented on the first number as " a very favour- 
able specimen . . . which cannot fail to be favourably received by all 
persons connected either immediately or remotely with the literary world, '^ 
and obviously approved the venture, for the fifth number (for December 4th, 
1841) has the imprint, " Printed and Published by W. Brodie k Co., Canal, '^ 
as well as that of Hearn and of Simpkin Marshall. 

But The Western Literary Advertiser, though coinciding with a most 
interesting period of literature for its notices and comments {Barnaby 
Rudge was running in Household Words throughout these months, which 
were also marked by the publication of Lever's Charles O'Malley, Carlyle's 
Hero Worship^ and the first appearance of Punch), did not survive 
this number, which is endorsed in the British Museum files, "N.B., 
Number 5 is the concluding number." 

Clapperton's Register (I860). 

The periodical of the miscellany type seems always to have been doomed 
to a short life in Salisbury. The old County Magazine ^ of the eighteenth 
century ran for six years certainly, but at a period when magazines of this 
description were enormously popular. The nineteenth century ventures of 
the year 1854, The Salisbury Advertiser and Monthly Miscellany and its 
rival, The Salisbury Tirnes and Wiltshire Miscellany ^^ came to a speedy 
end, however, and of the remaining Salisbury miscellany, Clapperton's 
jRegister, one copy only, the issue for ISTovember, 1860, is traceable.^ This 
is a monthly publication of forty-eight pages, measuring 10|in. X 7in , and 
bound in a pale green cover. 

The title, enclosed in a ornamental border, reads : — 

"No. 1. / Clapperton's / Register / of / Facts and Occurrences/ 
Relating to Literature, the Sciences, and The Arts / 1860 / November / 
Salisbury : / Walter Clapperton, / Catherine Street. / " 

Within the border at the top corners are the words " Monthly " and 
" Price— 2cZ." 

The Register contained matter such as was usually provided by London 
publishers for periodicals of this type. A chapter from a novel by George 
Augustus Sala, an article on Mr. Mudie by John Holingshead, varied 
information of wide range (from Glaciers to the House Fly), and " Literary- 
Intelligence." The "Conductor" states in a preliminary " Notice," that 
*' Narrative articles, recording all that shall have taken place during the 
month preceding their date in connexion with the various branches of the 
arts, will constitute a prominent feature of each subsequent number of the 

^ See Wilts Arch. Mag., xl., p. 80 sqq. 
2 See " The Salisbury Times and other Salisbury papers of the nineteenth 
century." Wilts Arch. Mag., xli., p. 479 sqq. 

^ Writer's collection. 

By Mrs. Herbert RiGhardson. 29 

Register, while the Literary Intelligence department will in future be much 

It is the " Literary Intelligence department " and the lengthy advertise- 
ments of London publishers, and of the " Conductor " himself, that con- 
stitute the real interest of the Register. It was in fact a publication of very 
similar aim to The Western Literary Advertiser of 1841, and gives an 
attractive and detailed picture of English letters more than'sixty years ago, 
I when the new novels of such giants as Balzac, Dickens, and Thackeray 
I were still eagerly awaited, and the study of history was being enriched by 
I the labours of such great authorities as Motley and Erskine May. 
f Walter Clapperton carried on business, as printer and bookseller, at the 
1 same premises ' as Kenneth Clapperton, printer of The Wiltshire Standard ^ 
! (1833). Hence he issued, from 1859 onwards, those "cheap and under- 
; standable little books," The Salisbury Time Tables, and here he seems to 
have dealt in a wide stock-in-trade, typical of a successful Victorian book- 
seller, conducting a Circulating Library, selling fine prints, and stocking a 
remarkable selection of works on almost every subject. 

Clapperton' s Register must have been, however, like its predecessors, 
short-lived.3 One is forced to the conclusion that the local literary periodical 
did not appeal to the Salisbury public, whose keenest enthusiasms have 
always been for politics and for local news, interests which the newspapers 
already dealt with have long adequately supplied. 

The Wilts County Council Record (1889—1890). 

The Wilts County CouncilRecord was a quasi-monthly" periodical, devoted 

to County Council procedure, and issued to meet the public interest excited 

by the working of Lord Salisbury's Local Government Act of 1888. It was 

an attractively printed record, measuring 9iin. x 7in., and its title runs :- 

" Wilts County Council Record / (arms of New Sarum) /No. 1, 

January, February, and April, 1889 / containing / List of the Members 

of the County Council ; The various parishes comprising the Divisions ; 

Biographical Sketches of the Members of the Council ; and a Full 

Report of the Proceedings of the two meetings of the Provisional 

Council, and the First Meeting of the County Council. / Printed and 

Published by Edward Hoe & Co., 'Wilts County Mirror and Express ' 

Office. / " 

The reason for the Record's appearance was clearly stated in its first 
lumber :—" The interesting and lasting influence of the Local Government 
i\ct upon the welfare of the County of Wilts is an adequate reason why 
here should be reproduced in a suitable form a complete and current Record 
)f its proceedings." 

This nu mber gave " biographical sketches " of the Chairman, the Marquis 

' Those now occupied by Mr. T. T. Johnson, the optician. 
2 See Wilis Arch. Mag., xli., p. 490. 
2 It is in no way referred to by The Salisbury Journal. 
* It appeared monthly or bi-monthly, according to the amount of County 
'ouncil business to be reported. 

30 Wiltshire Ifewspapers — Past and Present. 

of Bath, and of Aldermen The Right Honourable E. P. Bouverie, J, F. 
Swayne, and others. 

Twelve numbers^ subsequently appeared, the last being that for July, 1890. 
All except the first, however, were exclusively devoted to detailed reporting 
of County Council measures, the biographical matter of No. 1 not being 
again repeated. The Record probably came to an end as the Wiltshire 
public grew familiar with the fuller development of Local Government^ 
and ceased to regard its County Council as a new and strange phenomenon. 
The full and detailed reporting of County Council procedure in the three 
local Salisbury newspapers^ also made the continuance of a separate record 
of this description unnecessary. 

The Gasper (1915—1916). 

The Gasper was a short-lived periodical, which has been described as " the 
most interesting and amusing Military Paper published during the War." 
It consisted of a single-sheet in folio (four pages, 15in. x lOin.) price One 
Penny, " Printed and Published for the Proprietors by William E. Bennett^ 
Journal Office, Canal, Salisbury," and appearing in theory weekly, but in 
fact with varying regularity. 

The proprietors were members of the United Public Schools Brigade, 
Royal Fusiliers, of which the paper was the "Unofficial Organ," and The 
Gasper started its career on September 10th, 1915, when the Brigade was 
at Tidworth, material for its make up being sent home from France after 
January, 1916, by which time the Brigade had joined the B.E.F. 

Its editor was Pte. G. M. Green, D. Coy, 19th R. F., and the paper was 
generously helped by Sir A. Paget and Captain Charles Bathurst, M.P.,* 
who assumed liability for its money losses. It had a satisfactory circulation, 
both on Salisbury Plain and later in France, where it was purchasable at 
most estaminets, and only came to an end with No. 21, for July, 1916, because 
the original members of the Brigade were by that time so scattered that it 
" had ceased to be the organ of anything particular." 

It maintained throughout its career a high level of the gay and cheery 
humour characteristic of so many of its contemporaries, and its constant 
illustrations are drawn with singular cleverness. 

Note. — l%e Sarum Almanack and Diocesan Kalendar (1857 to present 
day) and The Salisbury Diocesan Gazette (1888 to present day), have been 
briefly referred to in the " Miscellaneous " section of Mr. J. J, Slade's 
final article. It is in accordance with the scheme of the standard newspaper 
record, The Tercentenary Handlist of English and Welsh Newspapers, to 
omit annuals and ecclesiastical magazines from a detailed study of press 
development such as has been here undertaken. But a unique parish paper, 
published in South Wilts and fully partaking of the character of a newspaper, 
deserves brief mention. 

^All in the British Museum. 

^ Salisbury Journal^ Salisbury Times, and Wiltshire County Mirror. 

' Now Lord Bledisloe. 

By Mrs. Herbert Richardson. 31 

This is The Bowerchalke Weekly Parish Paper, conducted by the late 
Rev. Edward Collett, Vicar of the parish. It was a weekly newspaper for 
the parish, the size of a half-sheet of notepaper, and sold for a farthing.^ 
Though primarily devoted to Church affairs, it consistently included general 
local news, and from time to time brought its influence to bear on local 
problems, such as the securing of a Sunday post and delivery of letters for 
the village, both of which it effected. 

From Saturday, April 15th, 1882, to Wednesday, April 12th, 1922, this 
little weekly continued, always " wholly printed " by the Vicar, who set up, 
cleaned, and distributed his own type ; and its sequence was only of necessity 
interrupted from time to time by Mr. CoUett's occasional illnesses. 

On February 27th, 1908, the 1000th number was issued, in which an 
"editorial" stated that whereas No. 1 of The Weekly Parish News, d^^i \t 
was first called, was published with a small circulation of 85 copies, its 
circulation was now 250. Of these over a hundred were sent by post, in 
bound monthly parts, all over England, and to Canada, India, New Zealand, 
America, and Africa. It had also been, since its commencement, filed at 
the Bodleian Library, Oxford, by special request, as a noteworthy publication. 

By 1918 its weekly circulation had reached 370, with 160 set aside for 
monthly despatch. But with No. 1703, for April 12th, 1922, owing to the 
increasing age and failing health of the Vicar, who was then over 75 years 
of age, this long-lived parish newspaper came to an end, after forty years, 
in which, to quote its proprietor, printer and editor's modest words, " Its 
influence has been widespread, and many parish efforts had owed their good 
success to its circulation." 

An appreciative leader in The Salisbury Times for May 16th, 1924, 
characterises the paper as " a monument of persistent patience in simple 
effort rarely equalled." To the student of the newspaper it is a unique 
journalistic achievement of which the Wiltshire Press may be justly proud. 

Section 4. — Wilton and Wakminster Papers. 

(a)— Wilton papers. 

There are only two Wilton publications to include in any survey of the 
South Wilts Press, as The Wilton Gazette and Three Shires Advertiser of 
1903, though issuing from a sub-office in Wilton (Mr. William Jukes's, North 
Street), was a Compton Press paper, printed at Gillingham, in Dorset, and 
finally absorbed by a newspaper at Yeovil. These are : — 
The Wilton Monthly Illustrated Journal (1877—1879). 
The Wilton and Salisbury Chronicle (1885 — 1887). 

The Wilton Monthly Illustrated Journal. 
The Wilton Monthly Illustrated Journal belongs to a period when the 
Literary Miscellany (curiously enough, never successful in Salisbury) was 

^ The farthing price is not unique. In Plate IV. of Hogarth's " Pvake's 
•ogress " a boy in the foreground reads The Farthing Post, and a Farthing 

Journal of Literature, Instruction, and Amusement ran for some numbers 

n 1840 and 1841. 

32 Wiltshire JS'ewspapers — Past and Present. 

still widely popular. It was a publication of the magazine type, measuring 
lOin. X 7|in., and containing about 20 to 24 pages, "Price 2d." Its first 
number appeared in August, 1877, headed, on the front page, by a block of 
Stonehenge (beneath the title), and was made up of the usual London- 
printed illustrated monthly, with four pages of local news and advertise- 

Its " Foreword" explained its purpose : — " To jot down the events which 
take place in our snug little borough, or which concern it in any considerable 
degree ... to give short, pithy reports of all public meetings, of 
whatever party or society . . . and to promote the free discussion of 
anything which may concern the welfare of the borough." 

The proprietors of The Wilton Monthly Illustrated Journal were the late 
Mr. William Vincent Moore,^ the late Mr. Henry Street, and the late Mr. 
Corby, and correspondence was invited, " addressed to The Editor, c/o Mr. 
H . Street, Newsagent, North Street, Wilton." The Journal was printed for 
the proprietors in Salisbury by " William Wells,^ at his Printing Office, 
60, Fisherton Street, Salisbury." 

It proceeded for some time with apparently real success. Each monthly 
issue contained, under the block of Stonehenge on the front page, an 
"editorial" on some topic of general interest (the Education Act of 1876 
provided much material for discussion), or on some such local matter as 
the doings of the Wilton Literary Institute. The inner covering pages were, 
further, full of local news, very adequately reported, announcements of 
births, deaths, and marriages, local railway information, and so forth. 

With No. 25, for August, 1874, the Journal entered on its third year with 
some self congratulation. " We have got through our babyhood, with all its 
ailments, uncommonly well, and we hope to be spared to reach a vigorous 
manhood," wrote the proprietors, under the heading " Ourselves." But 
with No. 29, for December, 1879, the proprietors, under the same heading, 
announced the paper's demise, after two and a half years of existence. 
Financial difficulties were apparently the reason for its cessation, one of 
the proprietors being unable, for the time being, to back the venture 
further. The Journal, adopting an analogy " from banking," therefore 
gave notice that " this business is suspended," and, maintaining that it had 
to this point been a success, informed its " numerous subscribers " that 
there would be no further issues. 

The twenty-nine numbers that exist present, however, a most interesting 
and detailed picture of the social and business life of the borough in the 
late eighteen-seventies, such as could not now be found elsewhere. And it 
is something of an achievement to have maintained, with the small public 
provided by Wilton, a literary magazine for a period of two and a half years, 
when no publication of similar type survived in Salisbury for more than a 
few months. 

I The late Alderman W, V. Moore. 
2 See The Salisbury Times, Wilts Arch. Mag., xli., p. 485. 

By Mrs. Herbert Richardson. 33 

The Wilton and Salisbury Chronicle. 

The Wilton and Salisbury Chronicle'^ first appeared in 1885. The still 
recent incorporation of Wilton as a borough presented a favourable op- 
portunity for the enterprise of a local paper, and the Gfironicle was started 
by the late Mr. William Vincent Moore, who had already taken part in the 
venture of The Wilton Monthly Illustrated Journal. 

It was a weekly journal, of eight pages (five columns to the page) 
measuring 20in. by 14in., appearing on Fridays, and priced Id. Its politics 
were Liberal. The printing press on which it was printed was in the old 
Wool Loft in the Market Place of Wilton (now pulled down to make room 
for the memorial to the late Earl of Pembroke), and its offices were at No. 46, 
West Street, the residence of the proprietor. Advertisements in The 
Newspaper Press Directory describe it as " the only newspaper printed and 
published within the extensive Wilton or Southern Parliamentary Division 
of the County of Wilts, where it has an extensive circulation." 

Before the close of 1885 the paper was enlarged to 22in. X 18in. (six 
columns to the page), a size which it seems to have maintained ; and in 
1887 it was issuing on Thursday instead of Friday. 

The Wilton Chronicle very fully reported Wilton affairs, and gave a good 
deal of its space to politics, for which the bitterly fought elections of 1885 
and 1886 afforded ample opportunity. 

By the year 1887, however, the paper must have been suffering from the 
successful development of the Salisbury Liberal organ, The Salisbury 
Times. Its promoter, Mr. Moore, seems to have lost interest in it, as in that 
year he sold it to his compositor and manager, a Mr. Pinchin, who soon 
after, so he believes, sold it to The Salisbury IHmes. Data on the point are 
not quite clear, owing to the absence of any reference to the matter in the 
files of The Salisbury Times, and the impossibility of now tracing Mr. 
Pinchin. Mr. Alfred Goodere, editor of The Salisbury Times at that date, 
thinks that the paper " was disposed of to Mr. James Ridout, proprietor of 
T'he Gillingham Record." Hut as this localized edition of a Gillingham 
paper (already referred to) belongs to a much later date, 1903, it is probable 
that Alderman W. V. Moore's recollection is the more correct, although 
The Salisbury Times does not incorporate the Chronicle title. It seems 
certain, however, that, as in 1868 The Salisbury Times had beaten its pre- 
decessor and rival, The Salisbury Examiner, out of the local Liberal news- 
paper field, so in 1887 it either extinguished or absorbed the Wilton Liberal 
newspaper, for whose public the more important Salisbury organ could 
quite adequately cater. 

[The writer is much indebted to the late Alderman Edward Slow and 
the late Alderman W. V. Moore, of Wilton, whose recollections of Wilton 
ijournalism have been of great assistance.] 

^ Very few numbers are traceable. There are none in the British Museum, 
jbhe late Alderman Edward Slow, of Wilton, possessed a few copies, and 
'^The Newspaper Press Directory supplies other data. 
l^OL. XLIIl — .NO. CXLII. D 

34 Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present. 


The Warminster papers are three in number :— 
The Warminster Miscellany (1854 — 1863). 
The Warminster Herald (1857—1893). 
The Warminster and Westbury Journal (1881— present day). 

The Warminster Miscellany and Local Advertiser. 

The Warminster Miscellany and Local Advertiser was a monthly journal, 
about crown folio in size, measuring I3|in by 9|in., which first appeared 
in January, 1854, price \d. Its proprietor was Mr. Richard Elliott Vardy, 
a member of a leading local family, who carried on business as a bookseller, 
stationer, and bookbinder on the premises whence to-day issues The 
Warminster and Westbury Journal.^ 

2'he Miscellany contained six or eight pages of miscellaneous literary 
matter (illustrated), with four pages of advertisements and local news. Its 
*' Foreword " shows that the repeal of the newspaper stamp duty, and the 
consequent widening of the ranks of the reading public, were together re- 
sponsible for its existence. " The facilities for advertising lately given by 
the legislature in the repeal of the duty," it asserts, " renders a vast amount 
of advertisements— and of mediums for advertising — more and more 
necessary. . . . With these one can now combine a full appreciation of 

The Newspaper Press Directory of 1856 describes it as " neutral," and in 
its ten years' existence it consistently proceeded on the lines laid down in 
the " Foreword " quoted, publishing what was really the Illustrated 
London Miscellany together with local news of non-controversial descrip- 
tion, and advertisements. The London Miscellany for this period provided 
much interesting reading, afforded by such great events as the Crimean 
War, the Indian Mutiny, and the Civil War in America ; while among 
local matter reported, the proceedings of the Warminster Athenaeum are 

In 1863, however, the Miscellany cdume to an end, with number 120, for 
Tuesday, December 1st, 1863. This number contained a "valedictory" 
which pointed out that at the date of its inception subjects of local interest 
*' could only obtain publicity through the columns of newspapers published 
a considerable distance from the town," whereas the subsequent " emanci- 
pation of the newspaper press from all fiscal duties, and other causes, have 
resulted in the establishment of a weekly paper in this and an adjoining 
town, which have to a great extent superseded the utility of a monthly 
publication." The reference is probably to the Trowbridge weeklies' and 
to the Warminster Herald of 1857 onwards, which seem to have killed the 
older and more leisured paper. 

* Some of the old type, used for advertisements in the Miscellany, is still | 
being used in the Journal to-day. 

2 See Mr. J. J. Slade's articles, Wilts Arch. Mag,, xl. and xlii. 

By Mrs. Herhert Richardson. 35 

The Warminster Herald and General Weekly Advertiser. 

7%e Warminster Herald and General Weekly Advertiser issued its first 
tiumber on Saturday, March 7th, 1857. It was a four- page weekly, measur- 
ing 17in. by 22in., price \d., and its imprint runs :— " Printed and published 
lay William Henry Tayler, the Proprietor, of the parish of Warminster, 
Wilts, at his Printing Office, Warminster, Wilts." The number states 
further that " The Editor receives communications at Tayler's Library, 
opposite the Town Hall, Warminster." Mr. Tayler combined his library 
and printing business with that of a chemist, on premises now occupied by 
Messrs. Cook & Co., and his printing oflSce was behind the next-door 
premises (those of Mrs. Hill, confectioner), through an archway on which 
the inscription " Herald Offices " and the pointing hand of direction re- 
mained till quite recently. 

The paper was,like the Miscellany, nQMtv2i\ in character at its first inception 
and doubtless supplied a public need. But it was to undergo many changes 
of proprietorship. By 1866 it had passed into the hands of Messrs. John 
and William Martin. Mr. John Martin died in 1873, and Mr. William 
I Martin retained the paper until about 1884, when the property was acquired 
I by a local grocer, Mr. E. Cusse, who soon disposed of it again, as in the 
I same year it was in the hands of Messrs. Bennett & Co. From them it 
j passed in 1885 to Mr. W. F. Morgan, who was Chairman of the Urban 
District Council, and a leader of the Liberal party in the division, and it is 
jat this date that it definitely adopted a political attitude and became Liberal 
instead of neutral. 

In 1886 it changed hands once again, Mr. Frank Evans ' being its new 
proprietor. The Newspaper Press Directory of this date describes it as 
r advocating Liberal politics, but impartially devoted to the interests of the 
kiistricts in which it circulates, and a promoter of science, literature, and the 
{arts " ; and further claims for it that it is " one of the oldest established low- 
price papers in the West of England," and can be '' especially recommended 
j^or its agricultural tone, and for the support it obtains in a large agricultural 
district, which is more than can be claimed by any of its contemporaries." 
For a brief period after Mr. Evans's proprietorship the Herald was the 
{property of the Liberal Party in West Wilts. The paper was now an 
eight-page periodical, measuring 18in. by 24in., and roughly illustrated. But 
the competition of its five-year-old local rival, The Warminster and Westbury 
Journal, seems to have affected it in much the same way as its own first 
ippearance affected the earlier Warmhister Miscellany. In 1893 it came 
^^ )o an end with the issue for Saturday, Dec. 30th (No. 1973). This last 
j lumber announced the immediate appearance, on January 2nd, 1894, of 
Che Wiltshire Herald, a halfpenny paper, "on whose space the news of 
/Varmiiister and district was to have first demand." This, however, was 
)rinted at Trowbridge, by G, I^ansdown, of The Wiltshire Times, so cannot 
)e considered as actually a Warminster paper. Its brief career came to a 
lose on July 24th of the same year, 1894. 

^ Mr. Evans subsequently became proprietor or editor of a Lincolnshire 

D 2 

36 Wiltshire News'pa'pers — Past and Present. 

The Warminster and Westbury Journal. 

The Warminster and Westbury Journal, the final survivor of the War- 
minster local newspapers, appeared on Saturday, November 19th, 1881. It 
was an eight-page weekly, measuring 21in. by 16in., " Printed and Published 
by the Proprietor, Benjamin Walter Coates, at his Printing Offices, No. 15, 
Market Place, Warminster." Here Mr. Coates had succeeded Mr. Vardy 
in the bookselling and stationery business, which had confined itself to 
Church Magazines and jobbing printing since the demise of The Warminster 
Miscellany in 1863. By 1881, however, there was scope for the renewal of 
newspaper enterprise at these old premises, and the Journal's " Foreword " 
clearly states its objects and policy : — " A journal giving full, intelligent, 
and unbiassed accounts of the chief events occurring amongst us has long^ 
been considered a desideratum. . . . The town of Warminster has 
unmistakably signified its need of such a paper. The town of Westbury 
has, we believe, never had a newspaper bearing distinctly its name on the 
title . . . We shall endeavour to give correct reports of meetings of 
various bodies . . . accurate returns of near and distant markets,, 
especially those which are important to our agricultural friends. Parlia- 
mentary and political intelligence . . . impartial accounts of events, 
with occasional articles on the leading and engrossing topics of the day will 
be given ... To the agriculturalist, the merchant and the tradesman, 
we trust our paper will prove essentially useful. Special precaution will 
be taken to make the Journal a family paper." 

The new paper's politics were Conservative, and its wide range of interest^ 
special attention to agricultural topics, and clear and good printing, ensured 
its ultimate success, although its early prospects "were anything but 
promising, and it was prophesied that the life of the new venture would be 
a short one."' 

Mr. Coates was himself the responsible editor, and conducted the pnper 
on the lineslaid down in its foreword, varying its features by the introduction 
of a ladies' column, occasional illustrations, etc., and developing its ad- 
vertising side, but adhering consistently to the original scheme. 

On April 20th, 1894, an enlargement took place, "necessitated by fresh 
demands on space and rapid increase in circulation," of from 21in. by 16in. 
to 23in. by 16in. This lengthening of the paper added some five columns to 
the former size of the Journal, and the paper at this time further catered 
for its wide public by enclosing a local time table in each copy. 

In 1898 Mr. B. W. Coates, after thirty-four years of business in War- 
minster, transferred the Journal and the bookselling business to his son,. 
Mr. Alfred Herbert Coates, "from and after January 1st, 1898." Mr. A. 
H. Coates had been for thirteen years associated with his father in the 
management of the Journal^ and was therefore able to give the same 
personal attention to the paper's editing and general management as Mr. B» 
W. Coates had devoted to it. 

On Nov. 22nd, 1902, the Journal celebrated its coming of age, an 
occasion of real congratulation both for the paper's staff and for its public. 

^ Mr. H. B. Edwards, head of the composing department, November, 19U2» 

By Mrs. Herhert Richardson. 37 

It was now, the coming-of-age number states, " the only paper in the 
populous district in which it is published," and had consistently en- 
deavoured " to treat all with fairness and fulfil its duties as local historian 
impartially." Many of its original advertisers were " still advertising in 
the paper twenty-one years later," a circumstance that effectively testifies 
j to the Jour7iaVs value as a local advertising medium, which has always been 
one of its strong features. 

In 1910 a change in date of publication took place, the paper issuing on 
and subsequent to January 7th, 1910, on Friday morning instead of Satur- 
day. The Friday issue, prior to the usual Saturday market, has been 
generally adopted by most weekly Wiltshire papers within the last twenty 

Two years later, on October 4th, 1912, Mr. A. H. Coatestook into partner- 
ship as proprietor of the Journal, Mr. Samuel Hillier Parker, who had 
assisted him in his business for the previous twelve years. The paper is 
still issued under their joint proprietorship, and in policy and scope main- 
tains the traditions of its founder. Its political complexion at the present 
■day is defined by its proprietor as " Independent neutral, with a Conserva- 
tive colouring." Its circulation now extends from Westbury and the 
adjoining villages on the western side, through the valley of the Wylye (as 
far as the village of Wylye itself) on the east, the Deverill valley on the 
south, and many of the Down villages, comprising roughly the towns of 
Warminster and Westbury and about thirty adjacent villages. 

[The writer is much indebted to the authorities at the British Museum 
and the Hendon Repository for access to early Warminster papers ; to 
Mr. A. H. Coates for access to the files of Tke Warminster and Westbury 
Journal ; and particularly to Mr. H. B. Edwards, head of the composing 
department of the Journal and overseer of this department of the paper 
since 1882, for much kind and helpful information on the Warminster 
press, and for reading through the MS. of this section.] 

Addenda. — (1) Salisbury and Winchester Journal. 

Mr. J. J. Hammond, Mr. Henry R. Plomer, and Mr. J. Saxon Childers (of 
Worcester College, Oxford), have kindly supplied some further notes on 
Benjamin Collins. 

Mr. Henry R. Plomer states that Collins' name is found on the imprint 
to The Bible annotated by Samuel Humphries in 1735. In 1754 Collins 
also published, in conjunction with D. Hodges, of London Bridge, a novel 
called Matrimony, the title of which was altered to The Marriage Act in the 
second edition. In 1758 an action was brought against him for selling 
copies of The Spectator, printed in Scotland, but was dropped. 

Mr. J. J. Hammond communicates some interesting figures (gathered from 
ja contemporary solicitor's "Instructions Book"), illustrating the money 
lvalue of The Salisbury Journal in the late eighteenth century. When 
jBenjamin Collins severed his active connection with the Journal in 1775, 
[Messrs. J. Alexander and G. Sealy (whose imprint appears on papers of 
|1771) had each a quarter share in it. At Alexander's death Collins took 
is share, which Messrs. Hodson and J. Johnson in the year 1775 purchased* 

38 Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present. 

and also that of Sealy. For Sealy's quarter they gave Captain Sealy a 
bond for £1300. The money value of The Journal and " Printing, Book- 
selling, and Stationery Business" seems thus to have been estimated at 
^65200, a high figure at this date ; and the profits, one finds from the same- 
" Instructions Book," were about ^£'800 a year in all. 

Mr. J. Saxon Childers informs the writer that he has recently purchased 
a little chap-book, Histories or Tales of Passed Times, or Tales of 
Mother Goose, "Englished by G. M. Gent," and published by B. C. Collins^ 
of Salisbury, 1719. His copy is the eleventh edition. This discovery is of 
great interest. It antedates by ten years the first known English transla- 
tion of Perrault's Contes de ma Mere VOye, hitherto supposed to be that 
made by Robert Samber and published in London in 1729. It also 
establishes the fact that the Collins family was printing in Salisbury at an 
earlier date than has up to now been assumed ; and makes it clear that ther& 
must have been an older B. C. Collins (B. C. Collins I.), father presumably 
to the B. Collins who died in 1785 in his sixty-eighth year, and grandfather 
to B. C. Collins IL, who died 18G8. Further, it gives Salisbury, which has 
produced at least two notable first editions — The Vicar of Wakefield and 
The Fight at Dame Europa's School — a claim at any rate to having also 
issued the earliest English version' of one of the most famous collections of 
fairy-tales in the world. 

(2) — Farley Family in Salisbury. 

The following entries occur in the registers of St. Thomas of Canterbury j^ 
Sarum : — 

May 13th, 1717 — Henry Farley married Elizabeth Bishop of fouent 

July nth, 1736— The wife of Samuel fi"arley buried. 
September 5th, 1736. — Edmund Farley married Mary Provost. 

These entries, in all probability, refer to the wife and two sons of SamueJ 
Farley I. — printer of The Salisbury Post Ma7i, 1715— who evidently had a 
big family. He seems, when he left Exeter for Bristd, to have left his son 
Edward to manage the business there, and later to have left Samuel II. and 
Felix at Bristol, taking his wife and Henry and Edmund to Salisbury. 
Here he must have left them when he returned to Bristol. The Salisbury 
rate-books show that Edmund was still living in Salisbury in 1745. 

Corrigenda. — The Wiltshire County Telegram and Salisbury Advertiser 
(referred to in Mr. J. J. Slade's original list of Wiltshire papers, and 
in Part III. of this survey of the Wiltshire newspapers), was a localized 
edition of a Dorchester-printed paper, which had a sub-office in Salisbury 
only. No detailed notes on it are therefore given. 

Wilts Arch. Mag., xliii., p. 324. For " the establishment of the Salisbury 
Journal in 1738" read " 1729." 

^ Further research is of course needed on this point. Various local 
records have been consulted to provide other data on early Collins print- 
ing in Salisbury, and on the identity, and connection with Salisbury of 
"G. M. Gent" (probably Guy Miege, the Swiss, London school teacher and i 
lexicographer), but without result. ( 







August nth, imh, and 13th, 19^4,. 

President of the Society : — 
W. Heward Bell, F.G.S., F.S.A. 

MONDAY, AUG. 11th. 
The annual business meeting was held in the new Lecture Hall of the 
Salisbury Museum, by the kind invitation of the Curator and the Committee 
at 2 p.m., on Monday, Aug, 11th, a considerable number of members being 
present. The chair was taken by the President, and he at once called on 
the Hon. Secretary to read the 


Members. — The total number of members on the Society's list, including 
those to be elected at this meeting, is 13 life members, 441 annual subscribers, 
and one honorary member, Mr. Edward Kite, whom the committee elected 
provisionally as a mark of their appreciation of the great services which 
throughout a long life he has rendered, and continues to render, to Wiltshire 
Archaeology, more especially on the side of Genealogy and Family History. 
There has been no election of an honorary member since the early years of 
the Society, but the committee trust that their action may be confirmed by 
the general meeting to-day. The total number of life and subscribing 
members is thus 454, an increase of 29 on the year and a larger number than 
has ever before been on the Society's books. 

Finance.— The financial position of the Society at the end of 1923 proved 
to be better than was anticipated. The general fund, which began with a 
balance of £S5 15s. 5d., ended the year with a balance of £75 14s. 4sd. But 
this was due to the receipts from three sources, all of which were largely 
above the average, the balance of the Marlborough meeting, the sale of 
books and magazines, and the large number of entrance fees from new 
members. From these three items, neither of which is constant or can be 
reckoned on in future, the whole of the increased balance came. Thus, 
though the position at the moment appears more satisfactory than seemed 
likely a year ago, it affords no guarantee at all of a sufficient income for 
the needs of the Society in the future. The value of such a Magazine as 
our own depends very largely on the ability of the editor to illustrate the 

^ The fullest account of the proceedings and papers read at the meeting 
appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 14th, 21st, and 28th, and Sept. 11th, 

40 The Seventy -first General Meeting, 

papers adequately, and since the war the editor has never been able to do this. 
It is largely to meet this difficulty that the committee proposes to raise the 
subscription from 10s. M. to 15s. 6c?., a proposal which it is hoped that 
the present general meeting will agree to. In order to test the feeling of 
members on this important point, a form of enquiry with a printed voting 
card was sent to each member. The result so far has been that 25 voted 
against the proposal, a few were neutral, and 232 voted in favour of the 
increased subscription. It is therefore clear that a majority of the members, 
even allowing for those who did not return the voting cards, are in favour 
of the proposed increase. 

The Magazine. — Two numbers, 138 and 139, were issued in 1923, containing 
274 pages, at a cost of £191 17s. So?. There were very few illustrations in 
these numbers, or the cost would have been considerably more. The price 
of each number of the Magazine to the public from June, 1924, will be 
raised from 5s. Qd. to 8s., but the cost of back numbers will remain as at 

Register of Bishop Simon of Ghent. — Part II. of this was published in 
1916 by the Canterbury and York Society, and distributed to such of our 
members as subscribed for it. Since then no number has appeared until 
last month, (July, 1924), when Part III. was issued, and has been sent out 
to subscribers by the Hon. Secretary. The Society, as such, is not re- 
sponsible for the cost of the publication. 

The Museum.— The most important addition since the last report is the 
entire collection of objects found by Dr. R. C. C Clay in excavating the 
Early Iron Age pits on Fyfield Bavant Down. This collection comprises 
several accurate scale models in plaster of the pits, a large number of pottery 
vessels restored by Dr. Clay, objects of iron, bone, and stone, and remarkable 
samples of charred wheat, barley, and oats, all of which have been described 
and illustrated in the June (1924) number of the Magazine. Dr. Clay also 
presented a number of flint arrowheads and fabricators from Windmill Hill, 
Avebury. Capt. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington have presented the cinerary urn 
and flint knife from the barrow opened by them at Potterne, and an incense 
cup, portion of a bronze celt, and flint implements from the collection of 
Mr. J. Soul, of Amesbury. On the Natural History side a collection of 
varieties of four species of Helix, and a specimen of the rare white variety 
(Schmidtii) of the Small Copper butterfly have recently been given to the 
Museum by Mr. J. O. A. Arkell. 

2^he Library. — The balance standing to the credit of the Museum En- 
largement Fund, amounting to about £100, which has been accumulating 
for some eight years past, has recently been expended in adapting the loft 
over the back entrance to the Museum for the purposes of an extension of 
the Library. By adding a lantern skylight the whole of the walls are made 
available for bookshelves, and the space thus gained should suffice for the 
extension of the Library for some years to come. The gifts during the 
year have been numerous as usual. A large consignment of old deeds, etc., 
connected with Calne and Calstone, has been given by the Marquess of 
Lansdowne, through hotd Kerry, a nuniber of legal papers, deeds^ etc, 
connected with parishes in the north of Wilts by Mr. G. A. H. White, 

The Seventy 'first General Meeting. 41 

several old estate maps and other papers by Messrs. Jackson and Mr. W. H. 
Barrett. Five MSS. notebooks by F. Carrington on Ogbourne, Marlborough, 
€tc., were given by Col. S. T. Banning, and other MS. notebooks by the 
Rev. W. H. Jones were purchased. The set of Archmologia has been brought 
up to date by gifts from Mrs. Cunnington and Mr. E. H. Stone, who have 
also given us their books on All Cannings Cross and Stonehenge respectively. 
A notable gift was that of the finely-written and illuminated volume con- 
taining " The Constitutions of the Borough of Devizes," known as " Justice 
Kent's Ledger" of 1628, given by the Misses Grant-Meek, for which a glass 
case has been kindly provided by Capt. B. H. Cunnington so that it can be 
exhibited lying open. The late Mr. Arthur Schomberg left the library 
several valuable books of reference as well as all his MS. notes and papers 
on Wiltshire matters, and a legacy of £5. Amongst other old parchments 
given to the Library by Mr. W. H. Barrett and saved by him from de- 
destruction, was a portion of the earliest register of Hullavington, which 
by some means had got into private hands. This has now been restored to 
the vicar of the parish, and an account of it will be printed in the Magazine. 
Excavations. — Col. Hawley has, during the year, continued, with the 
assistance of Mr. R. S. Newall, the excavations at Stonehenge which have 
occupied so many years and have resulted in so many surprising and puzzling 
discoveries. It is now clear that there are three distinct concentric rows 
of stone holes outside the existing " outer circle " of stones, the " Aubrey 
holes" just inside the earth bank, and two other rows between these and 
the present sarsen circle. The real bearing of these discoveries on the 
question of the age of the monument is not yet clear. Dr. R. C. C. Clay 
completed last autumn the excavation of the Early Iron Age village site on 
Fyfield Bavant Down, opening more than 100 pits, a detailed account of 
which has been published in the June number of the Magazine. This year 
he has been engaged on a further series of pits of the same period on 
Swallowcliflfe Down, and on a Saxon cemetery at Broad Chalke. Accounts 
of both these excavations will appear later on in the Magazine. Mr. H. St. 
G. Gray dug under the large sarsen stone lying by the side of the Chute 
causeway. This stone has attracted considerable attention owing to certain 
markings on its surface, which, however, are now generally allowed to be 
due to natural weathering. The result of these diggings was negative, as 
nothing was found to connect the stone with any interment. Two 
I barrows on Haxton Down have been opened this year (1924) by Mr. Percy 
Farrer, and Capt. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington have opened one of the large 
barrows in the vale at Potterne. Notes of both these diggings will appear 
I in the Magazine later on. The course of Wansdyke in the Savernake Forest 
I district was investigated in the autumn of 1923 by Mr. Albany F. Major 
land Mr. H. C. Brentnall, and the account of their diggings was printed in 
■the June (1924) Magazine. These investigations are to be carried further 
t this year, and any contributions towards the expense of the excavations will 
jbe thankfully received by either of the above gentlemen or by the Hon. 
I Secretary of the Society. Capt. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington have recently 
[been engaged in important excavations at Figsbury (or Chlorus's Camp), 
which passed into their hands a year or two ago. The result of these 

42 The Seventy -first General Meeting. 

diggings we hope to hear from Mrs. Cunington during the present meeting. 
It is a matter for congratulation that a considerable part of Windmill 
Hill, Avebury, has been purchased by so keen an archseologist as Mr» 
Alexander Keiller. 

Air Photography.— ThQ importance of air photography as an assistant in 
archaeological research, brought prominently forward by the discovery and 
subsequent excavation by Mr. O. G. S. Crawford of the course of the 
eastern branch of the Stonehenge Avenue, ending apparently on the Avon 
at West Amesbury, has led to what really amounts to the beginning of a 
survey by air photograpy of large tracts of the downs in Hampshire and 
eastern and southern Wiltshire. In this most important work Messrs. O. 
G. S. Crawford and A Keiller have been engaged this summer, and the 
work already done shows the great desirability of continuing and completing 
the survey over the whole of the down area. 

Advisory Committees for Churches,— In last year's report it was mentioned 
that a committee for the Diocese of Salisbury had just been constituted by 
the Bishop. Since that date this committee has got into full working 
order, the chief part of the practical work being done by sub-committees in 
each archdeaconry under the guidance of the Archdeacon, whose chief duty 
it is to visit each Church concerned and examine proposals for alterations or 
additions on the spot, and to report thereon to the central committee meeting 
quarterly at Salisbury, which includes eminent authorities on ecclesiastical 
architecture and art. The similar committee for the Bristol Diocese, 
covering some eighty parishes in the north-west of the county continues to 
work well. The Hon, Secretary of the Society is a member of both these 
diocesan committees. 

The report as a whole was adopted, the President moving as recommended 
by the committee that Mr. Edward Kite be asked to accept the honorary 
membership of the Society as a special mark of recognition of the great 
value of his contributions for so many years to the history, the topography, 
and the genealogy of the County of Wilts, In its earlier years the Society 
had one or two honorary members, but for very many years no such ap- 
pointment has been made, and Mr. Kite's name stands alone on the list of 

The next point arising from the report was the recommendation of the 
committee that in 1925 the annual subscription should be raised from 10s. 6c?. 
to 15s. 6cZ., the entrance fee and that for life membership to remain as at 
present. The Rev E. H. Goddard explained that whilst the cost of printing 
had increased since the war by perhaps 75 % , and other things had also 
risen in proportion, the annual subscription remained in 1923 what it had 
been in 1854. It was no longer possible to carry on the Society's work on 
the original subscription. The Magazine, to a large number of members 
who could never attend the annual meetings, represented the benefit of 
membership, and if it was to be kept up to its former level, to say nothing 
of being improved, it was essential that the Editor should not be obliged to 
cut down the number of pages and to refrain from illustrating the various 
papers as they ought to be illustrated, for want of the necessary income. 


The Seventy-first General Meeting. 43 

Two suggestions were made by members present. First, that a systematic 
effort might be set on foot to obtain more members, and so a larger income 
might be secured without raising the present subscription, or alternatively 
that a number of county societies might combine to produce one magazine, 
which could then be produced much more cheaply. The first of these 
suggestions was met by the consideration that there was little prospect of 
enough new members to bring up the income to the required amount, whilst 
the second was negatived by the fact that archaeological publications of 
general interest already existed in sufficient number and variety, and that 
such an amalgamation would effectively defeat the very object for which 
the Wiltshire Magazine exists, the recording of Wiltshire matters and of 
Wiltshire matters alone. The recommendation to increase the annual 
subscription to 15s. 6c?. was then put to the vote and carried nem con. 

The officers of the Society were then separately re-elected, as also the 
members of the committee, with the addition of Mr. H. C, Brentnall as Local 
Secretary for the Marlborough district. 

The Rev. G. H. Engleheart next raised the question of the permission 
given, as reported in the daily papers, to the " Latter Day Druids " to bury 
the ashes of their dead within the precincts of Stonehenge. He said that 
as this had come to his knowledge he communicated with Mr. F. Stevens 
and they had got Major Moulton, M.P. for Salisbury, to ask the following 
question in the House of Commons : " Whether permission had been given 
to the Latter Day Druids, or any other body, to bury the ashes of their 
members within the precincts of Stonehenge." And that Mr. Jowett, 
First Commissioner of Works, replied : " No formal permssion has been 
given, but I do not propose to raise any objection to the burial of ashes 
provided there is no serious disturbance of the ground." Mr, Engleheart 
moved that an emphatic protest against the burial of any bodies or ashes 
within the precincts of Stonehenge be sent to the Prime Minister, the First 
Commissioner of Works, the Members of Parliament for the county, the 
Society of Antiquaries, &c., &c. Mr. Stevens seconded this motion and it 
was carried unanimously, and the news of the Society's protest was broad- 
casted the same night from Bournemouth. This protest was followed by 
many letters to the Times, and protests from other societies, with the result 
that permission to inter ashes at Stonehenge was withdrawn by the First 
Commissioner. The Rev. E. H. Goddard then suggested that the meeting 
might well record its opinion against the proposal recently made by Lord 
Eversley in the Times that the wire fence round Stonehenge should be done 
away with and a deep Ha-Ha or sunk fence made round the monument 
instead. Mr. Goddard said that the present wire fence was much less 
offensive to the eye than a sunk fence would be ; moreover, wire could be 
removed at any time, and a sunk fence could not. Mr. Engleheart, however, 
said that he had good reason to believe that Lord Eversley's suggestion 
would never be carried out, and the matter dropped. Mr. Goddard then 
suggested the desirability of requesting the Board of Works to continue the 
the work of re-erecting those stones which had fallen in living memory. 
The work had been stopped for want of funds, but it was known that con- 
siderable sums had been paid as gate money in the last two years which 

44 The Seventy-first General Meeting. 

might well be used for this purpose. Mr. Engleheart, however, explained 
that the gate-money did not remain with the Board of Works, but was 
swept into the Treasury. Eventually, after some discussion, the meeting 
agreed to a motion urging the desirability of re-erecting such stones as 
have fallen in historical times, the original positions of which are accurately 

This concluded the business, and the members went round the Museum 
under the guidance of the Curator and Mr. F. Stevens, F.S.A., especially 
admiring the fine collection of English and Continental China, which has 
been so well arranged in the circular room, and the collection of birds which 
has recently been entirely re-organised and in many cases re-mounted with 
admirable effect. This was followed by tea, most kindly provided in the 
garden between the two museums by Mr. and Mrs. Stevens. After tea the 
members proceeded to the Cathedral, where, in the absence from Salisbury 
of the Dean, Chancellor Wordsworth kindly took the party round the 
Cathedral and up to the Cathedral Library, where he pointed out many 
objects of interest not generally seen by visitors to the Cathedral. The 
Cloisters, the Chapter House, and the Bishop's Palace and Gardens were 
also visited under his guidance. 

Though there was no formal annual dinner, many members dined at the 
White Hart Hotel, which was the head-quarters of the meeting. A suggestion 
made at the preceding meeting had been acted on by the Meeting Secretary, 
and a list of members and their friends who had taken tickets for the 
meeting was exhibited in the hall of the hotel. The total number on the 
list were 148, who proposed to take some part in the proceedings, but a few 
of these were prevented from attending. 

At 8.15 members made their way to the Guildhall, where they were 
received by the Mayor of Salisbury (Councillor R. Bracher) and other 
members of the Corporation, in the large Council Chamber, where the 
maces and the city plate and charters were on view, and tea was very 
hospitably provided by the Mayor and Mayoress. There was a large at- 
tendance of members and friends. A valuable paper was read by Chancellor 
Wordsworth on the cathedral copy of Magna Charta ; and following on this 
Alderman C. Haskins gave a very interesting account of the gallery of 
pictures of Salisbury worthies, with which the walls of the Council Chamber 
are hung. In returning thanks the Hon. Secretary, in the absence of the 
President, who had been obliged to leave early, ventured to point out that 
there was a gap among the portraits of City worthies which he would like 
to see filled — there was no portrait of Alderman Haskins himself, who had 
done so much in so many ways for the city.^ 


A long procession of motors set forth on the day's excursion, from the 
White Hart, at 9.30, arriving at Figsbury Rings by the private road at 10 

^ It is pleasant to be able to record that this gap has now been filled 
(March, 1925) by a portrait of Alderman Haskins, provided by subscrip- 
tion in Salisbury. 

The Seventy-first General Meeting. 45 

o'clock. Here, having taken up their positions on the bank, they were 
addressed by Mrs ('unnington^ on the results of the excavations lately 
undertaken by Capt. Cunnington and herself. The curious ditch without 
a mound in the interior of the camp was also inspected, as well as a section 
through the rampart and ditch on the further side of the camp, which had 
been left open specially for the meeting by the excavators. At this point 
Mr. J. J. Hammond said a few words, indicating the points of interest, 
especially the route taken by Charles II. in his flight after Worcester To 
the majority of the members present the camp was new ground, and its fine 
position much impressed the visitors. Moving on from Figsbury to kStone- 
henge the party were received by Col. Hawley and conducted to his hut on 
the further side of the circle, where he gave an excellent address with the 
help of plans, of the excavations of the last year, and their results, notably 
the discovery of two more concentric lines of holes between the present 
outside sarsen circle and the line of " Aubrey holes," Apparently these 
holes must have been intended to hold stones, but had never actually done 
so. Another most important discovery made quite recently was the entrance 
causeway across the ditch on the further side from the entrance, shown 
in Inigo Jones' plan, but hitherto regarded merely as a figment of his 

From Stonehenge the party made for Amesbury Church, where the Vicar, 
the Hev. E. Rhys Jones, described the building, and the old dispute, 
parochial v. monastic, was once more touched on. Thence up Amesbury 
Street to the spacious Y. Vl.C.A. Hall, for lunch, and then at 2 o'clock 
the cars left for the Normanton group of barrows, reached by a short walk 
over the down from the road, where, having seated themselves on the top 
of Bush Barrow, \1rs, Cunnington held forth on the characteristics of the 
various types of barrows and of those of this group in particular, deploring 
the gradual destruction of the barrows continually going on, which would 
end in the disappearance of these most interesting monuments of the past. 
Walking back to the road, members had no sooner safely regained the 
shelter of their cars than a sudden and heavy storm of rain descended upon 
them, the first time that the rain had interfered with the proceedings. 
Reaching Wilton the large company had tea at the Pembroke Arms, and then 
hadjusttimetopay a hurried visit to the modern Church, to see its mosaics, 
marbles, and fine old glass, before they were due to visit Wilton House. 
Here the party was divided, and whilst one half was shown over the house, 
the rest were taken round the grounds, perhaps the most beautiful in the 
county. The Society was greatly indebted to Lord and Lady Pembroke 
for throwing open the treasures of the house, as they did, to so large a 
multitude. Leaving Wilton at 6 p.m., a quarter of an hour's drive brought 
them back to Salisbury. The evening meeting at the Museum was timed 
for 7 30, and the Museum Committee most kindly provided tea. This 
unfortunately rather interfered with Mr. Stevens' address on the china, 
which many members would have liked to have had more time to listen to, 

' Mrs. Cunnington's address is printed in Wiltshire Gazette^ Aug. 14th, 
1924 Her account of the excavations is printed in this number of the 

46 The Seventy -first General Meeting. 

for it is a subject that he has specially made his own, but 8.30 arrived, and 
a move had to be made to the newly-built and admirably-appointed " Edward 
Stevens Lecture Theatre," on the erection of which the present Curator is 
to be so warmly congratulated. Here the Rev. G. H. Engleheart, F.S.A.y 
read a paper on " Stonehenge," illustrated by the electric lantern, to a large 
audience,^ upholding the theory of the sepulchral as opposed to the astro- 
nomical origin and purpose of the monument. 


This morning was devoted to visiting places of interest in Salisbury itself, 
the first to be seen being the Church House, where members assembled at 
10 o'clock. Mr. J. J. Hammond here acted as guide and gave a sketch of 
the history of the building. After this there was just time to accept 
Archdeacon Carpenter's kind invitation to visit the North Canonry garden 
— an item not on the programme — and a considerable number of members 
enjoyed the sight of the fine herbaceous borders and the view of the spire 
from the river at the far end of the garden, and took a hasty glance at the 
13th century column of the undercroft in what is now the coal cellar of the 
house. The next point on the programme was St. Thomas's Church, where 
Mr. C. Haskins described the building. Thence the party walked to the 
Hall of John Halle, the fine 15th century house, which it was reported was 
in danger of being sold to America for a large sum of money, and trans- 
ported thither for re-erection. It is most earnestly to be hoped that means 
may be found to avert this, for the destruction of this fine building would 
be a grievous loss to the city. The building was described by Mr. F. 
Watson, but the party was so large that all could not find room inside the 
building. At this point the only hitch in the whole of the proceedings 
occurred. According to the programme St Edmund's Church was next due 
to be visited, but owing to a misunderstanding many members went to St. 
Martin's instead, and found nobody there to show them the building. 

After lunch the long train of cars left the White Hart at 1.30, and on the 
way to Britford what might have been a serious accident occurred, the axle 
of one of the big char-a-bancs breaking, which necessitated its passengers 
being turned out to walk some half-a-mile to the Church, where the chief 
points of interest, the Saxon arches, &c., were pointed out by the Hev. E. 
H. Goddard and the Vicar, the Rev. T. J. Woodall. A little time was lost 
here before a fresh char-a-banc could be got from Salisbury to replace the 
broken-down conveyance. Moreover a slight detour had to be made be- 
cause of the blocking of the road, but Downton Church was reached not 
much behind the scheduled time, and was described by the Vicar from 
notes on the architecture by the Rev. A. D. Hill, formerly Vicar. Walking 
from the Church to the Moot Gardens the party was met by the owner, Mr. 
Newall Squarey, who C(mducted them over the earthworks with the curious 
terraced banks, often described as a Saxon " Moot " place, but more probably 
perhaps a garden conceit of Klizabethan times. The Moot house itself was 

^ This paper is printed in full in Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 14th, 1924, and 
a portion of it again, with illustrative diagrams, in the issue of Sept. 11th. 

The Seventy-first General Meeting. 47 

unhappily entirely gutted in the late disastrous fire in which the lives of 
two of the servants were lost. 

The last place to be visited was Longford Castle, where Lord and Lady 
Radnor received the party with the greatest kindness, entertained them at 
tea in the hall, and threw open the whole house and its treasures to their 
inspection. Mr. Frank Stevens acted as guide to the house he knows so 
well, and conducted the main party round it, but everyone was at liberty to 
see what he liked as he would, and everyone was most thoughtfully provided 
with a catalogue of the pictures. Before leaving at 3.50 the Hon. Secretary 
thanked Lord and Lady Radnor most heartily for their hospitality, and so 
the programme of the meeting ended, and members got back to Salisbury 
at the scheduled time, 5.45, to catch the last trains home. It was certainly 
one of the most successful, as it was the largest attended, meeting held by 
the Society for many years past. The arrangements in Capt. Cunnington's 
hands went of course without a hitch, time was kept in spite of unforeseen 
difficulties, everyone professed themselves as highly pleased with the. pro- 
ceedings, and last, but not least, of the elements which go to make a meeting 
a success, a balance of something over £30 remained to be carried to the 
General Fund of the Society — a very real help in time of need. 



IN 1924.1 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 

Figsbury Kings, in the parish of Winterbourne Dauntsey, encloses within 
its roughly circular entrenchment an area of about 15 acres. 

It stands in a conspicuous position on a promontory of the chalk downs 
nearly 500ft. above sea level. The area is level except on the western side, 
where the entrenchment is carried down below the crest of the hill. 

Reference to the plan will show that the earthwork consists of a rampart 
with outer ditch, and a wide inner ditch some distance within, and roughly 
parallel to the rampart, but without any corresponding bank of its own. 

There are two original entrances through the entrenchment, and corres- 
ponding causeways across the inner ditch, one on the eastern, the other on 
the western side. Outside the eastern entrance there are traces of a bank 
and ditch that once formed a horn-work, or outer defence. There is now a 
wide gap in the rampart with causeway across the outer ditch on the southern 
side, but these are obviously not original features. Stukeley in 1723 does 
not show this gap {Itin. Cur., p. 137, PI. 41), but Hoare in 1810 does [An. 
Wilts, L, pp. 217 — 8), so apparently it was made between these years. 

The purpose for which the inner ditch was made has given rise to much 
speculation. It has been suggested that b'is;sbury was a sacred circle 
somewhat on the lines of Avebury ; that it was a place set apart for games 
and chariot racing; that it was a lioman amphitheatre; that it was an 
unfinished work ; Stukeley suggested that it was enlarged by Constantius 
Chlorus, who moved the vallum from the inner to the outer ditch.^ 

[The Society is indebted to the generosity of Capt. and Mrs. Cunnington 
for the whole of the blocks of the accompanying illustrations. Ed.] 

* The work was done under the personal supervision of Capt. and Mrs. 
B. H. Cunnington in June— July, 1924, six men being employed for the 
whole time. 

2 Stukeley suggested the name " Chloridunum," consequently it has 
sometimes been called Chlorus* Camp ! Stukeley seems to have argued 
that Clarendon (a mile or so from Figsbury) once spelt Chlorendon, must 
be connected with Chlorus, and Figsbury being the nearest " Roman Camp,'* 
and near the Roman road, must have been Chlorus' camp. Stukeley seems 
to have borrowed this idea from Bishop Kennett's Parochial Antiquities, 
published 1695, where on p. 687 he states, "a good Governor he (Constan- 
tius) was, and was come as forwards upon the Downs as far as new Sarum ; 
where upon the side of the Downs he built a fortification, the Hampers 
whereof still appear very apparently and is called Chloren after the name 
that the Britains gave him, by reason of his long train carried up after him ; 
it standeth in Wiltshire upon the North corner of Chlorendon Park, now 
called Clarindon, which taketh his name thereof." In Aubrey's (died 1697) 
Mon. Brit., it is called Frippsbury, and the same in Gibson's " Camden,'* 

Figsbury Rings. An Account of Excavations in 1924. 49 

There can, however, be no doubt that the earthwork was designed 
primarily for defence. It is, on the other hand quite clear from the character 
of the inner ditch as revealed by excavation, apart from its indefensible 
position, that this ditch was never intended for defence. 

Excavation at five different points showed it to be of quite different 
character from the outer one. It was very irregularly cut, with a wide flat 
bottom, whereas the outer ditch was well cut and almost V-shaped. Humps 
or promontories of unexcavated chalk were left in the inner ditch, sometimes 
on one side, sometimes on the other, forming occasionally what were 
tantamount to bridges across it. By means of these irregularities it must 
always have been easy to get in or out of the ditch almost anywhere on 
either side. Moreover, for a length of 60ft. {d on plan) the ditch had never 
been completely dug out. We believe, as suggested by Hoare {An. Wilts ^ 
I., p. 218), that the ditch was simply a quarry from which the material 
came to strengthen the rampart. By thus quarrying at an equi-distance all 
round the rampart, instead of at one spot, the distance over which the 
material had to be carried was reduced to a minimum. 

There can be no doubt that the chalk taken from the inner ditch does now 
actually form by far the greater part of the rampart ; the chalk that came 
from the outer ditch, i.e., an equal bulk, having gone back in to it. The 
quarry ditch is still comparatively empty, having had no bank to wear down 
and so to fill it up. 

Great labour must have been expended in making Figsbury strong, but 
it never seems to have been occupied for any length of time. In the trenches 
cut across the interior very little evidence of habitation was found. On the 
plateau, i.e., the area within the quarry ditch, only eight pieces of pottery 
were found ; the circular " pot-boiling " or cooking holes, if such they were, 
found there also suggest a temporary rather than a permanent occupation. 
Evidence of habitation under the shelter of the S.W. rampart and on the 
floor of the quarry ditch also points to such habitation having been of a 
temporary nature. It consisted only of a few fire sites and a small quantity 
of broken pottery and animal bones. 

In the excavations as a whole only about one hundred pieces of pottery 
were found, and only three pieces of broken mealing stones ; not a single 
storage or rubbish pit such as usually abound on prehistoric sites, not a 
single worked bone, spindle whorl, loom weight, no object of bronze or of 
iron, and not even a hammerstone. 

This absence of objects of domestic use, as well as the scarcity of broken 
pottery, shows that the site cannot have been regularly inhabited. It seems 
probable that the place belonged to some tribe or community that lived 
near by, and that the people came in here for refuge with their animals in 

1695, p. 108. Hoare, An. Wilts, I., p. 217, by an error of transcription ? 
says both these writers called it Fripsbury, and in his copy of Aubrey he 
spells it thus (see Wilts MS. in Devizes Museum Library). In Gough's 
Camden, vol. I., Index, 1806, it is called Figbury, and Aubrey's plan that 
does not show the inner causeways is re-produced. On Andrew and Dury's 
Map of Wiltshire, 1773, it is called "Clorus's Camp or Figbury Ring." 

60 Figshiry Rings. An Account of Excavations in 1924. 

time of danger. As an alternative it might be suggested that the entrench- 
ment was merely a place of safety in which to pen the flocks and herds, and 
that the relics of human habitation are those of the herdsmen who came 
with them. The great strength of the entrenchment, however, and the fact 
that it was thought necessary to add to it on two separate occasions, as 
well as its exposed position, makes this less probable. 

Water Supply. In the absence of wells or ponds the nearest water in 
prehistoric times, as it is to-day, would have been the river Bourne, in the 
valley about half-a-mile distant. 

Comparison with other works. Figsbury has been compared with the 
three Nosterfield circles, and two on Hutton Moor, all in the neighbourhood 
of Ripon, in Yorkshire, of a superficially similar plan, but it appears that 
the resemblance is probably misleading, and they may have little or nothing 
in common. 

The Date of Figsbury. 

Five fragments of Bronze Age pottery were found, but this can scarcely 
Tdo considered to afford evidence that even the earliest part of the earthwork 
-dates from that period ; the fact that very few worked or flaked flints were 
found does not add to the probability. 

Scanty though it is, the only decided evidence of habitation is that by 
a people in the Early Iron Age who used pottery of the All Cannings Cross 
type. These seem to have squatted, temporarily at least, on the open floor 
of the inner ditch, and under the shelter of the S.W. rampart, before the 
second, or last, addition, was made to it. 

In the absence of evidence of a later occupation, it is probable that these 
are the people who made both additions to the rampart, and the quarry ditch. 
As to who made the first bank and its corresponding ditch there is no direct 
evidence available. It is probable that when the additions to the rampart 
were made that the outer ditch was cleaned out, if not deepened. There 
can be no doubt that whoever made the outer ditch as it is now^ also cut 
out the deeper part of the quarry ditch at " d " (see p. 55). Both the shape 
of the cutting at " d " and the character of the work are identical with that 
of the outer ditch. It is probable on the whole that the original bank as 
well as the tw^o additions fall within the same period, and were the work 
of the same people in successive years. 

The site does not seem to have been inhabited in Romano- British times, 
-only one piece of pottery of this period being found, and that just under 
the turf in the quarry ditch. 

A bronze leaf-shaped sword, said to have been dug up in Figsbury in 
1704, is now in the Ashmolean Museum {W.A.M., vol. 37. pp. 100, 129). 
This type of sword is regarded as of late Bronze Age date, and a " not very 
remote ancestor of the Hallstatt iron type " {Brit. Museum Guides Bronze, 
1920, p. 31). As Bronze Age types are known to have survived into the 
Early Iron Age, for example the bronze razor and socketed celt found at 
All Cannings Cross, it seems quite possible that this sword was contemporary 
with the pottery of All Cannings Cross type found in Figsbury. 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 51 

The Pottery. 

With the exception of one piece of Romano-British, one of a bead rim 
bowl, and five of Bronze Age type, all the fragments of pottery found were 
such as occurred at the Early Iron Age site at All Cannings Cross. Con- 
sidering the small number found it was fortunate that so many pieces 
belonged to the distinctive type of red-coated bowls. 

Only sixty pieces of pottery were found in the inner ditch, thirty-five at 
the edge of the S W. rampart, including the burnt layer under the bank, 
and only eight on the plateau.^ 

Animal Remains. 

No animal bones were found on the plateau, but a few were found along 
the side of the S.W. rampart, and a few in the inner ditch, more especially 
at " 6 " They were for the most part very fragmentary and included those 
of sheep, oxen (three horn cores of the Bos longifrons) , pig, pony (jaws and 
hoof, and dog (parts of two jaws). Of the red deer only one piece of an 
antler was found, and that was on the plateau in Ex. D. 

Human Remains. 

The broken and scattered condition in which the human remains were 
found is remarkable. With the exception of fragments of a skull and a 
collar bone found about a foot deep in accumulated soil at the edge of the 
S.W. rampart, they were all found scattered promiscuously with animal 
bones, etc., in a layer of rubble mixed with soil on the floor of the inner 
ditch. They were for the most part found broken, but some of the scattered 
pieces have been fitted together; teeth from the jaws were also scattered. 

At " b " there were two separate pieces of a lower, and one of an upper 
jaw, an ulna, and a radius, both incomplete, and two other fragments of 
limb bones. At " a " two pieces of limb bones. At "/" parts of three lower 
jaws, several loose teeth, in one instance thirteen were found lying close 
together, part of an ulna, a radius, a humerus, and another limb bone ; it 
has been possible to restore one of the jaws to a fairly complete condition. 

^ It is interesting that while pieces were found of several red-coated 
•cordoned bowls with ornament characteristically incised after baking (of 
All Cannings Cross type, PI. 28, figs. 3 — 4), no fragment was found of the 
furrowed bowls (PI. 28, fig. 1), a type much more common at All Cannings 
than the cordoned. In the Early Iron Age pits on Fifield Bavant Down 
■described by Dr. Clay {W.A.M., xlii., 457), PI. vi., fig. 5) a bowl of the 
-cordoned type was found but none of the furrowed. From the character of 
the pottery as a whole the pits at Fifield are thought to be rather later 
than the site at All Cannings. It appears probable, therefore, that the 
cordoned bowl as a type is rather later than the furrowed bowl. Another 
point, not without significance is that the bowls from All Cannings have 
actual raised ribs at the angles, while the vessel from Fifield is without 
them. »Some of the pieces from Figsbury have raised ribs, others are 
without them. It appears, therefore, that as time went on the type deteri- 

j orated, and the bowls were made without raised ribs. Pottery with finger 

j: tip ornament was not found at Fifield or at Figsbury. 

i E 2 

52; Figsbury Rings. An Account of Excavations in 1924. 

Report on Human Remains from Figsbury Rings, by Sir 
Arthur Keith. 

(1) A lower jaw marked D. f.* of a man probably 40—50 years of age. 
All the teeth are sound and apparently all had been in place at the time of 
death. The chin is not prominent — not shelf -like. When placed base 
down on the table the point of the chin projects only 7mm. in front of the 
recess below the incisor teeth. The symphysis is only 31mm. in depth* 
I mention these facts because they seem to be characteristic of the pre- 
Roman people — a knob-like chin, not prominent, and not deep. The 
bigonial width was 101mm., the bicondylar 120. 

To this lower jaw may belong the shaft of the right humerus marked 
D. f. If this is so, then the roan (No. 1) was about 5ft. Sin. in height^ 
and fairly strongly built. 

(2) Much splintered lower jaw, D f. 1, the bone having been broken at,, 
or not long after death. The chin is missing. As in D. f. the enamel has 
been worn off considerable areas of the chewing surface of the first and 
second molar teeth, more so in D. f. 1 than in U. f. This jaw is part of a 
man aged about 50. There is a most remarkable display of caries, which 
has attacked the outer (buccal) surface of the last or third molar, the disease 
has progressed further on the left molar than in the right. The disease has- 
also attacked the buccal aspect of the neck of the second molar, the left 
tooth suffering more than the right. Pyorrhoea has been rampant in this 
man, the roots of the teeth being exposed in consequence of the absorption 
of their sockets. Probably this man had still all his teeth— diseased as 
they were— at the time of death. 

(3) Imperfect lower jaw of a woman, D. f. 2, probably aged, and of slight 
and small make. In her the wisdom or third molar teeth are absent — never 
been developed. This seems to have been frequently the case among 
English women of the Roman and pre-Roman periods. Her lower jaw at 
the chin is shallow (depth 29mm.) ; the chin is knob-like and not prominent. 
Before death she had lost one of her molar teeth from disease, and was about 
to lose another. The molar teeth were deeply worn. 

The fragment of the left humerus (marked D. d.) and a fragment of the 
left tibia also belonged to a woman of small size. 

(4) D. b. Left half of upper jaw and two parts of lower jaw of a woman. 
The characters of the jaw are very similar to those of No. 3 (D. f. 2). She 
has wisdom teeth and had lost only one molar (first left). Aged 60 ? 

(5) E. R. Imperfect frontal bone of young man (?) : metofsic suture 
has persisted. Forehead wide — minimum width 103mm. 

(6) Set of teeth of a child aged about 10 ; not a trace of caries in them. 

(7) Left clavicle (marked E. R.) of a youth of about 1 2 years. There is- 
also a piece of ulna which may belong to the same individual. 

(8) Shaft of right femur of a child about 10—12 years. May be same 
as No. 6. With this femur shaft of left radius and perhaps part of a left 
ulna, all marked D. f. 1. 

(9) (D. a.) Upper part of right femur of a man. 

^ The letters refer to the section of the inner ditch in which the bonea 
were found. 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 53 

(10) (D. a2.) Upper part of right femur of a man about 5ft. 6in. The 
femora No. 8, 9, 10 show a flattening (platymeria) on their upper third, 
particularly No. 10, in which the front-to-back diameter is only 59 % of the 
side-to-side diameter. This flattening is commoner among pre-lloman 
British than amongst post Roman. 

(11) (D. f.) Shaft of right humerus of a man about 5ft Sin. ? if goes 
with No. 1. 

(12) D. d- Left humerus of a small slender woman — may well be No. 
-3 or No. 4 Piece of tibia goes with it. 

(13) D. 6. Proximal | of ulna of strong man. Proximal | of radius of 
same individual. Piece of lower end of fibula : may be of No. 13 individual. 

WoEKED Flints of late type found in the Ditch. 
An interesting find was that of some two hundred worked flints scattered 
over a space of some 4ft. to 5ft. in diameter in a layer of soil and rubble on 
the floor of the inner ditch at " e." Their condition is fresh and sharp, and 
they appear to have been worked on the spot ; two or three large unbroken 
flints found may represent the raw material intended for working into 
implements. About half the number of broken flints belong to a type that 
has been found on a few sites in the neighbourhood, and that has been 
illustrated and described by Hey wood Sumner in " I'he Ancient Earthworks 
of the New Forest,'' p. 85—6, PI. xxiv. a. The discovery of these flints 
** in situ " in a ditch that dates in the Early Iron Age is interesting, because 
this type of worked flints had already been regarded as of late date (as 
•compared with other flint implements) on account of the surroundings in 
which they had been found elsewhere. In the same layer with these flints 
was found a single fragment of the rim of a wheel-turned bead rim bowl, 
that dates probably in the 1st century A.D., or only slightly earlier. 
This was the only fragment of this type of bowl found. This part of the 
ditch had been much disturbed and was infested by rabbits, indeed the 
cutting was not carried so far as had been intended on this account. 

Plan showing Position and Extent of the Excavations. 
Trenches on the plateau {i.e., the area within the inner ditch) and berm 
{i.e., the area between the rampart and inner ditch) were cut down to the 
undisturbed chalk ; there is very little soil on this exposed hill top, and, 
owing to recent cultivation, hardly any turf ; along the inner edge of the 
rampart the soil is a little thicker than elsewhere. At F.H. {i.e., fire hole) 
numbers 1 to 6, circular holes were found full of charcoal and burnt flints, 
varying in size from 1ft. in diameter and depth, to l^ft. in diameter and 
2^ft. deep ; the walls of the holes were not discoloured by fire, and in view 
of this and the number of burnt flints or " pot boilers," in and around 
them, it is suggested that they were temporary cooking places. The method 
of cooking by means of pot boilers is well known as having been practised 
by primitive peoples in modern times, as well as by prehistoric people. A 
description of the various ways of cooking by this means, with references 
and general information on the subject, will be found in a paper by T. C. 
Cantrill in Archxologia Cambrensis, July, 1911, p. 253. He thus describes 
the process of boiling as practised by some North American Indians. A 

54 Figsbury Rings, An Account of Excavations in 1924. 

hole is dug in the ground about the size of a common pot, a piece of raw 
hide is pressed down with the hands close around the sides, and filled with 
water. The meat is then put into this " pot " and stones heated in a neigh- 
bouring fire are successively dropped or held in the water until the meat is 
done. It seems that meat can be cooked with similar apparatus without 
the addition of water by packing with hot stones and covering ; in fact 
treating the hole as an oven instead of a boiler.^ Similar cooking holes 
are found in hut circles on Dartmoor. {Trans. Devon Ass., 1896, vol. xxviii.^ 
p. 177). 

In F.B.I, a small piece of slag was found ; in F.H. 2 a fragment of a bowl 
of All Cannings Cross type, and several small pieces of burnt clay ; in F.H. 
5 a piece of the rim of a hematite coated bowl of All Cannings Cross type ; 
in F.H. 6 a fragment of indefinite dark pottery and a small piece of bone,, 
not burnt. It appears therefore that these holes are not earlier than the 
period of All Cannings Cross pottery. 

It will be seen that holes 2, 3, 2a, 3a, form approximately a rectangle '^ 
this gave rise to a suggestion that these might be post holes of a hut ; but 
this is improbable on account of their contents of charcoal and burnt flints^ 
and the fact that other holes similar in every respect were found singly. 

A.— An irregular hole, 7ft. long, 3ft. wide at one end, 2ft at the other^ 
2ft. to 3ft. deep, with sloping sides ; below the general level of the floor a 
hole 9 inches deep, 1 Jft. in diameter. Among the rubble filling in was a 
piece of the base of a Bronze Age " beaker," and a small sherd of red-coated 
ware of All Cannings Cross type. 

B.— A large irregular hole, 8ft. by 7ft., 2Jft. deep. Among the chalky 
filling in there was a little charcoal, two pieces of sarsen stone, and a piec& 
of rather coarse sandy pottery of a kind common at All Cannings. 

C. — An irregular hole some 7ft. by 6ft., 25ft. deep. Chalky rubble filling. 

D. — An irregularly shaped hole or pit, 6ft. by 4Jft., Sjft. deep ; on the 
west side there was a semi-circular enlargement, 2ft. in diameter, full of char- 
coal and burnt flints, with sides discoloured by fire. At the bottom of this 
very roughly made pit-dwelling were found a small fragment of a mealing: 
stone, a piece of deer horn (the only piece found in the whole camp), and a 
piece of red pottery with impressed lines, of All Cannings Cross type. 

E. — A roughly circular hollow about 16ft. deep, full of burnt flints ; 
among them was a piece of a sarsen mealing stone, and part of a base of a 
pot of sandy ware of a kind common at All Cannings Cross. 

F. — An irregular hole some 8ft. by 5ft., and 2ft. deep. 

G. — A basin-shaped hole, 2^ft. by If ft. and l|ft. deep, containing burnt 
flints but no charcoal ; perhaps this was a cooking place like those described 
under F.H. above. 

H. — An irregular hole 6ft. by 2ift., and from 2ft. to 3ft. deep ; a piece of 

^ Reference may also be made to an address by Miss Layard to the Pre- 
historic Society of East Anglia, on June 10th, 1922. It appears that the 
pot boiler method of heating water was in use in the Highlands until about 
the beginning of the 19th century ; see A Hundred Years in the Highlands y 
p. 15, by Osgood H. Mackenzie. 

By Mrs. M. E. Ctmningtoi 


ornamented pottery that may be of Bronze Age date was found near the; 

I— An irregular hole some 4ft. in diameter, 2^ft. deep, containing among 
the rubble filling-in many burnt flints and a small sherd of Bronze Age 

These holes, A to I, were all filled with chalky rubble mixed with a little 
brown surface soil. The absence of dark soil or humus, such as is usually 
found on sites that were inhabited for any length of time, was very notice- 
able. The scarcity of remains will be appreciated when it is said that all 
the objects found are notifi.ed above ; no animal bones, except a small frag- 
ment in F.H. 6, were found either in the holes or in the surface trenches in 
the plateau area. 

Excavations in the Inner or Quarry Ditch. 

a. — (See plan). A space, 14ft. by lOft., was cleared out here. Original 
depth of ditch 10ft., depth of filling at centre 4^ft. Only a few pieces of 
coarse pottery was found in the rubble. 

h. — A space, 30ft. long by 13ft. wide, was cleared here. The floor of the 
ditch was level, from 10ft. to 12ft. wide ; original depth Oft. ; depth of 
filling 2^ft. ; width from bank to bank 44ft. A number of burnt flints, 
fragments of pottery, and broken animal and human bones were found 
strewn in a layer of earthy rubble on the floor of the ditch. On the same 
level close under the inner wall, extending along it for about 8ft., was a 
fire site consisting of charcoal and quantities of burnt flints. 

c— A cutting, 37ft. long by 18ft. wide. Original depth of ditch 10ft. • 
silt 3ft. On the level floor were found a few animal bones, many burnt 
flints, and fragments of pottery, including pieces of at least two red-coated 
cordoned bowls, and part of the base of a Bronze Age beaker. 

Fig. I.- 

-Section across inner ditch at 
-6. Original surface level. 

Rubbly filling in. 

Pure chalk filling in. 

c^"on Plan 

e—f. Undisturbed chalk ; the dotted line shows an 

average section of ditch as completely excavated. 

c?.— Fig. 1. Length of cutting 60ft. In this cutting the floor was reached 

at 5ift. from the surface level, except along the outer or berm side, where 

in a comparatively narrow, almost V-shaped trench, the ditch had been dug 

down to about its normal depth, lljft. That part of the ditch dug only to 

66 Fiysbury Rings. An Account of Excavations in 1924. 

a depth of 5|f t. runs up into and ends at one of the buttresses, or promon- 
tories, described before (p. 49) as having been left unexcavated in the ditch 
at unequal intervals. It seems that the ditch was at first dug to a depth 
of about 5ft. all over, then deepened as more material was required for 
building the rampart, and that this section of the ditch was left only partly- 
cleared out. 

The deeper or trench-like part of the ditch seems to have been intention- 
ally filled in. Being comparatively narrow and steep-sided it was likely to 
prove dangerous to cattle, and possibly for this reason was filled in up to 
the 5^f t. level. In re-excavating, it seemed at first that the bottom had 
been reached all over at the 5Jft. level, the hard compacted chalk in the 
trench appearing so much like the undisturbed floor, and quite distinct 
from the silt and rubble of the upper filling in. Pottery of All Cannings 
type was found on the 5jft. level and at the bottom of the trench. 

e.—k cutting 1 5ft. square. Original depth 12^ft., width 54ft., silting 
3ft. deep in centre. For worked flints and fragments of bead rim pottery 
found here see page 53. 

/.—Cutting 48ft. by 12ift. Original depth 9|ft., width 46ft. In a layer 
of earthy rubble on the floor were found a few animal bones and pieces of 
pottery including fragments of red-coated bowls of All Cannings Cross 
type, and the piece of a rim of a Bronze Age urn of the over hanging, or 
moulded rim, type. 

d. 1. — A narrow cutting was made across the ditch at this point to test 
whether it was normal, or only partially dug out as at d. It proved to be 
normal with the usual wide flat bottom. 

Rampart Sections. 

Three cuttings were made through the rampart in each of which two old 
turf lines were found, representing, it is believed, additions at two different 

The original bank as shown by turf line No, 1 (Fig. II.) was a compara- 
tively small affair, and had become thickly clad with turf before the first 
addition was made. This in its turn seems to have become or to have been 
covered with turf when the second addition was made. 

_ _, _^ f iVL'jjf-'itlTfff 

Scale of fea^t: — 

a 4 6 « 10 IZ 14. 16 IS 20 zi 24 

Fig. II. — Section across rampart at " cutting 3 " on Plan, showing turf 
lines within the bank ; and section of outer ditch as excavated. 

By Mrs, M. E. Gunnington. 57 

In the material of the first addition there were dark streaks that looked 
like thin lines of turf running out through the bank from the regular turf 
line. The meaning of these streaks of turf in the body of the rampart was 
not at first clear, but as similar ones were found in all the rampart sections 
it is thought that they probably indicate layers of turf laid during the con- 
struction of the bank to give it stability and to prevent it slipping. 

The first bank was composed of finer and more compacted chalk than that 
of the additions, both of these latter being to a great extent built up of 
large lumps of chalk with occasional large flints. 

The Outer Ditch. 

It was proposed to clear at least 20ft. of this ditch but as it proved un- 
expectedly large and deep only 8ft. were cleared to the bottom. An 
indefinite piece of pottery was found at a depth of 5ft. in the silt, and two 
more with snail shells practically at the bottom (Fig. II). 

Cuttings at Inner Edge of S.W. Rampart. 

The berm trench showed a thickening of soil with a few fragments of 
bone and pottery close to the bank, so a cutting was made as shown, 
parallel with the bank. At the spot shown traces of fire with charcoal and 
numerous burnt flints were found at the foot of the rampart extending 
along it for lOft, and spreading back under it. It was clear that there had 
been a big fire here at two successive times, one before and one after the 
first addition to the rampart. 

The lower layer under the rampart 'was on the ground level, but the 
upper one was on the slope of the bank, having been made after the 
first addition to the rampart. Distinctive sherds of red-coated bowls of 
All Cannings type were found in both layers. 

Beyond this first fire site for 14ft. there was no sign of burning, and then 
the firing began again and extended for a length of 27ft., parallel with the 
bank and spreading back under it as in the first patch, but only on the 
ground level. Trenching along the edge of the bank for a length of 122ft. 
south of this showed no further signs of burning. The signs of burning 
ended abruptly at the old plough line at the foot of the bank, so it is 
probable that further out they have been destroyed by cultivation. A 
barn or some such building seems once to have stood at this spot, for a few 
feet out from the foot of the rampart a line of squared malm stones (Green- 
sand rock) were found with pieces of modern bricks and mortar. 

The Causeways. 
The turf was taken off the northern half of the western inner causeway 
in search for post holes ; and for a length of 30ft., 4ft. wide, along the 
inner and outer edges of the quarry ditch, but none were found. From 
appearances outside the western entrance it seemed not improbable that a 
sunken way led through the rampart as at Casterly Camp {W.A.M., 
xxxviii., 69) ; a trench cut between the two ends of the outer ditch proved, 
however, that there is a solid causeway of undisturbed chalk. The nature 
of the defence of this entrance remains therefore unknown. 

58 Figsbury Rings, An Account of Excavations in 1924. 

The pottery, human bones, flints, etc., found in the excavations have 
been placed in the Society's Museum at Devizes. 

We are indebted to Sir Arthur Keith, M.D., F.R.S., for kindly examining 
and reporting upon the human remains, and to Mr. C. W. Pugh for 
drawing the plan and sections, and assistance during the course of the 

FiQSBURY Camp. Plan — Showing position and extent of the Excavations. Squares equal 50ft. 

To face p, 58, Vol. xliii. 



By R. C. C. Clay, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.SA., F.R A.I. 

The " British Village," marked on the maps as situated on Swallowcliffe 
Down, S. Wilts, lies for the most part in the south-west corner of the parish 
of Swallowcliffe, but its western fringe is in Ansty. 

This rise in the downs, 730ft. above sea level, commands the view to 
Westbury on the north, White Sheet Hill on the west, Chiselbury on the east, 
and to the Oranborne Chase Ridge on the south. It is defended on the north, 
north-west, and north-east by the steep escarpment of the downs, and on the 
south-west, south, and south-east by a semicircular ditch. The Ridgeway 
cuts through this ditch on the south and separates a semicircular " amphi- 
theatre " from the village proper. Although the scarcity of weapons in the 
Early Iron Age settlements has led some authorities to conclude that life 
in that period was one of peaceful commerce and agriculture, yet the fact 
that most of the prehistoric camps that have been excavated have proved 
to have been either constructed or strengthened in those times suggests 
that this site may have been chosen for its strategic importance. 

The lynchets of chess-board type that adjoin the village on the north and 
north-west indicate the position of its cultivated fields. From a distance, 
when the sun is low, an old road can be seen running diagonally down the 
slope from the northern end of the village to cross the modern road to Ansty 
near the foot of the hill. 

To the south beyond the "amphitheatre" is a steep sided valley or 
coombe. At the head of this there are signs of a dam and catchment pond, 
probably the water supply of the village, for we know that in those days 
the water in the springs stood many feet higher than it does now. 

This portion of the downs has never been ploughed, and there were 
obvious indications on the surface that here was once an inhabited site. 
The ground was uneven and full of small irregularities, and in places 
hollows one foot in depth showed where some of the pits lay. These de- 
pressions were riddled with rabbit holes, a sure sign of " moved " soil. The 
earth from their scrapes was black and contained many calcined flints and 
fragments of sandstones and a few small shards of pottery. 

We commenced our excavations by running some narrow trenches down 
to the undisturbed chalk subsoil in the angle made by the fence. The 
depth to the " hard " varied from 12 to 15 inches. Many burnt flints and 
here and there a small badly preserved fragment of pottery were all that we 
found. Later on, when we trenched in many parts of the site, we had no 
better luck. Nothing of interest was discovered outside any of the pits 
with the exception of an ornamented button of antler lying just beneath 
the turf between Fits 56 and 58. So shallow was the soil that possibly 
objects of bone, iron, and pottery had perished. At the contemporary 

60 An Inhabited Site 0/ La Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down, 

village site at Fifield Bavant {W.A.M., vol. xlii., pp. 457 — 496) there was 
the same absence of " finds " between the dwellings. By means of sounding 
with a heavy rammer we were able to locate all those places where the 
subsoil had been moved. It was not so much the hoUowness of the sound 
that gave the clue to these holes as the vibration imparted to the surface 
of the ground directly over them. This was felt in the feet of persons 
standing near the sounder, and it was a simple matter for them to determine 
which foot was over a pit and which was outside. Very windy days and 
days when the turf was water-logged were not good for sounding. Often 
one of us working at the bottom of a pit some yards away could appreciate 
the difference in the quality of the sounds quite readily even when the 
sounder himself was in doubt. A rabbit hole under the turf will often 
deceive the inexperienced. It is possible to make a fairly accurate guess 
as to the depth of moved soil below one, for the sound reflected off the 
walls of a deep pit appears to rebound from the floor at a considerable 
distance. By this means we located and excavated 93 pits, a post hole, 
several cooking places, and a few cases of moved soil of an indefinite nature. 

The map of the site (Plate I.) shows that there was no apparent planning 
or regular lay-out of the position of the pits. They are scattered about in 
an irregular manner, sometimes in small clusters, and at other times widely 
separated. There are no obvious streets or pathways between them : but 
the absence of any pits on a strip 20ft. wide running between Nos. 74 and 
72, 55 and 73, 48 and 64, 35 and 59 in a north-easterly direction, suggests 
that there might have been a roadway through the middle of the village. 
If there was such a track, it was never a " made " one, for when trenching 
we found no flints or other stones there in greater quantities than usual. 

Each man must have made his own pit or pits wherever he chose and 
according to his own plan, for no two pits were exactly alike in dimensions 
or shape. The commonest type was circular in transverse section and 
slightly bee-hived — that is to say, the walls were undercut so that the 
diameter of the floor was greater than that of the top. Of the 93 pits, 72 
were circular in cross section, 8 were oval, 5 egg-shaped, 4 in the shape of a 
waisted oval, whilst four were so irregular that their shape could not be 
specified. Some had steps cut into the walls and a few had a long ramp or 
slope leading into the pit half-way up the side. In other cases ladders of 
some form must have been used for ingress and egress. Although we found 
no examples, a well-made ladder was discovered at Glastonbury. A tribe 
of Indians called Guajiros at Maracaibo, in Venezuela, live in pile dwell- 
ings. They get into their huts by climbing an upright pole by means of 
notches cut into the sides {Illustrated IVavels, vol. ii., pp. 19 — 21). Flat 
bottomed recesses and long seats or ledges were cut into the walls of some 
pits. The floors were usually flat and corresponded to the slope of the 
chalk strata. At times they were basin-shaped or sloped to one corner, 
possibly for drainage purposes. The presence of a vein of flint was 
occasionally taken advantage of to form the bottom of a recess or ledge or 
of the pit itself. The projecting points of flint in the wall were often very 
cleverly cut off. Although, on the whole, the walls were not very smooth, 
yet they had never been lined with clay or daub, but showed the discoloura- 
tion due to exposure to the air. No engravings were found on them. 

By B. C. C, Clay. 61 

There were three examples of twin pits — 87 and 88, 38 and 86, 58 and 59. 
These communicated through an opening in the intervening wall of chalk 
to form a figure of eight. Pits 16, 17, and 18 were united like the leaf of 

Fragments of daub showing the marks of wattle were found in eleven pits. 
It was in a friable condition and had not been subjected to much heat. 
There is no evidence that any of the roofs, with the exception of that of No. 
74, were ever burnt down. One lump of daub containing the charred 
sticks of wattle in situ was found. This charcoal has been identified by- 
Mr. A. H. Lyell, F.S.A., as hazel. Although we cannot from these scanty 
remains determine the actual structure of the pit coverings, yet we can, I 
think, assume that they were similar to those at the neighbouring and con- 
temporary village at Fifield Bavant fW.A.M., vol. xlii., pp. 459—460, Plate 


There is no doubt that all the pits had been filled up by the action of 

The site was not occupied continuously. The first inhabitants probably 
left en masse for some reason unknown, and took most of their possessions 
with them. There was then a break of perhaps ten years, during which 
time the pits silted up for three to five feet. This is clearly shown by an 
almost constant layer of more or less "sterile" chalk silt. Above this we 
found a black stratum of an average thickness of 18 inches, containing 
shards of pottery, many animal bones, and various tools. On top of this 
there was usually an earthy layer containing many calcined flints. The 
second inhabitants made use of the depressions caused by the incompletely 
silted up pits, possibly because the soil had good drainage. 

The presence of so much charcoal and innumerable pot-boilers in the top 
layers of the pits indicates that fires were made in or around them. On 
the other hand, several separate cooking places were discovered, and the 
large built-up hearth in the centre of Pit 22, covered and surrounded by 
many cartloads of wood ashes, shows that this place was a communal 

The smelting of iron was carried out on the site. Many lumps of slag 
and one "bloom" were found. The presence of fragments of ferruginous 
Lower Greensand indicate the source of the raw material. 

A few pieces of bronze slag were found. 

Pottery was also made on the spot, for we have been able to reconstruct 
a " waster " and several fragments of intensely heated clay, showing large 
round holes, possibly part of a kiln, were found in one pit together. 

Some pits were evidently used for storage purposes. They were deep, 
often 8ft., and, except for very many animal bones, contained little else be- 
sides white chalk rubble in their lower halves. Possessing dome or cone- 
shaped roofs to their pits, the people would have had no need to dig deeper 
than 5ft. or 6ft. to make their dwellings. But it was an economy of labour 
to make their stores deeper than this, because only one roof was required. 
Pits that appeared to have been dwellings were about 6ft. deep, and 
possessed seats and recesses cut into their sides, and the filling was much 
blacker and contained more pottery and tools, while the floor was usually 

62 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down. 

covered by a layer of " dirt." We found that even without crouching on 
our haunches, as we suppose these villagers did, four of us could have our 
lunch with comfort in these pits. 

Four fragments of human skull and part of a humerus were found in the 
top soil of the pits. 

The burial places and rubbish heaps of these people have not yet been 

At Park Brow, Mr. Garnet R. Wolseley found "five large excavated 
areas about 2ft. deep and of roughly rectangular plan." They contained 
six post holes about 2ft — 3ft. deep, and he considers them to be the sites 
of wattle and daub huts (Antiquaries Journal^ vol. iv., p. 348). We found 
three rectangular shallow excavations of approximately 20ft. in length. 
There were no post holes in two of them and not a scrap of pottery or bone, 
no wattle and daub, and no black earth. It was surprising to discover that 
there were no calcined flints, which were so numerous in all other parts of 
the site. From this evidence we come to the conclusion that they must 
have been used as granaries. The smallest one contained all the indicia of 
a cooking place : — pot-boilers, animal bones, charcoal, and shards of pottery. 

The Ditch. 
This ditch bounds the southern half of the site. On the east where it 
ends abruptly it has been mutilated by flint diggers. Its middle portion 
has been destroyed by the old coach road. The western third, which lies 
beyond the fence dividing the parishes of Ansty and Swallowcliffe, is well 
preserved and terminates somewhat suddenly after swerving inwards to 
avoid a round barrow. It was here that we cut our best section. There is 
no distinct vallum on the surface, and the ditch is now wide and shallow. 
The diagram (Plate 2) shows that the sides are very steep near the narrow 
bottom. They were probably steep all the way up when first made before 
any silting had taken place It appears to have been defensive. Pitt- 
Kivers showed that silting was very rapid during the first few years (Ex.^ 
iv., p. 24), hence the foot of chalk rubble above the floor would have 
accumulated soon after the ditch was made. The black layer with its La 
Tene pottery and fragment of hsematited ware must have beenideposited by 
the inhabitants of the village. This layer contained charcoal, many burnt 
flints and black earth, and appeared to be the remains of a squatting site. 
A blue glass bead (Plate VII.) was found at the edge of the black 
layer. This ditch, then, can safely be dated as contemporaneous with the 

The " Circus." 

This semi-circular earthwork (see map) is separated from the village by 
the ridgeway on to which it abuts. It is 120ft. long and 70ft. wide. , Super- 
ficially it is a regular cup-shaped structure, bounded by a wide bank with- 
out any corresponding ditch outside. The grass over the centre does not 
differ in texture, colour, or luxuriance from that on the surrounding down. 
The centre is 2ft. below the natural level of the ground. 

We cut a section (Plate 2) through this earthwork so as to pass through 
the centre, and another trench at right angles to it into the lowest part. 

By B. C. G. Clay. 63 

Besides these, we made several trial holes. We found the "hard" im- 
mediately beneath the turf near the centre, and as we approached the 
vallum we came upon an increasing depth of chalk rubble between the turf 
and the gradually rising level of the natural undisturbed chalk. Altogether 
we obtained a few sheeps' teeth and a small fragment of bone, no pot- 
boilers, and only two small pieces of La Tene pottery— the latter in the 
vallum near the old turf line. There was no black earth, the criterion of 
a former inhabited spot, nor was there any puddled clay lining to the 
** hard." There was no central pit or heap of ashes. The bank was formed 
of the chalk excavated from the centre. 

From the evidence one can deduce that this carefully planned structure 
was used neither as a dwelling, a cooking place, a cattle kraal, nor as a 
catchment pond. It was probably the village moot, as Mr. Hadrian 
AUcroft suggests all such structures were {Brighton & Hove Archaeologist, 
No. 2, pp. 29 — 40). His statement on page 39, "The Celt had his own 
moots, of his own peculiar kind or kinds, long before he made acquaint- 
ance with the Romans . . . and in the centre of his cruc was finally 
the very same pit whereat he made sacrifice to his reputed ancestors " is not 
verified by our excavations. We searched for such a place of sacrifice 
without success. 

Portion of Wooden Loom Frame, Swal]owclifi"e Down. I 

64 An Inhabited Site of Leo Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down. 







« 2 




o p 

r^ to 

M a 

cS O 



'T''^ P^ 

s s « 

O O o 

O) o 





000 +^ ^ 0.0 o O o O 

+ , 

o +0 o o +_j_<^ '^ 

+ « + 

^ ^ + + +^0+^^:^+4-^+0+^^^+ + 



O '-'O 

I— i r-5 rH O rH 


+ ^ + 

i.oo..qo :z; +^cg^ + + +:^;^cg^J5:^+c^+^++^ + 


swiioa^^od ^ +lz5cccg+^++^:z;j^:z;^+^^o_^^^^ 



!=",-< OC0C0rHi-HC00iQ0TflOG00i«0(M»^'-'C^^OCM00 
4^05 O -^ «0 Tt< rj »0 CO 1:0 T? ^ IC 10 ^ '^ '^ ^ '^ »^ «5 CO 05 

i-H 1-1 1-1 ^ 

CO t^ 10 CO »o ^ CO ^ CO CO 10 ■»>• CO -^ CO CO »o 10 10 1^ t> t>« 

!»!<IJO"ON rH (M<^^^^*^0O'=^Pl123£2;^Jf5^^25S^5qG^ 

By B. G. C. Clay. 65 

w c c3^^i.i _oa>?^s-ll; 'S—^ct- 

qnisa 3)? OOO O O O O O O O O -Lq O 0000 0+ C^OO 

eUJan^ OrHO (M'-<r-IO'-IO<MO'-i'-' "^ OOOrHQi-l rHGs;js<| 

sqq.SiaAV OOO (XfMOoO^'^OO'-i oo Oo>-lO 1"o rH m ~^ 

iiinnrr ^ -X- ^ •' r 

1--.M0 :5+cg +:g+:g<g+^+cg^ Z; Z;^:gtg:g+ Z;<g + 

^lOCOtO C3i»0^aiOOOOt^COO r-( TflO00(M»O'^ OOOiO 

_^ CO <£> »0 ^ lO <:D CO lO ^ lO ^ lO lO r? lO ^ »o ^ '^ lO lO ^ »o 

j-'Ococo Oi— icocQOOiot^Ocoo CO oOcocoo-^ OCOlO 

q'J/1U9''l"~' I— ( rH rH 

^t>.CO^ ^'^DcOlO^^t^'^^lO 1:0 C0^?0'^'«??0 t^iOlO 

cJGOCOt^ 00 O O O ^ O 05 ^ O CO Tfl OrHrHt^OSCi ^ rH i?0 

^oot^<X? ':d CO 10 CO t^ 10 ^ CO »o t^ co i:^ i:^ ^ ^^ 00 10 r? '^ co 

■«!cli«"N (M<M(M <M(7q(M(MC0C0C0C0C0C0 CO COOOCO'^^^ tJ(^-<:? 


66 An Inhabited Site of La Tene /. Date on Swallowdi^e Down, 

































M g 

ee cS 



:2 s 

CD d) 


S S2 

o o 




•73 too 

a> s 

o ? 


-£ ^ ^ " top txn3 fl 

pq o^ ;^pq pq WO 

qnBQ^ OOOOOo OOrgoOO +0 O O O O O O O OO ^o 

eiuanS G<|OcoO(>J(m 0(M0000 rHOOOOOOoiM oO ^o 



OOO^^O"! WUOOWH^ OOh^OO, i__Oi , CD lO 

fl 05 O O (M O 10 I— I tJI rH O 10 "^ ?0 <^ *>• >^ T? 00 O O <— I 00 (M iCi CO 


C <^ O rH (M CO ^^^ '^ 00 CD O Cf5 00 «5 t^ O t>. IC i-l CO O (M OS O t^ 00 
^^ CD lo CO ^ >0 ■»>• WS CD -^ -^ -rfl CD lO '^ Oi iO lO iO -^ ""^ i>. IS. t^ ^ lO 

g O Oi O '^ 05 t>. O CO (M »0 '^ CO O Oi iO 's? (M lO CO -t^ 05 nH i— I ^ CD 
^J 00 lO -^ CD -^ CD »jO lO iO ^ tJ( CD CD CO t>. CD t>. -^ tO CO t>. iO is- >0 CO 

*l 5 Id JO 0^ ^^^^jj-)^ lOlOlO^OlO iO^OCDCDCDCDCDCDCD CDCD CDI>. 

By B. C. G. Clay.. 67 

.So § 

<^ C-S -S-S S-S 03-ai'r ^ 03 03 -^^03 03^ 03 2 

'^'"'^J.^M ooo+ooo o oooo+coooocoooo 



l^ooaisqo C^C^c£+-^C^+ C^ + + ?h 02 ^Z; C/2 02 CZ2 02 <=> + Z C/2 cc ^ 

saauoa^oi +;z;-g+-^.J+ + + + + :^;z; c^ jg^g cc eg + + +12; iz: 


IT3UUUV mmuimm^^ m • 1/2+02 cz2c/2 0202 02 02++^*^^ 

mSuaq .'^ rH rH -^ 

Mldaa't I— I I— I '-I 

■»!d JO on: t^ i^ 1-^ t^ 1:^ t^ t^ i>. !>. 00 GO CX) 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 Oi 05 Oi 

F 2 

68 An Inhabited Site of La Tent /. Bate on Swallowcliffe Down, 


Pit No. 8. The shape is best described as like that of an egg with a waist* 
Possibly the pit was originally circular and afterwards an extension was 
made to the north. 

Pit No. 1 2. On the north wall there were two small recesses with flat 
bottoms at a height of 3ft. from the floor. 

Pit No. 13. Starting from the east wall at a height of 4ft. from the floor^ 
a ramp or slope 4ft. 6in. wide reaches the turf-line at a distance of 10ft* 
from the pit. 

Pit No. 15. A seat or ledge 2ft. wide and 3ft. from the floor ran round 
the northern wall for a distance of 4ft. At the western end there was a. 
cavity in the wall at the back of the seat. This was full of ashes and some 
burnt flints and was evidently a hearth. 

Pits Nos. 16, 17, and 18. The first two were circular and intersected so 
that the width of the communication was 3ft. 6in. The walls of No. VT 
curved inwards and the floor was basin-shaped, and there was a step down 
of 1ft to reach the floor of No. 16. A partition 2ft. 6in. high and 2ft. 6in. 
wide divided Nos. 16 and 18. The top of this wall on the northern side was 
worn away to a depth of 5in. as if by the legs of persons climbing over it. 

Pit No. 21. On the west side there was a recess or sleeping bunk 4ft. 5in* 
long, 3ft. 3in. wide at a height of 3ft. from the floor. 

Pit No. 22. There was a shovel-shaped hearth of clay in the centre at a 
depth of 3ft. Bin. It was 3ft. wide and the same in length. The clay wa& 
3in. thick. It was banked up with large pieces of sandstone and much 
clean chalk. On it and above it were many cartloads of wood ashes. It 
appears that the pit was originally 7ft. 3in. deep, and that the walls were^ 
cut back to obtain chalk to make the foundation and banking for the hearth 
The floor of the pit was at too great a depth for an efficient hearth. 

Pit No. 26. At a height of 2ft. 9in. above the floor on the west side was- 
a seat 4ft. 2in. long and 2ft. 9in. wide. 

Pit No. 28. This was originally circular, and the owner had begun to 
enlarge it. On the north, west, and south the upper half of the walls had 
been roughly cut back for an average distance of 2ft. The chalk of th& 
lower half of the sides had been loosened but not removed. The floor wa& 
clean except for a small heap of charcoal in the south end, on which were 
two bones of a pig, probably the dinner of the workman. 

Pit No. 30. There was a seat or ledge 3ft. from the floor on the south 
and east sides. Its average width was 3ft. 

Pit No. 38, Connected with No. 86 on the south by means of an opening 
in the adjoining walls. As the latter was only 4ft. 6in. in height, there was- 
a drop of 2ft. 7in. to reach the floor of No. 38. 

Pit No. 40. There was a layer, 1ft. 6in. deep, of pure loom- weights- 
resting on greensand and filling up the lower half of this pit. Most of the 
weights were broken by the heat of the fires made by the second inhabitants^ 
over the partly silted-up pit. All were of one and the same type— roll-shaped 
and nicely smoothed. On top of the sand, which was 3in. deep, lay a. 
spindle-whorl of chalk. This was evidently a store for loom-weights and. 

By B. C. G. Clay, 69 

the greensand acted not only as a soft bed for the weights, but also promoted 
drainage and so lessened the risk of frost splitting the chalk objects. 

Pit No. 45. At a depth of 5ft. we found a great quantity of whole and 
broken loom-weights. They rested on a thin layer of greensand and were 
all of one type. Immediately beneath them was a perfect weaving comb of 
antler. The number of top ends of weights showing complete holes was 
twenty-two. Above them were three broken grooved metatarsals of sheep. 
On the floor was a large fragment of charred wood, which had been worked, 
and which was doubtless the end of an upright of a loom {see Plate^ p. 63). 
It was very friable and could not be removed whole. However, we were able 
to measure it and draw it in situ. Near this and also on the south side of the pit, 
was a worked pole in a charred condition. Its diameter was l|in. If the loom 
had been placed just outside the pit on the south side and had caught on 
fire, supposing that the wind blew from the prevailing quarter— the south- 
west — then the top of the loom would fall into the southern half of the pit. 

Pit No. 49. Contained a clay hearth. 

Pit No. 54. A great quantity of animal bones were in this pit : — the 
skulls of four cows, two horses, one sheep, and one dog, lying close to- 

Pit No. 54. This joined with No. 59 on the west. There was a clay 
hearth in the centre of the former at a depth of 3ft. 6in. 

Pit No. 64. There was a long curved recess in the north wall, 4ft. long, 
Sft. 6in. wide, and of an average depth of 2ft. 

Pit No. 66. Contained a clay hearth. 

Pit No. 68. The upper halves of the walls had been knocked in by the 
people of the second habitation to lessen the depth, which was originally 
7ft. llin. 

Pit No. 70. At first circular, it had been enlarged to the north so that 
its final shape was that of an egg. 

Pit No. 74. On the west side the wall has been much undercut. The 
roof of this pit had evidently caught on fire. Much daub showing the 
grooves and stains caused by the charred wattle was found with the stick 
marks lying undermost. 

Pit No. 77. At a height of 7ft. from the floor on the north-west side was 
a flat-bottomed recess with slightly incurving roof. Its width was 2ft. Sin, 
and its depth 1ft. lOin. 

Pit No. 80. Very many tertiary pebbles, too small for use as sling 
bullets, were found at one level. 

Pit No. 81. The walls curved inwards very much, so that the shape was 
that of a basin. 

Pit No,, 87. This was very circular, and connected with No. 88 on the 
west. A partition 3ft. 6in. wide, 4in. thick, and 2ft. 6in. high separated 
them. On the west and north sides of No. 88 was a large flat-bottomed 
rectangular ledge or platform at an average depth of 3ft. beneath the turf 

Pit No. 89. A long trench with sloping sides, 7ft. 'wide and 21ft. in 
length ran due north from this pit. On the south side was a step 2ft. above 
the floor. 

70 An Inhabited Site of Za Tene /. Bate on Swallowcliffe Down. 

Post Hole situated in Squaee 21 MN. 

Depth of humus, Sin. Depth of hole in chalk, 1ft. lOin. Diameter of 
hole, 1ft. lin. Bottom slightly basin-shaped. The walls on the N.W., W.^ 
and S.W. were straight sided. On the east the side had been somewhat 
broken away. A large piece of wattle and daub was on the floor. Although 
we trenched in all directions, yet we found no other holes or signs of a hut. 

The Pottery. 

All the pottery is hand-made. Taken as a whole, it is coarse in quality 
and roughly finished. The predominant type is a tall narrow vessel with 
plain flat rim, straight vertical neck, high shoulder, and slightly curved 
sides tapering to a flat base. It is brown in colour, unpolished, and con- 
tains many large fragments of pounded flint. It has been roughly tooled 
or smoothed with the fingers, and badly baked. Nearly 90 % conforms to 
this type. Pieces of flint, lin. in length, have been noticed in some of the 
best specimens. Pounded shell and fragments of some ferruginous stone 
and black vegetable matter are often seen in the paste. Perforated bases 
are absent. Two specimens of vertically pierced lugs were found. Neither 
were countersunk. No bead rims have been found, nor any pottery similar 
to the Glastonbury and Hunsbury types. On the other hand, fragments of 
fine haematite coated ware with linear ornamentation incised after baking 
were noticed in almost every pit. One such piece had an omphaloid base^ 
another a slight cordon. Ornamentation is scarce and consists principally 
of finger tip impressions on the rim or on the shoulder. Thus, from the 
pottery alone, the site can be dated as La Tene I.— after the Halstatt period 
and before La Tene II., with its early hand-made bead rims and well-tooled 
pottery with soapy feel. The finding and re-construction of a "waster" 
supports the theory that pottery was made on the spot. The bone implements 
B. Q)Q, B. Q>7, and B. 68 were probably used for ornamenting pottery. 

Three pieces of Romano-British ware came from the upper layers of the 
pits, and though another fragment was found at a depth of 2ift., yet there 
is no doubt that it had been carried down in one of the many rabbit holes. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Large urn of light brown, coarse, sandy ware. Surface rough 
The rim, rudely moulded with the fingers, is slightly everted and flat topped. 
It has a short neck somewhat curved, a slight shoulder and bellied sides 
and flat base. Height lljin. Diam. at rim lOfin. Diam. at base 6in. 
Found in No. 4. The slope of the fracture of the fragments indicates that 
the paste was put on in layers and smoothed in an upward direction. 

Fig. 2. Vessel of blue-grey ware, black at the top, containing very large 
pieces of flint up to Hn. in length. Surface rough and finished by wiping^ 
with a wisp of fine grass. Rim flat, short neck and slight shoulder, and i 
nearly straight sides and spreading base. Height lO^in, Diam, at rim Sjin- \ 
Diam. at base 4|in. Found in No. 12. Compare All Cannings Cross, PL j 
30, fig. 2. j 

Fig. 3. A vessel of coarse brown sandy paste, with very rough surface, | 
slightly flattened rim, small neck and shoulder, and straight sides. Height ; 

By B. C. C. Clay. 71 

lOjin. Diam. at rim Sin. Diam.atbase, 6in. Found in N o. 49. Compare 
All Cannings, PI. 29, fig. 8. 

Fig. 4. Bowl of red-brown gritty ware. The rim thin, flat topped, and 
everted. High round shoulder, curving sides, and an incipient pedestalled 
base. The surface has been tooled. Height 7in. Diam. at rim Q\m. 
Diam. at base 4in. Found in No. 15. Compare Fifield Bavant {W.A.M.^ 
vol. xlii., No. 140, PI. VII., No. 4). 

Fig. 5. Vessel with flat rim, short vertical neck, high shoulder and 
straight sides. Finger nail ornamentation on the rim. Colour light brown. 
Surtace rough. The paste contained many pieces of chopped straw and 
some grain. The marks of this can be seen on the two surfaces, where it 
has been burnt out during firing. Height 6in. Diam. at rim 4f in. Diam. 
at base 4in. Found in No. 32. Compare Park Brow, fig. 13 {Antiquaries* 
Journal, vol. iv., No. 4, p. 355) ; also All Cannings, PI. 39, fig. 6. 

Fig. 6. Elegant vase of brown ware with tooled surface. The rim is 
rounded and sloping outwards. Shoulders high and rounded and sides 
tapering to a hollow foot-ring, above which is a cordon. Height 6jin. 
Diam. at rim 6^in. Diam. at base 3^in. Found in No. 45. This vessel 
resembles in type some from the Marne. 

Fig. 7. Vessel of light brown ware with rough surface. Rim uneven 
and everted, shoulder slight and sides somewhat curved. Height llin. 
Diam. at rim 6fin. Diam. at base 4^in. Found in No. 4. Compare All 
Cannings, PI. 29, fig. 10. 

Fig. 8. Small bowl with a dark brown tooled surface. Rim flat topped 
and sides rounded. Height 3^in. Diam. at rim 3^in. Diam. at base 2iin. 
Found in No. 14. It is similar in some respects to a Saxon type. 

Fig. 9. Tall vessel of light brown ware. Surface roughly smoothed with 
the finger. Rim flat topped, with slight neck and shoulder. Sides straight 
and the base flat. Height lO^in. Diam. at rim 7|in. Diam. at base 5in. 
Found in No. 12. Compare All Cannings, PI. 30, fig. 2. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Portion of a vessel, brown on the outside and red inside. Flat 
rim, straight vertical neck- and high shoulder. Surface rough to the touch. 
Diam. at rim ll^in. Similar types have been found at Fifield Bavant 
( W.A.M., vol. xlii., PI. VIIL, type I.). 

Fig. 2. Part of a vessel of red brown ware, blacker near the rim. Outer 
surface well tooled, inner rough and lighter in colour. Thin lip, vertical 
neck and slight shoulder. Diam. at rim 9in. Compare All Cannings PI. 
29, fig. 7. 

Fig. 3. Difi'ers from Fig. 1 in that the neck is not so vertical and the 
surface, moulded with the fingers, is rougher. Diam. of rim U^in. 

Fig. 4. Upper part of a vessel of gritty ware, with a roughly tooled brown 
surface. Rim rounded and slightly everted. Diam. at rim S^in. Compare 
Fifield Bavant, W.A.M., xlii., PI. V., fig. 6, and All Cannings, PI. 38, fig. 2.. 
This type is probably the ancestor of the hand-made bead rim of La Tene II. 

Fig. 5. Portion of a well-shaped vessel of coarse brown ware. Flat rim^ 

72 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down, 

well defined neck, and rounded high shoulder. Diam. at rim ll^in. Com- 
pare a vessel from Park Brow {Antiquaries Journali vol. iv., No. 4, fig. 2). 
This type may be derived from the hsematited carinated bowls, fragments 
of which were found at this site and were so common at All Cannings. 

Fig 6. Portion of a vessel of dark brown coarse micaceous ware with a 
few rough tool marks on the outer surface, which appears to have a thin 
slip. Rim flat topped, somewhat everted, and the neck is slight. ISides 
rounded. Diam. at rim 8|in. 

Fig 7. Part of a rough-surfaced vessel of brown gritty ware. The lip 
is everted and slightly flattened on top. Diam. at rim 6|in, Compare All 
Cannings, PI. 29, fig. 7. 

Fig. 8. Portion of a vessel showing signs of much burning on the outside, 
? a cooking pot. Surface rough. Paste gritty. Diam. at rim 6in. Com- 
pare Fifield Bavant, W.A.M.j xlii., PI. IV., fig. 9, and All Cannings, PL 29, 
fig. 9. 

Fig. 9. Upper part of a vessel of dark, sandy, gritty paste. Lip 
rounded and somewhat inverted. A neck has been formed by pinching 
it in all round with the finger and thumb. The outer surface is uneven and 
has many marks on it which appear to have been caused by fragments of 
chaff in the paste being burnt out during the firing. Diam. at rim 5|in. 

Fig. 10. Part of a vessel of red brown ware having a rough exterior 
with a few irregular toolings. Rim flat, everted, short curved neck passing 
into a rounded side. Diam. of rim 2in. Compare Fifield Bavant, W A.M., 
xlii., PI. IV., fig. 10 and PI. IV., fig. 3. 

Fig. 11. Portion of a narrow vase, red to black, of smoothed surface and 
gritty paste. Diam. at rim 3^in. For profile compare All Cannings, 
PI. 31, fig. 5. 

Fig. 12. Portion of a cooking pot of dark brown ware containing large 
pieces of pounded flint. Surface rough and shaped with a knife. The rim 
is flat and everted. Diam. at rim 6fin. 

Fig. 13. Fragment of a large vessel with expanded and flattened rim. 
The ware is brown and sandy, and the exterior has been shaped by longi- 
tudinal sweeps of a knife. Diam. at rim llin. Compare Fifield Bavant, 
W.A.M., xlii., PI. VII., fig. 18. 

Fig. 1 4. Top part of a vessel of dark brown gritty paste. Tooled outer 
surface. Rim flat topped and everted and the sides well rounded. Diam. 
at rim 6^in. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. Portion of a vessel of very coarse dark ware, with rough surface. 
The rim is flat topped and the marks of the fingers that moulded the neck 
are still visible. Diam. at rim 6|in. 

Fig. 2. Part of a bowl of gritty light to dark brown ware with rough 
surface. Slightly rounded lip, somewhat everted and a pronounced high 
shoulder. Diam. at rim 6in. 

Fig. 3. Fragment of a vessel of dark brown ware. The surface is uneven 
but well tooled. Rim everted, shoulder high and rounded. Diam. at rim 

Fig. 4. Portion of a vase of brown sandy ware with smoothed surfaces. 

By R G. C. Clay. 73 

Shoulder ornamented with a row of finger nail marks. This type of deco- 
ration was common at All Cannings and was found at Fifield Bavant. 
Diam. at rim 5fin. 

Fig. 5. Portion of a vessel of black ware. The surface has been roughly 
tooled. The rim is slightly flattened and there are vertically pierced lugs 
that are not countersunk and show no bulge on the inside. Diam. at rim 
4fin. Compare Fifield Bavant, W.A.M., xlii., PI. VL, fig. 11. 

Fig. 6. Fragment of a bowl of well-baked dark ware containing some 
large pieces of flint. The outside has been coated with haematite and has 
a smooth surface. The square shoulder is without ornamentation. In the 
angle of the neck is a zonal incised line, above and below which are alter- 
nating panels of seven slightly radiating incised lines, the lower ones 
reaching to the top of the square shoulder. These incisions were made 
with a pointed tool after firing. Diam. at shoulder 6^in. Several fragments 
of similar bowls were found. This type was common at All Cannings 
(PI. 58) and at Hengistbury (Class A.), and was present at Fifield Bavant. 

Fig. 7. Portion of a bowl of dark sandy paste with smoothed surfaces. 
There are some irregular shallow furrows made by some blunt pointed tool. 
Although the profile of the bowl resembles some from Glastonbury, yet the 
lack of precision and raggedness of the ornamentation is quite dissimilar. 
Diam. at rim A^m. 

Fig. 8. Portion of a dish of dark brown sandy ware. The surfaces are 
well tooled and have a slightly soapy feel. Lip flat and spreading. Diam. 
at rim IGin, One dish was found at All Cannings. At Glastonbury six 
shallow dishes were found, two of them associated with large quantities of 

Fig. 9. Top of a large vessel with everted lip and rounded sides. The 
paste contains many large pieces of flint. The fragments had been thrown 
on a fire and the surfaces had cracked over the flint particles. Rim orna- 
mented with a row of equally spaced finger tip impressions. Diam. at rim 

Fig. 10. Portion of a vessel of well-baked black gritty ware, with a nicely 
tooled brown outer surface, the inner being black. Below the neck some 
very faint furrows forming a lattice pattern. Diam. at rim 9|in. For 
design compare All Cannings, PI. 36, fig. 8. 

Fig. 11. Part of a cooking pot of coarse ware, the upper portion being 
covered with soot. Surfaces rough, rim flat, everted and ornamented with 
a row of equally spaced finger tip impressions. Diam. at rim l^in. 

Fig. 12. Portion of a vessel of dark coarse ware. Below the lip is a row 
of finger tip impressions, caused by the potter, with one finger inside and 
his thumb outside the pot, squeezing in and pressing down at the same time 
so that some of the paste is pushed on in front of his thumb. A corresponding 
mark is on the inner surface. Diam. at rim 7^in. 

Ornamented Pottery. 

The following types were found :— 

Fragment with zig-zag ornament. Compare ^^/ Cannings, PI. 34, fig. 9. 
Irregular zig-zag. 

74 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down. 

Fragment with rows of finger nail marks below the lip and on the shoulder. 
Compare All Cannings, Plate 39, fig. 6. 

Row of finger tip impressions on the shoulder. Common at All Cannings, 
Hengistbury, and Park Brow. 

Large finger nail marks on the shoulder. 

Irregular finger tip impressions. 

Expanded and flattened rim, ornamented with a clean cut furrow, in the 
form of equal chevrons or zig-zag. 

Object of Gold — Plate VII. 
G. I. A finger ring of bronze, coated with a thin layer of gold. Inter- 
locking notched ends allowed the ring to expand to slip on to the finger. 
External diam. 20mm. Thickness 10mm. Width 2mm. Found in No. 27. 

Objects of Bronze— Plate VII. 

A. I. A bronze awl with flattened tang. The shaft, square in cross 
section, tapers to a blunt point which shows signs of much wear. The tang 
has a rounded chisel end. Length 50mm. iMaximum width 6mm. B'ound 
in No. 22. A bronze awl of the same size, but with a squarer end to the flat 
tang, has been found at Ham Hill, Somerset. A similar tool, but larger, 
was found in a round barrow at Thorndon, Sufl*olk (Evans' Bronze, p. 189). 
Another has recently been discovered at Stonehenge. Another from the 
Lake of Bourget is figured in Keller's Lake Dwellings, vol. ii., PI. CLVIl » 
fig. 16. Two implements from All Cannings (PI. XIX., figs. 3 and 4) are of 
the same type but slightly larger. These awls belong to Dr. Thurnam's 
Class 1 {Archseologia, vol. xliii., p. 464). 

A. 2. Bronze hook and plate. Total length 34mm. The flat plate — 
19mm. X 17mm. — has rounded corners and is ornamented on the front side 
by an incised line close inside the borders. It has three round-headed 
rivets whose shanks on the under side are rivetted over bronze circular 
washers of 6mm, diameter. The shaft of the hook is flat on the under side 
and slightly rounded on the upper, and is enlarged at its junction with the 
plate. The rivets appear to have fixed the object to a piece of thin leather. 
Found in N o. 1. It was probably the fastening of a belt. An " iron girdle 
hook" was found in the La Tene lake village at Uhldingen. 

A. 3. Pin of a penannular brooch. It is of the arched type. A com- 
plete brooch was found at All Cannings (PI. XVIIL, fig. 1.). Found in No. 
44. The pins of the earlier brooches of this type are more often arched 
than straight. 

A. 4. A bronze plate 0'2mm. in thickness. Length 140mm. Width 
17mm. Two parallel incised lines run along the lateral edges. Rivet 
holes 2mm. in diameter are in each corner at one end. Near the middle 
are three other holes and a punch mark as if another hole was intended. 
Found in No. 45. A similar object was found at Glastonbury (plate XLIIL, 
E. 131). Another in the British Museum, from Hounslow, is described as 
possibly part of the hoop of a wooden vessel. 

A. 5. A piece of bent wire in the shape of a horseshoe. D-shaped in 
cross section. Average width 4mm. Found in No. 3. ? Portion of a small 
terret ring. 

By R. C. C. Clay. 75 

A. 6. A piece of bronze wire. Average diam. 2nim. Length 59mm. 
Found in No. 78. 

A. 7. Fragment of wood impregnated with bronze and with remains of 
a coating of bronze. Roughly cylindrical in shape. Found in No 33. 
Probably the end of a wooden shaft. 

A. 8. Thin bronze plate of irregular shape. Found in No. 17. 

A. 9. A lump of fused bronze. Found in No. 46. 

Objects of Bone and Antler. 

Bone Gouges— Plate VIII. 

These objects are called gouges for want of a better name. Mrs. 
Cunnington, in an exhaustive account of such implements {All Cannings^ 
p. 84 et seq.) has pointed out that most of those belonging to type A. that 
she found had not sharp points. From Swallowcliffe, however, the majority 
belong to type A. and have sharp points {eg., B. 1., B. 2, B. 3, B. 4, B. 5, 
B. 13). B. 9 and B. 1 5 may be unfinished. Possibly B. 7 has been reground 
into its present form after its sharp point had been broken off. It now 
looks well adapted for use as a spoon ; but its length is 132mm. and it has 
longitudinal and rivet holes. This implies a shaft of wood. A spoon of 
such length does not require a shaft. If they were intended for use as awls 
or prickers, again, shafts would be unnecessary. The probable explanation 
is that they were lance or spear heads. At this time flint tools and weapons 
were not being used. During the whole of our digging at Swallowcliffe only 
one implement of flint, a strike-a-light, was found in spite of diligent search. 
Iron was probably valuable, especially if it was laboriously extracted from 
the ferruginous sandstone from the Westbury beds. No weapons of iron 
were discovered, although weapons of offence have always been necessary 
and must have been necessary then. Bronze was always scarce. Sling 
bullets were few in number and at the best efficient only against small 
game. This leaves us with bone as the probable material from which their 
weapons were made: and these "gouges" are the only implements that 
could be used as such. The sixteen objects of types A. and B. found with 
the skeleton at Grimthorpe were more likely to be weapons than tools, for 
no man could need so many spoons, awls, or bodkins. 

One of type A. is recorded from a crannog in Ireland (Wood-Martin's 
Lake DiveUings of Ireland, PI. VI.. fig. 8). 

B. 1 All Cannings type A. Length 147mn). Found in No. 29. The 
point is flattened and the bone has not been rubbed down much on the back* 
Shaft oval in cross section. 

B. 2. All Cannings type A. Length 132mm. Found in No. 31. The 
shaft is square in section. 

B. 3. All Cannings type A. Length 118mm. Found in No. 36. One 

aide of the shaft has been flattened. 

B. 4. All Cannings type A. Length 121mm. Found in No. 12. Point 

sharp. One side is slightly flattened. 

B. 5. All Cannings type A. Length I19mm. Found in No. 36. Point 

sharp. The shaft is square in section. 

7 6 All Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down, 

B. 6. All Cannings type A. Point missing. Found in No. 21. Much 
flattened anteriorly. Sides rounded. 

B. 7. All Cannings type A. Length 132mm. Found in No. 22. The 
business end is rounded and shows signs of use. Sides rounded. It might 
have been used as a scoop. 

B. 8. All Cannings type A. Point missing. Much flattened at the top 
end. Shaft oval in section. Found in No. 31. 

B. 9. All Cannings type E. licngth approx. 90mm. The point is miss- 
ing. The shaft is unpolished. Found in No. 1. 

B. 10. All Cannings type D. Point missing. Found in No. 68. 

B. 11. All Cannings type A. Point missing. The shaft is oval in 
section. Found in No. 38. 

B. 12. All Cannings type A. Point missing. Sides of shaft slightly 
flattened. Found in No. 66. 

B. 13. All Cannings type ? Base missing. Shaft flattened anteriorly. 
Found in No. 36. 

B. 14. All Cannings type ? Base and shaft missing. Has been burnt. 
Point sharp. Found in No. 41. 

B. 15. All Cannings type E. Length 111mm. Sides slightly squared. 
Found in No. 78. 

B. 16. All Cannings type 1 Point very sharp. Base missing. Long 
blade. Found in No. 82. 

B. 17. All Cannings type C. Point missing. Found in No. 87. 

B. 18. Point of a bone "gouge." Found in No. 87. 

Weaving Combs— Plate IX. 

Combs of antler and occasionally of bone are found in most inhabited 
sites of the Early Iron Age. Mr. Ling Roth has given several reasons for 
his suggestion that they were not used for weaving, as was generally sup- 
posed. If not for weaving, the only other obvious uses to which they 
might have been put would be those of combing the hair and the cleaning 
of skins. In these cases the teeth would have been worn down evenly, so 
that a line drawn through the points of the teeth would have been straight. 
There would have been no transverse grooves worn on the underside of the 
teeth, as in B. 19, and in many of the specimens from Glastonbury and 
Meare, nor would the lateral surfaces of the teeth have been polished, as 
can be seen in a marked degree in E. 27. The points would have been the 
the only parts showing polish by wear. 

In favour of the theory that they were used for closing the weft during the 
process of weaving we have the following evidence. B. 19 was found on 
the floor of No. 45, directly underneath twenty-two complete loom- weights 
and several broken ones, and alongside the charred remains of a loom. B. 20 
was associated with eight unbroken loom-weights, lying side by side, and a 
spindle-whorl. Close to B. 21 were four loom-weights. At Fifield Bavant 
four combs were found, one in the same pit as five spindle whorls, and all 
with loom-weights ( W.A J/., vol. xlii., p. 480). The fact that the teeth on 
the left-hand side are often worn away much shorter than those on the right 
can be explained by the tendency of the comb, when held in the right hand 

By R. G. C. Clay. 77 

and brought downwards between the threads, to incline to the left and not 
to come down perpendicularly, owing to the natural " carrying angle " of 
the elbow. 

B 19 Weaving comb of antler conforming to Glastonbury type 1. Of 
the original eight teeth seven remain, those on the left-hand side showing 
marked signs of wear. They are worn at the tips and on their lateral 
surfaces show transverse grooves. Similar grooves were noticed on antler 
combs of unknown use from an Indian village site near Madisonville, Ohio 
{Peahody Museum Papers, vol. viii., No. 1) The shaft terminates in an 
angular enlargement. There is no ornamentation. The interdental notches 
are wide. Total length 155mm. Width at dentated end 40mm. Found on 
the floor of No. 45 underneath twenty-two loom-weights and close to the 
remains of one of the uprights of a loom. 

B. 20. A weaving comb whose curve corresponds to that of the antler 
from which it was made It belongs to Glastonbury type 4. Of the original 
seven teeth five remain. They were certainly cut with a saw. They show 
signs of much wear at the tips and on their lateral surfaces : the one on the 
extreme left having been worn almost away The base is rounded and 
perforated by a hole 8mm. in diameter. It was found in No. 36 with eight 
loom- weights and a spindle-whorl. Length 107mm. Width across the 
teeth 28mm. Compare Glastonbury No. H. 121 

B. 2 1 . A weaving comb of antler with straight sides ending in a squared 
butt which is pierced by a hole 5mm. in diameter. There were eleven 
teeth, but nine only remain. There is no ornamentation. It corresponds 
to Glastonbury type 4. Length 126mm. Width at base of teeth 33mm. 
Found lying in No. 57 at a depth of only 2ft. close to four fragments of 

B. 27. A weaving comb of antler of Glastonbury type 2. It ends in an 
oval enlargement 2omm. in width with a perforation 8mm. in diameter. 
The shaft is tapering. There were originally seven teeth, but the one on 
the extreme left has been worn away by use. The central tooth is the 
longest and measures 17mm. The teeth are widely separated and show 
signs of wear on the tips and lateral surfaces as well as transverse grooves 
on the under sides. Those on the left hand side are more worn than those 
on the right. Length 116mm. Width at base of teeth 25mm. Found in 
No. 88. 

Bone Needles— Plate IX 

%^ Amongst the numerous pieces of woven material found in the Swiss Lake 
dwellings there is only one example of a hem and no seams (Keller). It 
has been suggested that this implies that the cloth was used more as wraps 
and shawls than as coats or other tailored garments. If this is correct no 
stitching would be required. As Mrs. Cunnington has pointed out, these 
needles are very clumsy and much inferior for ordinary sewing to those of 
the Upper Palaeolithic Periods and to the bronze needles of the Early Iron 
Age found at Glastonbury, Meare, and elsewhere. If the La Tene I. people 
were in the habit of doing fine sewing, they, with all their skill in the work- 

I ing of bone, would surely have made more efficient tools. If used to sew 
skins together, the holes made by these implements would have made the 

78 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down. 

material very liable to tear. A small awl and some fine sinew would have 
answered the purpose. Were they used in weaving ? 

B. 28. Bone needle with an oval eye in the centre, the ends tapering in 
both directions. Flat-oval in cross section. The points have been worn by 
use. Glastonbury type B. Length 48mm. Width at eye 5mm. Similar 
to one from Fyfield Bavant ( W.A.M., xlii., PI. IX., fig. 11). 

B. 29. Bone needle of Glastonbury type B. The large eye is oval and 
the shaft tapers in both directions. The end is missing. Flat-oval in 
section. Length of fragment 52mm. Length of shaft above eye lOmm. 
Width at eye 6mm. Found in No. 66. Compare All Cannings, PI. VL, 
Nos. 10 and 17, also one from Lidbury {W.A.M., xL, PI. IX., fig. 2) . 

Boa^r's Tusk— Plate IX. 
B. 30. Tusk of a small boar with two notches cut in the sides for suspension 
— probably an amulet. These have been cut with much skill, for a line 
drawn between the two notches passes through the centre of gravity of the 
tusk. The usual method was to perforate the tusk, but, in this case, it 
would have split it, for there was already a crack down the centre. A tusk 
with a notch on one side only has been found at M eare. Length of outer 
curve 96mm. Found in No. 23. 

Grooved Metatarsals— Plate IX. 

Metatarsal bones of sheep showing grooves on the shaft associated with 
polish have been found in five difi'erent pits : three in No. 45, two in No. 
79, and one each in Nos. 44 and 51. These grooves are parallel, at right 
angles to the long axis of the bone and are usually more marked near the 
«nds of the shaft. They may be on the lateral surfaces only or on all the 
sides. The bones are polished, more so around the grooves. The latter 
have been caused by a to-and-fro motion of a small round object — possibly 
a thread. The friction acted on one surface at a time : a groove on one 
side being complete and not continued into a groove on the adjoining side. 
Similar bones have been found at All Cannings (PI, IX., fig. 18), at Fifield 
Bavant ( W.A.M., xlii., PI. X., fig. 3), and at Meare They were probably 
used in the process of weaving. In Pit No. 44 there were three loom- 
weights, in No. 45 there were at least twenty-two loom-weights as well as 
an antler weaving comb, and in No. 51 a spindle-whorl was found It will 
be noticed that the pit that had the most loom- weights furnished the most 
grooved metatarsals. Probably they were used in the hand to rub down and 
straighten the threads in the same way as a fisherman uses a piece of 
indiarubber to straighten his cast. Those parts of the shaft that were 
near the extremities would naturally be the parts most used and the hand 
of the worker may have caused the slight polish on those parts that were 
not grooved. 

B. 36. A metatarsal bone of a sheep with many grooves on the shaft in 
the upper and lower thirds, more marked on the posterior and lateral 
surfaces. Near the distal end there are deeper and wider grooves as if two 
or three small ones had run together. The shaft has been polished all over 
— probably by use. It has been slightly burnt. Found in No. 4."). 

B. 37. A similar bone with gooves on all sides of the shaft except in the 

By EC. C.Clay. 79 

middle third. The shaft is polished only where it is grooved. Found in 
No. 79. 

B. 38. A similar bone having "faint grooves and some polish on the shaft 
near the extremities. Found in No. 44. 

B. 39. Differs from the others in having the grooves nearer to the middle 
of the shaft. It is slightly polished all over. Found in No 51. 

B. 40. An imperfect shaft of a sheep's metatarsal with many well marked 
grooves on the lateral surfaces near the extremities. The bone is polished 
all over although there are no grooves on the anterior or posterior aspects. 
Found in No. 79. 

B. 41. The proximal half of a similar bone. It has been burnt. The 
shaft is well polished and has grooves on all four sides. Found in No. 45. 

B. 42. A similar fragment. It has grooves on the lateral surfaces only. 
It is polished and has been burnt. Found in No. 45. 

B. 43. Distal end of a similar bone, probably part of B. 41. It is grooved 
And polished on all sides and has been burnt. Found in No. 45. 

B. 44. Part of the shaft of a similar bone, probably belonging to B. 42. 
It is burnt. There are grooves on the lateral surfaces oxAy. Polished all 
over. Found in No. 45. 

Handles— Plate X. 

B. 22. Portion of a tine of Red Deer antler sawn off at each end. To- 
wards the smaller end it has been flattened on two opposite sides and per- 
forated by a hole 4mm. in diameter. There is no longitudinal perforation, 
nor is the end split. It is probably an unfinished handle. Length 61mm. 
Width at base 22mm. Width at smaller end 15mm. Length of hole 11mm. 
Found in No 8L 

B. 23. Handle of roe deer antler with rounded and expanded butt. 
The smaller end, which is slightly flattened, is scooped out to fit a tapering 
tang of rectangular section. There is no rivet hole. Iron rust from the 
tang is still present. Length 65mm. Found in No. 86. 

Pin— Plate X. 
B. 25. A pin made from a piece of antler (?). The head is nicely carved 
in the shape of two reels of cotton — one superimposed upon the other. The 
shaft tapers to the point. Below the head on one side, the shaft has been 
worked away for a distance of 22mm. and ends abruptly at a stop or catch. 
This was intended to prevent the pin from slipping out of the material into 
which it was stuck. Total length 59mm. Length of head 7mm. Found 
in No. 37. Two other bone pins with similar wide notches in the upper 
half of the shaft have been found in England, both in Somerset. One from 
Meare has the head rounded off : the other from Ham Hill has the head 
moulded in the shape of a reel of cotton. 

Rib Knives— Plate X. 
B 3L Rib knife of All Cannings type. The base is missing. It is 
polished on both sides. The width of the rib has been reduced by the 
bevellinu; off of the edges from the inner surface in order to sharpen the 

80 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down. 

object. There are two lateral notches, which may have been made for hand 
grasp after the handle was broken. Width 11mm. Found in No. 83. 

B. 32. Blade of rib knife, polished on both sides. Towards the point 
the edges are slightly rounded. Width of blade 14mm. Found in No. 42. 

B. 52. Fragment of split rib, slightly polished on both surfaces. Length 

Awls— Plate X. 

B. 24. Tine of an antler of roe deer, which has been worked to a smooth 
point. Length 61mm. Found in No. 71. Similar objects have been 
found at Glastonbury. 

B. 54 Awl made from a split antler of roe deer. Well polished. 
Length 90mm. 

B. 55. Awl made from a split metatarsal of ox. Length 120mm. 
Found in No. 53, 

B. 56. Similar tool. Length 104mm. Found in No. 64. 

B. 57. Similar tool, well polished. Length 101mm. Found in No. 22. 

B. 58. Awl made from a small ulna. Well polished. Fine point. 
Length 77mm. Found in No. 48. 

B. 59. Similar tool. Length 92mm. Found in No. 36. 

B. 60. Well polished split bone awl. Length 90mm. Found in No. 42. 

B. 61. Split bone awl, badly preserved. Length 72mm. Found in No. 

B. 62. Awl made from a split metatarsal of horse. Point missing. 
Length 122mm. Found in No. 83. 

B. 69. Split bone awl. Point missing. Length 118mm. Found in No. 

Bone Picks— Plate X. 

B. 25. A metatarsus of ox with a longitudinal tapering perforation at 
the proximal end, and the distal end roughly pointed. The pointed end is 
much bruised and the shaft polished — probably by the hand in use. Found 
in No. 67 Such a tool could have been used to loosen the hard chalk 
when the pits were made. The bone being held in the hand, a short piece 
of wood fixed in the longitudinal hole was struck with a wooden mallet. 
This shaft of wood prevented the bone from splitting, which it would have 
done it it had been struck direct. The bone picks found in the new series 
of flint mines at Grimes Graves by Mr. A. L. Armstrong {Proc. Prehistoric 
Soc. East Anglia, vol. iv., part i., p. 121) are very similar. They are, 
however, always split in the shaft and have been used after having been 
split, as is shown by the plugs of chalk in the shaft and by the finding of 
the splinters. Our specimen may have had but little use and might have 
become split and shortened in course of time. The scarcity of the bones 
and antlers of red-deer in sites of the Early Iron Age indicates that the 
people of that time did not hunt big game. This may account for the fact 
that antler picks are not found, although there must have been a few shed 
antlers lying on the surface. At Highfield some antlers of red-deer were 
found, but none showed signs of having been used as picks. 

By R. G. C. Clay. 81 

Polishing Bones. 

B. 33 Metacarpus of ox which is highly polished on all parts of the 
shaft and extremities. It may have been used for burnishing pottery. 
Similar objects have been found at Glastonbury, Meare, and Wookey Hole. 

B. 34. The metatarsus of an ox. A large and a small groove have been 
worn on the anterior surface of the shaft near the proximal end after a 
" flake " had previously been knocked off to make a flat surface. 

Worked Splinters. 

B. 65. Long splinter of bone, polished smooth in the upper half. A sharp 
point has been worked at one angle of the polished end. Length 153mm. 
Found in No. 77. 

B. 66. Splinter of bone, polished by use at the point. Possibly used for 
ornamenting pottery. Length 78mm. Found in No. 21. 

B. 67. Small splinter of bone, worn at the point. Length 35mm. Found 
in No. 42. 

B. 68. Similar tool. Length 37mm. Found in No. 42. 

Bone Objects of Unknown Use— Plate X. 

B. 45. Portion of an object of split bone. It is well polished on the 
back, the straight end, and the curved side. Length 39mm. Found in 
No. 83. 

B. 46. Implement of bird bone, well polished, with a blunt point. The 
base is missing. The latter was probably perforated as were some tools 
from the lake village at Wangen, Switzerland. ? a bodkin used in weaving. 
Length 76mm. Found in No. 57. 

B. 47. Similar tool, with base and point missing. Found in No. 57, 

B. 48. Portion of a rib of a small animal. Broken at both ends. One 
surface is much rubbed down. Similar implements have been found at All 
Cannings. Found in No. 77. 

B. 49. Piece of split bone. The left-hand edge has been used for scraping, 
? a marrow scoop. Found in No. 83. 

B. 50. Small rib bone, polished by use on the under surface. Found in 
No. 74, 

B. 51. Piece of split bone, polished flat on one side and roughly rounded 
on the other. Chisel ended. Found in No. 73. 

B. 63. Portion of a ? metacarpal bone, polished all over. Longitudinal 
perforation. The upper end is much worn away on one side as if used as a 
scraper. Length 86mm. Found in No. 48. 

B. 64. A bird bone. One end has been split off in a slanting direction. 
The point is polished from use. Length 128mm. Found in No. 46. 

B. 70. Fragment of polished bone. 

Dress Fastener — Plate VII. 
B. 26. Small piece of antler, oval in cross section. There is a central 
lateral perforation through the longest diameter. One of the flatter sides 
lis ornamented by incised lines and circles. The ends are flat. Length 22mm. 
Diameter of perforation l^mm. At Glastonbury objects of similar form, 

82 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowdiffe Down, 

but larger and with longitudinal perforations, have been found. This object 
was just under the turf between Nos. 56 and 58. 

Objects op Iron— Plate XI. 

C. 36, Iron fibula of La Tene I. type. The arched back is oval in cross 
section. The foot comes sharply back at an angle of 35 degrees, to end in 
a shallow cup-shaped expansion. The spring is of four coils and the loop 
is brought over outside. There is an iron rivet. Total length 92mm. 
Found in No. 30 at a depth of 1ft. 6in. 

C. 37. Iron fibula of late La Tene I. type. The back is ribbed and the 
bow has been flattened. The foot curves back to end in a small and a large 
flat disc and is fastened to the back by a thin coil of iron wire. The spring 
has been compressed laterally. It has an iron rivet and the loop passes 
round the back of the coil. Total length 95mm. Found in No. 37 at a 
depth of 1ft. 6in. 

Pins— Plate XL 

C 1. Ring-headed pin with bent neck. Length lUmm. Diameter of 
ring, 29mm. Average thickness of shaft, 4mm. Found in No. 15. A ring- 
headed pin with straight shaft was found at Fifield Havant {W.A.M., xlii., 
pi. xi., fig. 7). For an exhaustive account of these pins see All Cannings, 
p. 129. 

C. 2. Small ring-headed pin with straight neck and square shoulder. 
The point is broken. Diameter of head, 15mm. Length of neck 16mm. 
Thickness of shaft, 2^mm. Total length, 50mm. Found in No. 48. This 
type of pin appears to be derived from, and later than, the swan necks. 

C. 3. Swan-neck pin with flat head. Total length 65mm. Length of 
head, 11mm. Width of head, 7mm, Found in No. 41. Dechelette places 
this type in Hallstatt II. A similar pin in bronze has been found at Meare. 
See also All Cannings, page 126. 

C. 4. Imperfect pin with square shoulder. The head and part of the 
neck are missing. Found in No. 86. Possibly similar to C. 2. 

Awls— Plate XL 

C. 5. Awl rounded near the point but otherwise square in cross 
section. The tang is tapering. Length 155mm. Maximum thickness, 
6mm. Found in No. 16. It is possible that some of these awls are worn- 
out files. 

C. 6. Well preserved iron awl. It has never been hafted. One end is 
slightly bent and the point flattened by use. It is square in cross section. 
Length 140mm. Greatest width 3mm. Found in No. 89. 

C 7. Awl with rounded shaft and square tang. Length 97mm. Greatest 
width 5mm. Found in No. 24. 

0. 8. Similar tool to C. 7 but smaller. The point is missing. Found in 
No. 93. 

Bill Hook— Plate XI. 

C. 9. Bill hook with folded over socket. It differs from those found at 



By B. C. G. Clay. 83 

Glastonbury in that the blade makes a gentle curve from the socket and 
does not go up straight to form a right angle with the point. There are 
several pieces broken off. No rivet holes can be seen ; there might have 
been one in the missing fragment from the butt. J^ength 105mm. Greatest 
width of blade 37mm. Width of socket 31mm. Found in No, 57. 

Miscellaneous Objects of Iron — Plate XI. 

C. 10. Cleat. Length 30mm. Greatest width 13mm. Found in No. 
72. A similar object was found at Fifield Bavant. Their presence here 
proves that they were in use several centuries before the Romano-British 

C. 11. Similar object. Length 28mm. Greatest width 14mm. Found 
in No. 35. 

C 12. Iron rivet with flat circular head. The bolt is cylindrical and 
!8mm. in length. Diam. of head 10mm. Diam. of bolt 4mm. Found in 
ISTo. 68. 

C. 13, Small rivet or hob-nail. Flat head. Found in No. 33. 

C 14. Iron nail with bent shaft which is rectangular in section. Length 
in a straight line 24mm. Found in No. 44. 

0.15. Nail similar to 0. 14. 

0. 16. Ferrule. External diam. 35mm. Depth 10mm. Thickness of 
metal 3mm. Found in No. 41. 

0. 17. Flat strip of iron expanding towards the ends, with an iron nail 
through a hole lOmm. from each extremity. Total length 77mm, Width 
at ends 17mm. Width in middle 9mm. 'Jhickness 2mm. Found in No. 
SB. Possibly a fixing on a wooden shield. A similar object was found at 
All Cannings (PL XXI,, fig. 11). 

0. 18. Similar object. Length 55mm. Width at ends 10mm. Width 
in middle 6mm. Thickness 1 Jmm. Found in No. 44. 

0.19. Similar object. Length 50mm. Width at ends 10mm. Width 
in middle 8mm. Thickness 1mm. 

0. 20. Knife with straight edge and slightly convex back, in this respect 
resembling the Saxon rather than Early Iron Age types. The tang is flat, 
tapers to the end and is slightly curved. The end is flattened antero- 
posteriorly as if to prevent its slipping out of the handle. Total length 
158mm. Length of blade 62mm. Max. width of blade 18mm. Found in 
No. 25. 

0. 21. Iron link. External diam. 36mm. Thickness of metal 4mm. 
Found in No. 71. 

0. 22. Iron link. External diam. 49mm. Thickness of metal 5mm. 
Found in No. 80. 

0. 23. Object of unknown use, possibly portion of a small bridle bit. 
I f^ength 58mm. 

0. 24. Strap shaped piece of iron bent into a ring at one end. Length 
j '"60mm. External diam. of ring 9mm. Found in No. 35. 
I O. 25 to 0. 35. Various fragments of iron. 

0. 38 to C. 43. Lumps of iron pyrites with flat broken surfaces showing 
|«igns of having been struck by flints to produce fire (Plate XIIL). 

I G 2 

84 An Inhabited Site of Za Tene I. Date on Swallowclijfe Down. 

Objects op Chalk. 
Loom-weights — Plate XII. 

Loom-weights were found in 35 (38 % ) of the 93 pits excavated. They 
were all of chalk and none had been hardened by scorching as was the case 
at Fifield Bavant. The number of perfect weights, and those in which the 
perforation was intact, was 82. The manufacture of loom-weights was no 
specialized craft, each man apparently making enough for his own require- 
ments, and according to his own pattern. Without exception the weights 
in any one pit were of the same type and the perforations had been made 
in the same way. In some they were formed from rough unshaped lumps 
of chalk with a hole chiselled out from both surfaces. In others they had 
been shaped and carefully smoothed into a roll or pyramidal form with a 
perforation bored from both sides or chiselled and then finished by boring. 
The shape of 68 weights could be determined. Of these, 20 were pyramidal, 
24 roll-shaped, 20 irregular, 2 triangular, 1 discoidal, and 1 pear-shaped» 
The perforations were intact in 82, and had been made in the following 
manners : — 30 by boring only, 34 by chiselling or gouging only, and 18 by 
chiselling first followed by boring. In every case they were worked from 
opposite sides. Two weights were holed from side to side through the 
greater thickness of the tapering heads. The reason for this is not apparent^ 
for there must have been a much greater risk of splitting the object. The 
shaping was done with a chisel — in one case with a knife — before the 
weight was smoothed (see W.A.M.^ xlii., p. 484). One of the irregular type 
showed marks which were probably caused by some form of pick when the 
lump was excavated first. In no case was the base flattened so that the 
weight could stand upright. Grooves caused by the warp threads were 
evident in 21 specimens. Of these 18 ran from the hole towards the top 
end of the weight, whilst 3 ran somewhat diagonally downwards (see All 
Cannings, 136, and W.A.M., xlii., p. 485). 

Pit No. 41, with the exception of its upper fourth, was filled with loom- 
weights which had been broken and damaged by the fires that had been lit 
on the thin soil above them. The floor of this pit was covered by a layer 
of greensand, the object of which was probably to promote drainage, and so 
lessen the risk of the weights being damaged by frost. On this layer of 
sand was found a spindle-whorl. There were at least twenty-two loom- 
weights in No. 45, lying together with an antler weaving comb and part of 
a charred upright of a loom. In this case also the floor had a covering of 
greensand, thickest on one side. The seven weights in No. 31 were lying 
together in a row as if they had been placed there. 

Spindle- Whorls— Plate XIII. 

Only those objects of chalk that are more or less symmetrical and have a 
central perforation of cylindrical shape will be classified as spindle-whorls. 
In other words, only those objects of chalk that would be evenly balanced 
when securely fixed on a spindle. 

D. 9. Circular whorl with slightly convex upper and lower surfaces and 
rounded sides. Hole bored from both sides. Max. width 50mm. Max» 
depth 27mm. Ext. diam. of perforation 10mm. 


By R. C. C. Clay, 85 

D. 10. Nicely-smoothed whorl with nearly parallel surfaces and very 
rounded sides. Max. width 5lmm. Max. depth 33mm. Ext, diam. of 
hole 9mm. 

. D. 11. Whorl with slightly convex surfaces and rounded sides, The 
edges of the latter have been rounded with a knife. Max. width 44mm. 
Max. depth 25mm. Ext. diam of hole 8mm. 

D. 12. Whorl of similar shape. Max. width 47mm. Max. depth 26mm. 
Ext. diam. of hole 9mm. 

D. 13. Whorl with nearly flat surfaces and slightly rounded sides. Max. 
width 41mm. Max. depth 21mm. Ext. diam. of hole 11mm. 

D. 14. Whorl with a convex upper and a flat lower surface and very 
rounded sides. Max. width 41mm. Max. depth 25mm. Ext. diam. of 
hole 9mm. 

D. 15. Half of a roughly-made whorl. Width 54mm. Max. depth 30mm. 
Ext. diam. of hole 11 mm. 

D. 16. Half of a whorl with one convex and one flattened surface, and 
roughly rounded sides. Knife marks are seen all over it. Hole is slightly 
countersunk. Width 69mm. Max. depth 22mm. 

D. 17. Half a whorl that has been roughly shaped with a knife. Hole 
somewhat countersunk. Width 69mm. Max. depth 24mm. 

D. 18. Whorl of chalk shaped like a reel of cotton. Max. width 35mm. 
Max. depth 27mm. Width at groove 28mm. Ext. diam. of hole 9mm. 

D. 20. Roughly-worked disc-shaped piece of chalk with a central per- 
foration which is somewhat ear-shaped in cross section, indicating that the 
drill was used in a to-and-fro motion. It is probably an unfinished spindle- 

Drill Steadiers?— Plate XIIL 

These roughly-shaped objects of chalk, with holes, often eccentric, on 
opposite sides, and which may or may not meet to form a perforation, are 
certainly not spindle-whorls. It has been suggested that they were used as 
drill-steadiers, or breast pieces of bow drills. The holes are always conical. 
See All Cannings, p. 139, and W.A.M., xlii., p. 487. 

D. 19. Roughly circular lump of chalk with a tapering hole on either 
side. They do not meet. 

D. 21. Irregular lump of chalk with two holes, very conical and not 
opposite, that meet in the centre. 

D. 22. Flattened piece of chalk with a conical hole commenced on opposite 

D. 23. Similar object.' 

D. 24. Roughly-shaped .piece of chalk with two tapering holes meeting 
in the middle. 

D. 26. Irregular lump of chalk with tapering holes begun on opposite 

D. 27. Piece of chalk roughly rounded and flattened by knife cuts. There 
is a small hole commenced outside the centre on one side. On the other 
there is a ring and dot mark, as if made with a pair of compasses. 
i D. 29. Large piece of chalk, I40mm. X 1 15mm., with a small tapering 
hole on each side. 

86 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swalloivcliffe Down. 

Sling Bullets— Plate XIII. 

Only six sling bullets, all of chalk, were found ; but tertiary pebbles> 
which on account of their size and shape would have adequately answered 
the same purpose, were quite common. These latter must have been col» 
lected and brought to the site. 

D. 1. Length 49mm. Max. width 33mm. Weight 583 grains. Knife 
marks very evident on one side. 

D. 2. Length 46mm. Max. width 33mm. Weight 567 grains. Ends 
very pointed. 

D. 3. Length 43mm. Max. width 28mm. Weight 436 grains. 

D. 4. Length 39mm. Max. width 28mm. Weight 376 grains. 

D. 5. Length 42mm. Max. width 26mm. Weight 331 grains. 

D. 6. Length 37mm. Max. width 26mm. Weight 325 grains. One end 
flattened. Shows many longitudinal scratch marks. 

Objects op Unknown Use— Plate XIII. 

D. 7. Cheese-shaped object of chalk. The sides are perpendicular to 
the base, but the upper surface is not parallel to the lower. In transverse 
section it is an exact circle. There are marks scratched by some sharp tool 
on all surfaces. It is not an unfinished spindle- whorl and may be a weight. 
Diam. 38mm. Average height 20mm. Weight 667 grains. Found in No. 68. 

D. 8. Piece of chalk roughly shaped and slightly hollowed on the upper 
surface. In many respects it is similar to a miniature lamp of the Grime's 
Graves type, but it is too small for such a use. Greatest length 40mm. 
Average depth of sides 20mm. Depth in centre 14mm. Found in No. 63. 
A small fragment of flint broken oflf from the tool that was used to hollow 
out the centre is still embedded in the object. Probably it is unfinished. 

D. 25. Piece of chalk, roughly rectangular, with a perforation countersunk 
on both sides. Length 60mm. Width 37mm. Depth 27mm. Possibly a 

D. 28. Heart-shaped piece of chalk with a countersunk perforation near 
one edge. An amulet 1 

D. 30. Irregular piece of chalk with marks scratched by some sharp 
implement on all surfaces. 

Objects op Clay—Plate XIII. 

E. 1. Spherical ball of baked clay partly perforated with a hole 4mm in 
diameter. Found in No. 11. Diam. of ball 26mm. Depth of perforation 
19mm. Similar objects have been found at Glastonbury, Meare, All 
Cannings, and Fifield Bavant. Probably the head of a pin. 

E. 2. Spindle-whorl (?) of baked clay in the shape of a truncated cotie* 
The base is flat, but the top is cupped. There is a perforation, bored from 
the base. This is so small that no spindle made of wood could have been 
used. On the other hand it may have been a weight. Height 28mm. 
Width at top 17mm. Width at base 35mm. Found in No. 60. Similar 
whorls have been found in the Highfield pits (Blackmore Museum) and at 
Park Brow, Sussex {Antiquaries^ Journal, vol. iv., No. 4, p. 357). Abroad 
similar objects have been discovered at Troy. Col. Hawley suggests that 
it might have been the wick-holder of a lamp. A similar shaped specimen 

By E. C. C. Clay. 87 

of baked clay, but unperf orated, was found inside an incense cup. An 
ornamented whorl of similar type came from Wollishofen, on the Lake of 
Zurich (Munro's Lake Dwellings of Europe, Fig. v., Nos. 15 and 16). From 
Ham Hill a whorl of clay diflfers from ours by having a straight neck. 

E. 3. Lump of pure clay that has been rolled into a ball, in the same 
way that a glazier rolls up a piece of spare putty. Impressions of the finger 
tips are seen all over the object. Average diameter 40mm. Found on the 
floor of No. 32. 

E. 4. Similar object but smaller. Average diameter 12mm, Found in 
No. 52. 

Objects op Stone. 

The absence of flint tools was very striking. Although we were always 
on the look out for such objects, our total finds consisted of fifteen flakes 
and a rough strike-a-light found lying close to a piece of iron pyrites that 
had evidently been used. The flakes can be divided up into two categories, 
patinated and unpatinated. The former are broad, with a dirty white 
colour, slight lustre, blunted edges, minute "quicksilver" spots of polish, 
and no iron staining. They are without doubt the older of the two. The 
latter are of a mottled dove colour, without lustre, sharp at the edges, 
spotted with polish and without iron staining. They are made from very 
inferior, badly flaking material, obviously surface flint. These may 
be contemporary with the site. The early La Tene people of South- 
West Wilts were not flint users. It may be objected that they fabricated 
their implements at some spot away from this village, but even so they 
would have brought home the finished scrapers, knives, and so on. The 
two hundred tools of iron, bone, and bronze that we found were probably 
lost, and then, no doubt, searched for. If the inhabitants had been users 
of flint, they would surely have lost twenty flint awls for every iron one, 
and very likely would not have taken the trouble to try to find them again. 
Much of the downland near by is under cultivation, and after weeks of 
search over many miles of it I have found but a dozen flint implements 
worth picking up. North of the downs on the long greensand terrace, 
there are many "camping grounds" of flint-using peoples. There the 
implements are all very lustrous and the material of good quality. With 
some exceptions, these sites are of Bronze Age date. At Hengistbury a 
large number of flint artifacts were found at those spots where the greatest 
numbers of fragments of type A pottery occurred. "A number of flakes" 
were discovered in the Early Iron Age pits at Winklebury by Gen. Pitt- 
liivers. An arrow head and many flint tools were obtained from the pits 
in Worlebury Camp. Several flint tools were found at Glastonbury and 
many more at Meare. Lately Mr. A. L. Armstrong has found in a Hallstatt 
squatting place over a mine at Grime's Graves flints that are without doubt 
of that date. Communities in difi'erent districts at any one time may have 
lived under different conditions, especially at a date when there were many 
influxes of foreigners on the south coast. The people of this village on 
Swallowcliffe Down used bone tools, and we found them : they used bronze 
tools and we found them : they used iron tools and we found them. There- 
fore we can infer that, if they had used flint tools, we should have found 

88 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowclijfe Down, 

them. The neighbouring and contemporary village at Fifield Bavant 
yielded only two scrapers and a few flakes. 

Fifty-five whole, or fragments of querns, were found, and all, without 
exception, were of the early or saddle type. They were made of green 
sandstone. At All Cannings a similar absence of querns of the rotary type 
was noticed. Several of the latter were found at Highfield and a few at 
Fifield Bavant. 

Hammerstones were not numerous. Half of them were of flint and the 
others of sandstone. 

Many beautiful examples of rubbers and whetstones were discovered. 
Some of them were so smooth that a modern razor could be ground on them. 

Objects of Wood — Figured on Page 63. 
A triangular piece of charred oak 3^in. thick, with two parallel flat 
surfaces. Length lOjin. Width at base l\m. Pierced near the point by a 
tapering hole, measuring 22in. X 2in. at its widest end. A worked pole of 
l^in. diameter was lying close by. Probably the top of an upright of a 
loom. Found with twenty-two loom-weights, a weaving comb, and three 
grooved metatarsals of sheep on the floor of No. 45. 

My thanks are due to Mr. F. W. Brickell and Mr. H. Mounty, for per- 
mission to excavate the site : to Mr. C. W. Pugh, for making the excellent 
drawings of the objects : to Mr. Wilfrid Jackson, M.Sc, Professor Sir 
Arthur Keith, F. U.S., Mr. H. Beck, F.S.A., Mr. A. H. Lyell, F.S.A., and 
Professor Sir K. H. Biflfen, for their .reports : to Mrs. Cunnington, the 
authoress of All Cannings Gross, and the authors of The Glastonbury Lake 
Village, for much information and guidance : to Mr. S. Kerley and Mr. W. 
Young, for their skilful assistance in the excavations and valuable help in 
the restoration of the specimens ; and last, but not least, to those willing 
helpers who cheerfully did the " filling in." 

The whole of the objects found during the excavations of this site have 
been given to the Society's Museum at Devizes, and are now on view there. 

Report on the Glass Beads found at the Swallowoliffe Down 

Village Site. 

By Horace W. Beck, F.S.A. Plate VII. 

The three beads found in your village are all difi'erent, but appear to be 
all of Cobalt glass. 

The bead with the eyes (F. 1) appears to be of the same glass as the 
darker one of the other two. It is of a type found at Arras, in Yorkshire. 

I think there is no doubt that it is a true stratified eye bead — that is to 
say, the eyes are made by first putting on a white patch and then a blue 
spot in the centre, on the top. I tested it by examining it with a very 
strong light and found that the bead was distinctly more opaque inside the 

By B. G. G. Glay. 


eyes than outside, which would not have been the case if the white of the 
eyes had been pressed in as a ring. It is difficult to decide if it is stratified 
or impressed by examining whether the white goes under the blue, as in 
many impressed eyes the blue is decidedly undercut by the white, as shown 
in the following rough diagram. 

Sections of Stratified and Impressed Ring Eye Beads. ^. 

The dating of these beads is very difficult as in many cases the records of 
the finds are so fragmentary, but in most cases they are of Early Iron Age 
date. The only ones I actually know for certain from England are those 
from Arras, some of which I believe to be stratified, although associated 
with some impressed eye beads. I think it highly probable that a careful 
examination of local museums would reveal others. I have some extremely 
like yours from the Somme (a chariot burial), from Ticino, in Switzerland 
(Iron Age remains, I believe), and one from Kertch in the Crimea — one of 
a string said to have been found together and which suggests a date of 400 
—500 B.C. This bead was much more corroded than yours, but that does 
not mean that it w^as necessarily earlier. The finest bead of this type that 
I know is a much larger one with exactly similar rings, made of the same 
glasses, which comes from Syria. This bead, I think, is about 400 — 500 

The dark plain bead (F. 2) is, I believe, of the same date and material as the 
eye bead. Such beads were found in almost all the above cases with the 
eye beads. 

The lighter blue bead (F. 3) is of a diflferent kind of glass and I cannot 
place it definitely, but I have little doubt I could if I had more time. It 
has an entirely diflferent kind of corrosion from the others and is made in a 
primitive manner. The colour is not the same but the corrosion and 
structure of the glass is similar to some I have from South Hungary. I 
see no reason why it should not be of the date of your village, but I should 
not like to say more of it until I have had time to make a more prolonged 

The fourth bead (F. 4) is of the same type as the third and I should think 
it is the same colour, but having sent the others back I cannot be certain. 

Report on the Charcoals. By Arthur H. Lyell, Esq., F.S.A. 

I have examined a quantity of the charcoal found in the pits and have 
identified the following species of woods : — 
Oak (Quercus robur). 
Mountain Ash (Pyrus aucuparia) 
Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha). 

90 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down. 

Hazel (Corylus avellana). 
Holly (Ilex aquifolium). 
Willow (Salix alba). 

Report on the Mollusca. 
By A. S. Kennaed, Esq, A.L.S., and B. B. Woodward, Esq., F.L.S. 
Vitrea crystallina (Mull ). 
Arion. sp. 

Hygromia hispida (Linn.). 
Helix nemoralis (Linn.). 
This list is too small to say anything as to the climate or environment, 
but the example of Hygromia hispida is not the woodland form. 

Report on the Grain. By Prof. Sir R. H. Biffen. 
There are two undoubted grains of wheat in the material you sent me, 
but I cannot place the form with any certainty. The smaller pieces are 
broken grain and a fragment of the ear stalk. 

Report on the Human Bones. 
By Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S., Conservator of the Museum, The Royal 
College of Surgeons of England. 
These are (1) frontal bone of a man. Its greatest width is 124mm., least 
width of forehead 97mm., supraorbital width 107mm. — indicating a robust 
skull of quite average size. There are (2) the right and left parietal bones 
of a young person and (3) the upper half of the left humerus of a man of 
medium stature and with muscles of moderate strength. 

Report on the Animal Remains from the Ancient Village Site 
AT Swallowcliffe Down, Wilts, of La Tene I. date. By J. Wilfrid 
Jackson, M. Sc, F.G.S., Assistant Keeper of the Manchester Museum. 

The amimal remains obtained by Dr. R. C. C. Clay from the above site 
have been submitted to me for examination and report. They consist of 
numerous limb-bones, fragmentary skulls, jaws, and teeth of various domestic 
species used for food by the inhabitants of the village. The animals repre- 
sented are the same as those reported on last year from a similar site on 
Fifield Bavant Dowii,^ viz., Celtic Pony, Celtic Ox, Sheep, Goat, Pig, and 
Dog. In addition to these domestic forms there are a few remains of wild 
species, viz., Water Vole and Badger, and Dr. Clay reports the occurrence 
of worked and unworked tines and antler-fragments of Red and Roe Deer. 

Among the Ox remains there is an interesting example of a hornless skull, 
this being the second occurrence to be reported from Wiltshire. The first 
specimen (and probably the earliest appearance of polled oxen in Britain) 

^ Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xlii., 1924, pp. 492—3. 

By B. G. C. Clay, 91 

was found by Mrs. Cunnington during the excavations at the Hallstatt Village 
site at All Cannings Cross.' A skull with rudimentary horn-cores was also 
met with in the somewhat later Prehistoric Iron Age site at Glastonbury, 

The aflSnities of the various animals represented at Swallowcliffe Down 
with those at Fifield Bavant Down, All Cannings Cross, and the Glastonbury 
Lake Village, are very close indeed, and as all four villages are earlier than 
the Roman occupation in Britain, there is no trace of Roman influence on 
the breeds of the various species. 

Owing to the imperfect state of many of the remains, it has not been 
possible to obtain full measurements. 

HoKSE (Celtic Pony). This animal is represented by two metacarpals, 
two metatarsals, a radius, an imperfect pair of lower jaws, and some loose 
incisors. The metacarpals measure 199^^ and 204mm. in length, with mid- 
shaft widths of 28.5 and 32mm. : the metatarsals are 240 and 260mm. in 
length, with mid-shaft widths of 26 and 30mm. respectively. They indicate 
small-sized animals of the Exmoor Pony type, of about 12 hands in height, 
as at Fifield Bavant, All Cannings Cross, and Glastonbury. The radius 
has a maximum length of 291mm., and the full tooth-row in the lower jaws 
measures 165mm. in length. The latter is slightly longer than a lower jaw 
found at Fifield Bavant. 

Celtic Ox. Ten imperfect skulls, several loose horn cores, lower jaws, 
and limb-bones belong to oxen. They are all of the small Celtic Ox type 
{Bos longifrons). The metacarpal bones (9 in number) range in length 
from 162 to I75mm. ; the metatarsals (11) range from 185 to 213mm. Both 
series agree closely with those found at Fifield Bavant, All Cannings Cross, 
and Glastonbury, and, together with the other limb-bones, indicate small 
animals similar to the Kerry cattle. The lower jaws comprise several adult 
and young examples with milk teeth. Most of them agree with the series 
from Glastonbury and elsewhere in the possession of the normal six cheek- 
teeth ; but one example is of interest in possessing only five teeth, the 
first premolar being absent, as was the case in several of the Glastonbury 
jaws.^ In another of the Swallowcliflfe jaws, the last molar, M3, consists of 
two columns only, and thus resembles M2. The full six teeth are present 
in this jaw. Two of the five-toothed examples from Glastonbury show an 
almost complete suppression of the third column, or talon, in iM3. 'J'he 
jaws from Fifield Bavant and All Cannings Cross possessed the normal 
six teeth. The loose horn-cores from Swallowcliflfe are quite typical of 
Bos longifrons. By far the most interesting specimen among the ox 
remains is an imperfect skull with no trace of horn-cores. Nine other 
skulls are present, but all are imperfect, and consist chiefly of frontlets 

^ The Early Iron Age Inhabited Site at All Cannings Cross Far7n, 
Wiltshire. By Mrs. Cunnington, Devizes, 1924. (Report on the Animal 
Remains, by J. Wilfrid Jackson, pp. 43—50 and PI. 52.) 

2 The Glastonbury Lake Village, vol. II., 1917, p. 653, and PI. XCVII., 
i figs. 1-3. 

^ See my paper in Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 8, 
vol. XV., March 1915, pp. 291-295 ; also Glastonbury Report, 1917, p. 654. 

92 An Inhabited Site of La Tene I. Date on Swallowcliffe Down, 

with horn-cores. It is interesting to note that none of the skulls have been 

split down the middle, as was the case with most of the Glastonbury 

specimens. The following table of measurements of the ten skulls may be 

useful for future reference. 

Frontal. Skull No. 1 23456789 10 

Least width between 

horns' 138 136 140 135 140 144 158 141 164 148 M.M. 

Maximum bi-orbital 
width 183 181 — 176 — — 206 — — — „ 

Length from poll to 
centre of line joining 
upper margins of 
superciliary foramina 110 113 — 102 105 — 119 — 109 — ,, 

Length from poll to 
centre of line joining 
upper margins of 

orbits 127 133 — 122 — — 144 — — — „ 


Width between infra- 

cornual notches 101 118 102 101 107 108 128 104 110 113 „ 

Height of supracristal 
part of occiput 36 39 35 27 31 42 48 36 39 41 

Greatest width across 

occipital condyles 83 80 — — — — — — — — „ 

Lower border of fora- 
men magnum to occi- 
pital crest 103 99 99 — — -- — — — — „ 

Greatest width of occi- 
put _ 174 _-__ — ___ _ 

All the ten skulls possess an occiput deeply notched by the temporal 
fossae, as in the examples from Fifield Bavant, All Cannings Cross,, and 
Glastonbury. In this feature they resemble the skull of an ox from the 
Koman Military Station at Newstead, Melrose, figured by Professor Ewart.- 
The polled skull No. 1 is not of the flat polled type, but has a conspicuous 
mesial prominence, or " intercornual " ridge. The forehead is uneven, with 
a slight bulge at the centre, and low lateral ridges, as in the polled skull 
from All Cannings Cross. The supracrystal part of the occiput projects 
beyond the crest and overhangs the occiput proper, the mesial portion is 
excavated. The infracristal part is too badly damaged for detailed exam- 
ination. The forehead in the other nine skulls varies slightly, in Nos. 3, 4, 
5, and 9, the mesial frontal prominence is somewhat flattened, but in the 
remainder it is quite as well-marked as in No. 1. The horn-cores are all 
short, and somewhat flattened, curving outwards, forwards, and slightly 
downwards or upwards, except in N o. 9. In the latter, the horn-cores are 

^ In No. 1 between position of horns in normal skulls. This and many 
of the others=Pitt-Kivers' points of measurement. 

2 J. C. Ewart, Proc Zool Soc, 1911, p. 271, text-fig. 84. 

! ® 

' © ® 



® ® 

® ® @ 

® e 






& ® 


Plate I— Plan of Pits. Swallowcliffe Down. 

CO ^ 


CD 2 

^ 2- 

C3 P 

6 o 

CD nS 
_ i-S 

"ui o 


^ 7^ 

Plate Iir._Pla„3 and Sections of Pits. SwalJowcliffe 


Plate IV.— Pottery Vessels. Swallowcliffe Down, i 




Plate v.— Pottery Vessels. Swallowcliffe Down. 









Plate VI. — Pottery Vessels. Swallowcliffe Down. 


I— I 





Bi ; J B2i I B3 


m B5 

'9 . 


1- li I 


11 n 



B7" I B8; , B15(„| Bofli Br; I Bib! 

' v^i M l^ 

Plate Vin. — Bone Implements. Swallowcliffe Down. 


m m 


B27I o 









B36 (^ Be 

':'/ ' 


/iii L 


Hate IX.-Bone Weaving Combs, &c. Swallowcliffe Down, h 

Plate X. — Bone Objects. Swallowcliflfe Down. I 

Plate XI.— Iron Objects. Swallowcliffe Down. 

a^^ , 




^ 1/ 



Plate XII.— Chalk Loom-Weights. Swallowcliffe Down, i 

fM ; 


,C4^ v--^ 039* 

Plate XIIL— Spindle Whorls, &c. SwallowcliflFe Down. \ 

By R. C. G. Clay. 93 

acuminate and directed somewhat backwards. The supracristal part of the 
occiput of this skull overhangs considerably the occiput proper, and its 
mesial portion is only slightly excavated : in all the other skulls the mesial 
portion is more deeply excavated, and the degree of overhang is somewhat 
less. Unfortunately none of the skulls retains the anterior portion, so that 
it is not possible to ascertain if short premaxillae are correlated with the 
notched type of occiput, as was found to be the case in the Glastonbury 

Sheep. Numerous bones, lower jaws, and skull fragments with horn- 
cores (both young and old) belong to this animal. One horn-core (cut at 
the base) agrees closely with Series B of Glastonbury and with the large 
type from All Cannings Cross. The other horn-cores appear to be younger 
examples of the same type. All seem referable to the large-horned sheep, 
known as Studer's Sheep {Ovis aries studeri), met with in the Swiss Lake- 
dwellings, and in various Neolithic deposits, Roman camps, and Romano- 
British villages in Great Britain. This type is represented at the present 
time by the almost deer-like sheep living on Soya Island, near St. Kilda. 
The lower jaws from Swallowcliffe agree with those from Fifield Bavant 
All Cannings Cross, Glastonbury, etc. The limb-bones show the same 
agreement, especially the metacarpals and metatarsals. I'he former range 
in length from 113mm. to 121mm.; the latter, from 118mm. to 136mm • 
both series are slender in the shaft. " ' 

Goat. The goat is represented by several typical horn-cores, broken off 
the skulls. One or two show cut-marks at the base and appear to have 
been trimmed for use as handles of knives or other instruments. Similar 
remains were obtained at All Cannings Cross. 

Pig. This animal is represented by limb-bones (some young), fra^^men- 
tary upper and lower jaws, and a few loose canine teeth. These 'agree with 
the " Torfschwein " ov palustris race of Sus scrofa of the Swiss Lake 
Dwelhngs, as at All Cannings Cross, Fifield Bavant, etc. 

Dog. The remains referable to this animal consist of a fairly complete 
skull, the palatal fragment of another, and several lower jaws. The skull 
has no saggital crest, it being probably that of a female. It is somewhat 
smaller than that obtained at All Cannings Cross, but is of the same general 
type. The tooth-row measures 57mm., and is interesting as including a 
supernumary molar, M. 3, on the right side, with normal dentition on the 
lett. The palatal fragment indicates a slightly larger skull, and the tooth- 
row has a length of 63mm. The lower jaws show some variation in size 
but do not lend themselves to full measurement. * 

Watee Vole. This animal is represented by three imperfect skulls and 
a lower jaw. Similar remains were met with at Fifield Bavant All 
Cannings Cross, and Glastonbury. ' 

Badger. The anterior portion of the left r^mus of a lower jaw with 
teeth belongs to this animal. 



By R. C. C. Clay, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.SA.. F.R A.I. 

This small Saxon cemetery is situated by the side of Church Bottom 
J.ane, at the foot of Knighton Hill, Broadchalke, 400 yards south-east of 
the Church, and at a height of 80ft. above the level of the River Ebble. 
It was brought to my notice by Mr. Sidford, of the Manor Farm, who had 
disturbed a skeleton at a depth of 1ft. Sin. whilst digging chalk from the 
pit at the side of the sunken road. During the last two years scores of 
cartloads of chalk have been removed. In February, 1924, Mr. Weeks 
found five skeletons, one of which was pronounced by J3r. Adeney to be 
that of a young person of about 16 years. They were lying roughly north 
and south and no objects were noticed with them. There is a village 
tradition that one hundred years age there were some spearheads in the 
loft over the old Rectory and that the village boys used to play with them. 
It is very likely that they were Saxon weapons which were unearthed when 
the chalk pit was commenced near the present gateway. All trace of them 
is now lost. 

This burial ground was on the end of a long strip lynchet, a type classified 
as Saxon by Mr. Crawford, and the soil had been ploughed within the last 
century. In every case the graves were roughly-cut cists in the top layers 
of the chalk. There were no surface indications of them. They were at 
uneven depths, varying from 1ft. 3in. to 4ft. 2in. below the present turf 
line. This diflference in depth of the graves corresponded with the diflference 
in depth of the top soil, due chiefly to silting from the edge of the " positive " 
lynchet above. Apparently the Saxons dug down until they reached the 
hard chalk and then made a rough cist, never really large enough to hold 
the extended body, which was afterwards crammed in with the head fully 
flexed so that the chin touched the chest. There was no alignment or 
uniformity about these graves and an apparent lack of reverence, as in 
several instances former interments had been disturbed, the skeletons cut 
through, and the bones thrown aside when fresh burials took place. During 
our excavations we came to the limits of the cemetery on ail sides and 
found nineteen more skeletons, which, with the six others of which we have 
record, brings the total to twenty-five. 

There was no fixed orientation, the skeletons lying in all directions and 
in all attitudes : some on their sides with the knees nearly touching the 
chin, the majority, however, extended on the back with the arms in various 
positions, but the head usually bent forward on to the chest and the legs 
touching or crossing at the ankles. One had an iron shield boss on the left 
shoulder and an iron spearhead on the right. Some had spearheads only, 
and there were no ferrules. Others had iron knives over the left hips, as 
if they had been stuck in a belt or girdle. In grave No. 13 the iron buckle 
of a belt was found over the right side of the pubis and an iron knife, 
blade downwards, on the left iliac crest. Without exception every grave 


















Sc<xh lincPr-lsfett- 

Plate 1. — Plan of Saxon Cemetery, Broadchalke. 

Plate II.— Iron objects from Saxon Cemetery, Broadchalke, 
and Barrow, Ebbesbourne. 

A Pagayi Saxon Cemetery at Broadchalke. 95 

contained several burnt or unburnt flints and pieces of iron pyrites lying 
alongside or close above the skeletons. These must have been purposely 
placed there, probably as part of some burial rite. 

These people must have been very poor, for no brooches, beads, or other 
ornaments usually associated with Saxon cemeteries were discovered. This 
prevents our knowing for certain who they were, whether Jutes or Angles, 
but we can safely suggest that they were of the former race who came by 
way of Southampton Water and advanced up the Meon valley and so to 
Harnham Hill. The Saxons did not like Salisbury Plain and all the recorded 
burials in South Wiltshire, whether in cemeteries or as secondary interments 
in barrows, have been on the edge of it. From the evidence at our disposal 
we can at any rate ascribe this Broadchalke cemetery to the Pagan Saxons 
at a date not later than 500 A.D. 

Detailed Description of thk Burials. 
[I am indebted to Sir Arthur Keith for the description of the bones. 
For objects see Plate II.] 
No. 1. Lying on right side, slightly crouched, head to north, Depth of 
cist 1ft. 6in. Iron spearhead {Fig. 4) and knife {Fig. 6), " lying on top of the 
body." I did not see this skeleton in situ. Lower jaw of man, aged about 
40. The chin is well developed, square, the ascending ramus rises almost 
at right angles from the body and has a high tongue-shaped coronoid process. 
No. 2. Extended on back with head to west. Head fully flexed. Arms 
and legs extended. Depth of cist 2ft. No objects. A man about 40 years 
of age and about 5ft. 5ins. in height. Big-headed, small faced, not robust. 
No. 3. Head to south. Lying on back with head bent forward and to 
left, mouth widely opened, right hand on hip, left slightly away from body, 
legs parallel. Depth of cist 1ft. 5ins. Iron spearhead on top of left 
shoulder. A man of about 60 years of age. Neolithic shape of skull and 
about 5ft. 6ins. in height. 

No. 4 Remains of a skeleton disturbed by plough, thorax and most of 

skull missing. Femora parallel and pointing to east, legs flexed at knees 

and pointing to north. Corroded piece of iron at level of shoulders. Depth 

of cist Sins. Imperfect lower jaw of an aged women with peaked chin, 

intense atrophy of the teeth sockets and non-development of wisdom teeth. 

No. 5. Lying on back with head to south, chin on left shoulder, hands 

ii meeting above pubis, legs extended. Bones very much decomposed. Iron 

'I spearhead (Fig. 5) on top of right shoulder, iron shield boss on left. Depth 

\ \ of cist llins. 

\\ No. 6. Extended on back with head to south, chin on right shoulder, 

tj arms by side, thighs slightly flexed at hips, legs flexed at knees to right 

|i angles. Depth of cist 1ft. llins. Iron knife over left iliac crest. Part of 

\ j lower jaw of a girl of about 9 years of age. Teeth perfectly sound but with 

\ I threatened crowding of lower incisors which have just come into position. 

No. 7. Extended on back with head to west, legs crossing above ankles, 

chin on right shoulder, left arm by side, right forearm across abdomen. 

I Depth of cist 1ft. Sins. No objects. Lower jaw of man, about 50 years of 

1 1 age. The chin is slightly prominent but square, the ascending ramus is 

(stout and almost vertical. 

96 A Pagan Saxon Cemetery at Broadchalke. 

No. 8. Incomplete skull and portions of ribs 1ft. Sins. deep. There was 
a cist but it had been disturbed previously and the bones replaced in a heap. 
No. 9. Lying on left side with head to south, face looking due west, 
left hand on hip, elbow away from side, right elbow against side, hand 
touching left elbow, hips flexed to 45 degs., thighs parallel, right and left 
legs flexed at knees to angles of 60 and 90 deg. respectively. Depth of cist 
2ft. lin. No objects. 

No. 10. Extended on back with head to west, chin on chest, left elbow 
by side, forearm across abdomen, right arm by side, legs meeting at ankles. 
Depth of cist 1ft. Sin. No objects. This woman was buried after No. 11 
and to avoid disturbing the latter the legs were placed at a higher level 
than the rest of the body. Her knees were close to the shoulders of No. 11 
but not so deep. Half the mandible of a woman of uncertain age. The 
femur measures 410mm., her stature being about 5ft. She was particularly 
slender in build, the upper incisor teeth overlapping the lower. 

No. 11, Lying on left side with head to north east, chin on left shoulder, 
right elbow by side, forearm across abdomen, left humerus away from side, 
the elbow fully flexed so that the hand was on a level with the shoulders of 
No. 10. Pelvis crushed flat with the heads of the femora widely apart, 
legs extended and meeting at ankles. Depth of cist 2ft. Sins. No objects. 
A woman of about 80 years of age and of stout build. She, too, had an 
overlapping bite. 

No. 12. This skeleton had been cut through when No. 13 was buried. 
The bones of the legs and feet were side by side and not disarticulated. 
Depth of cist 1ft. 4ins. An iron knife (Fig. 8) was lying where the 
shoulders should have been. 

No. 13. Extended on back with head to south-west, chin on right 
shoulder, right arm by side, left arm close to body, forearm across abdomen, 
legs touching at ankles. Depth of cist 2ft. Sins. An iron buckle was on 
the right ilium (Fig. 9) and an iron knife (Fig. 7) blade downwards, over 
the left iliac crest at the same level. A man of about 60 years of age and 
about 5ft. 6|ins. in stature, with Homano- British type of skull. 

No. 14. Lying extended with head to south west, left arm by side, right 
elbow close to body, forearm across chest, legs meeting at ankles. Skull 
damaged by plough. Depth of cist Sins. No objects. Fragment of the 
lower jaw of a woman of about 50 years of- age. 

No. 15. Half turned on the left side with head to west, chin on left 
shoulder, left elbow by side with forearm fully flexed and wrist under left 
collarbone and hand fully flexed at wrist, so that the fingers pointed towards 
the feet, right elbow by side with forearm across abdomen, legs slightly 
flexed at hips and knees. Depth of cist 1ft. lOins. No objects. A man 
about 5ft. 9ins. in stature, about 30 years of age, with overlapping bite and 
a peak-shaped chin. Ascending ramus stout and upright, teeth perfect. 
Extremely stoutly built. 

No. 16. Extended with head to west, arms by sides, legs touching at 
ankles, chin on chest. Depth of cist 2ft. 5ins. No objects. Lower jaw of 
elderly woman. The chin prominent, square and shelving. The ascending 
ramus slender and obliquely placed. 

By B. a C. Clay. 97 

No. 17. Lying extended on back with head to south-east, chin on 
sternum, right arm by side, left arm by side with hand half closed and 
inverted as if it had grasped the wooden (?) handle of the small iron knife 
that was lying blade upwards on the left iliac crest Depth of cist 
1ft. lOins. Lower jaw of an old woman. The wisdom teeth have never 
been formed. The chin is peak-like and not prominent. Three molars 
and a premolar have been lost from disease. 

No. 18. Extended on the back with the head to the south west, chin on 
left shoulder, right arm by side, left elbow close to body with forearm fully 
flexed and fingers under the chin, legs meeting at ankles. Depth of cist 
1ft. 9ins, No objects. A child of about 3J years old. The milk teeth are 
free from disease and only slightly worn. 

No. 19. Lying on left side with head bent backwards and to the north- 
east, arms flexed at the elbows with the left hand under the chin and the 
right wrist crossing the left, both knees drawn up, the left one more so than 
the right. Depth of cist 4ft 2in. No objects When this body was buried 
they must have used a former cist and have taken out the previous skeleton 
and scattered the bones around, for in the filling were fragments of human 
skull, arm, and leg bones. A youth of about 14—15 years of age, under 5ft. 
in stature. The teeth are free from disease and the wisdom teeth still 

No. 19a. Fragment of the lower jaw of an oldish woman. Abscess at 
roots of a molar and adjoining premolar tooth. 

Report on Bones from Saxon Graves, 

By Sir Arthur Keith, Conservator of the Museum, Royal College of 

Surgeons, England. 

A survey of the contents of the graves shows that we are dealing with 
the burial ground of a community. Both sexes are represented. There is 
part of the lower jaw of a child between 3 and 4 years of age, another of a 
child — a girl — of 7 or 8 years, a lad of 14 — 15 years, parts of seven women 
of various ages, and of seven men, also of various ages, but none of them 
j really old. In tbe general report is given a brief description of the bones 
ifrom each grave. Although I have assigned a sex identification to each, in 
several cases tbe identification is by no means certain. 

I should trespass beyond the limits of a report were I to set down the 

numerous detailed measurements I have made on the bones submitted to me 

;by M r. Clay. Here I propose to deal with only the main issues of my ex- 

liinination. What are the objects of such studies as these ? For my part I 

iwant to identify in our living population the survivals from the Saxon burial 

3iaces. I also wish to ascertain if we can identify in these Saxon graves 

ypes which we meet with in English graves of a pre-Saxon date, survivals 

)f the Romano- British and earlier inhabitants of England. We study Saxon 

emains to ascertain more fully what kind of people these early Saxong 

eally were. Hence I turn at once not to the average size of the Saxon 

kuU, jaw, and thigh-bone, but to the human types we find in these graves. 

! The most complete representation of a skeleton is that from grave 2. The 


98 A Pagan Saxon Cemetery at Broadchalke. 

man found in this grave was about 40 years of age and 5ft. 5ins. in stature, 
not robust and strong, but the opposite. Many of his features are effeminate. 
He reproduces characters which one can identify amongst rnen living round 
us. His head is large ; the volume of his brain I estimate at 1600cc., about 
120cc above the modern average. The vault is particularly high, rising 
126mm. above the ear passages : it is wide, 147mm., the width being main- 
tained as the sides of the skull rise towards the roof. It is of good length, 
193mm., the forehead and occiput both rising almost vertically towards the 
dome-shaped roof. Although the occiput rises nearly vertically the skull 
is not brachycephalic : the width is 76'2 ^ of the length. The shape, the 
dimensions, and their proportions are those so often found amongst Haxons. 
The forehead is of good width, 100mm. the greatest frontal width 120mm. 

When we turn to the face we find those characters which we associate 
with people who are living on a modern dietary. The supra-orbital ridges 
are not robust : the supraorbital width is only 103mm. — 3mm. more than the 
minimal width of the forehead. The face in comparison with the skull 
itself, is of small size, its total length being llVmm. and its greatest width 
(bizygomatic) 129mm. ; the cheek bones being neither prominent nor strong. 
The nose and upper "'face are of moderate length, the former being 68mm., 
the latter 47mm. The nose is of rather less than moderate length and 
narrow, its width being 23'5mm. The chin is prominent, passing 15mm. in 
front of the alveolus for the incisor teeth, where the mandible is placed base 
downwards on a horizontal surface. The upper jaw is somewhat broken and 
some of the teeth have been lost, but there is every reason to believe that 
at death this man retained in a sound condition every one of his thirty-two 
teeth : there is not a trace of caries and he was certainly 40 years of age. 
The teeth, too, are coated with masses of tartar. The incisor teeth tend to 
project forwards, a condition which is not uncommon in Saxon skulls ; 
their bite was overlapping, as is the rule in modern English mouths, and 
there is a slight degree of crowding of the lower incisors. These are con- 
ditions we do not meet with amongst primitive races. The parts to which 
the muscles of mastication were attached are weakly developed and the 
crowns of the teeth are but little worn. In this community we meet not a 
robust strong-limbed warrior, but a big-brained man who may well have 
been statesman, philosopher, poet, or clergyman. 

From grave No. 11 came the skeleton of a woman who presents features 
of an opposite kind. In age she was between 30 and 40, stoutly made and 
particularly robust in tooth and jaw. The oblique height of her femur 
was 418mm., so we may infer that her stature was about 5ft. Ijins. The 
length of her skull was 184mm., its width 140tnm., the height of the vault 
120mm. The width was thus 76' 1 % of the length — the same proportion 
as in the man just described ; a common Saxon ratio. The cranial capacity 
may be estimated at I447cc., a large head for a woman, the minimal width 
of the forehead 98mm., the greatest frontal width 120mm. She retained 
all her teeth, free from disease and only slightly worn. The face is strongly 
made, its total length being 115mm., its greatest (bizygomatic) width 
132mm. The nose was of medium length (46mm.) and narrow (23mm.). 
Her incisor teeth tended to project and did not meet edge to edge but 


By B. C. G. Clay, 99 

overlapped. Her chin was prominent but it formed a single rounded 
elevation, the " prow " form of chin as contrasted with the wide, prominent, 
square, shelf-like or flange-chin. We shall allude presently to these con- 
trasted forms of chin, both being represented amongst this ^Saxon people : 
intermediate forms are also present. 

In only two other graves were skulls sufficiently preserved to indicate 
the form of head. In No. 3 the calvaria was preserved : it is light and 
thin-walled ; that of a man of about 60 years of age or over. The upper 
part of his thigh bone was also kept ; enough to show us he was of medium 
stature perhaps about 5ft. 6ins. We have also his lower jaw, the teeth 
being deeply worn in the crowns. He had strongly marked supra-orbital 
ridges, yet the ascending ramus of his lower jaw was narrow and weakly 
developed, showing that his muscles of mastication were not strong. Not 
one of his teeth had been lost from disease ; the incisors were somewhat 
crowded together and on the right side his third molar had never developed. 
His incisors met in an edge-to-edge bite. His chin was not prominent, 
projecting only 7mm. in front of the alveolar border and was of an inter- 
mediate form. In the region of the chin or symphosis the lower jaw was 
shallow, measuring only 29mm. His skull was long, 193mm., but narrow, 
138mm., the width proportion being TV 6 In form this skull would not be 
out of place in an English Neolithic cemetery. The height of the vault 
was 116mm, and the cranial capacity 1450cc. ; somewhat below the average. 

In No. 13 was found the calvaria of a man : the lower jaw found in the 
same grave, by itself, might be taken to be that of a woman, but I have little 
doubt actually belongs to the skull. The thigh bone is also somewhat 
intermediate in its sexual characterization. The oblique height of the femur 
is 466mm.,indicating a stature of 5ft. Ggins. : from the skull and jaw we can 
infer his age to have been about 60 years. The calvaria has the dimensions 
and form of a type which is common in graves of the Romano- British period 
having a constriction crossing the forehead between the supra-orbital ridges 
below and the frontal eminences above. It has a flat dome : the length of 
the calvaria is 185mm., its width 145mm. ; the width proportion being 78"4. 
The height of the roof is about 115mm., and the cranial capacity 1443cc. 
The frontal bone is wide, 129mm., although its minimal width on the fore- 
head is only 97mm. ; the supra-orbitai width being 107mm. The chin is 
of the flange or square form and prominent, its eminence lies 18mm. in 
front of the alveolar border when the jaw is laid base downwards on a table. 
In this man the third molar or wisdom teeth were absent : they had never 
been developed. Only one tooth had been lost from disease in the lower 
jaw, the first molar on the left side, and yet he was an aged individual. 

The condition of the teeth in this Saxon cemetery is remarkable. Al- 
together there are the lower jaws of seventeen individuals; three of them 
l)eing juveniles. Of the fourteen adult jaws, seven are of men and seven of 
women, four of these having been already mentioned in the above description. 
Of the fourteen, seven retain their original complement of teeth ; in three 
^ single molar has been lost from disease ; in two, a premolar and a molar 
have been lost from the same cause ; in one, three teeth have been lost, and 
in another, five teeth. In only one jaw was actual caries observed. Atrophy 

H 2 

100 A Pagan Saxon Cemetery at BroadcTialke. 

of the alveolar border, probably from pyorrhoea, was noted in five : in all 
there was tartar adherent to the necks of the teeth, showing that the healthy 
condition of the teeth was not due to the use of anything of the nature of a 
tooth, brush. There was not a single edentulous person. The average age 
of the adult man and woman I presume to be under 50 years. In eight 
jaws a tendency was noticed to crowding or irregularity of the lower incisor 
teeth. Inithree jaws the wisdom teeth had failed to develope on both sides \ 
in one on one side only. In at least five the modern or overlapping bite 
was present. From these characters it is inferred that this community of 
Saxons came of a stock whose ancestors had long been living under easy 
conditions of life with a plentiful supply of food. 

Perhaps no feature of the face of a certain proportion of the British 
people is more noticeable than the chin, a wide, square shelving, prominent 
chin. I had, perhaps on inadequate grounds, supposed that this feature 
was a character of the pre-Saxon British. In four of the seven men from 
this cemetery the lower jaw at its symphysis is 35mm. or more in depth, 
each having the form of chin mentioned above. In one woman this was 
also the case. It looks as if a prominent square chin was also a common 
feature of the Saxon face. The " peaked " prominent chin was well marked 
in four, three of them women. The angle at which the ramus rose from the 
body varied ; in some it rose almost vertically ; in others, as is so often the 
case in modern faces, it sloped upwards and backwards. 

Only five thigh bones were complete. In Saxon cemeteries we always 
meet with some large-boned men of particularly robust build. In this case 
there was one man (No. 15) of this type ; the oblique height of the thigh 
bone was 487mm., indicating a stature of 6ft. 9ins. His tibia had a total 
length of 400ti)m., both bones were robust, the degree of flattening in the 
upper part of the shaft of the femur being indicated by the figure 71*4, the 
side to side flattening of the tibia by 615 On the other hand some of the 
women were slenderly formed and of a small stature. The woman buried 
in grave 10 was ultra feminine, her thigh bone being 410mm. in height, in- 
dicating a stature of 5ft. The lower end of the tibia from No. 15 showed 
a plainly marked squatting facet. 

Report on the Mollusca from the bottom of the Graves. 
By A. S. Kennard, Esq., F.L.S. 

Avion sp. 

Vallonia excentrica (Sterk). 

Hygromia hispida (Linn.). 

Helix nemoralis (linn.). 

Helix aspersa (Linn.). 

Vertigo pygmsea (Drap.). 

Cecilianella acicula (Mull). 
From this series one may say that the climate was similar to that of the 
present day and that the country was open with possibly scrub growth. It 
has not a woodland character. 

By B. a C. Clay, 101 

I am indebted to Major Jeans, the owner of the site, for perm ission to 
excavate, to Mr. Sidford for drawing my attention to it, to Sir Arthur 
Keith for his report on the human bones, to Mr. Kennard for reporting on 
the moUusca, to Mr. Kerley for his assistance during the excavations, and 
last but not least to Mr. Pugh for his drawings of the objects. 

The whole of the objects are now in our Society's Museum at Devizes, 


By R. C. C. Clay, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A., F.R.A.L 

Workmen laying a pipe line from the reservoir on the top of Barrow Hill 
to Cleave Cottages on the south, cut through an extended skeleton at a spot 
100 yards down the slope. The head was to the north. On the left 
shoulder was an iron boss {Jig. 1), and three circular iron ornaments for 
shield (Jig. 2). When I arrived most of the bones had been removed, but 
I widened the trench at this place and exposed the right arm and found an 
iron spearhead {Jig. 3) on the shoulder. There was no ferrule. Depth of 
cist 1ft. 6in. I could find no other graves in the vicinity. 

Report on the Bones by Sir Arthur Keith. 
Body of lower jaw of a man, first molar on the right side destroyed and 
neighbouring premolar attacked by caries. Upper half of a strong thigh 
bone. Stature about 5ft. 9in. Age about 50 years. Tibia 398mm. long, 
diameters at nutrient foramen 43mm. and 28mm. Well-marked squatting 
facet at the lower end of tibia. 

I My thanks are due to Mr. Burrows the owner of the site, to Sir Arthur 
I Keith for his report, and to Mr. Pugh for the drawings. 


Walter Hume Long, 1st Viscount Long of Wraxall^ 

died Sept. 26th, 1924, aged 70. Buried at West Ashton. B. at Bath, July 
13th, 1854 Eldest son of Richard Penruddocke Long, of Rood Ashton and 
Dolforgan (Montgomeryshire), and the only daughter of the Rt. Hon. W. 
Wentworth Fitzwilliam Hume Dick, of Mumewood, Co. Wicklow. In 18QT 
his father succeeded to the Wiltshire estates and came to live at Rood 
Ashton. Educated at Harrow and Christchurch. Married, 1878, Lady 
Dorothy Blanche Boyle (always known as Lady Doreen), fourth d. of the 
ninth Earl of Cork. He began political life as Conservative member for 
N. Wilts, and during his life he represented seven different constituencies : — 
N.Wilts, 1880-85 ; Devizes (East Wilts), 1885—92 ; W. Derby (Liverpool),, 
1892—1900 ; Bristol South, 1900—1906 ; S. Dublin, 1906—10 ; Strand, 1910' 
— 18; St. George's, Westminster, 1918—21. He succeeded his father at 
Rood Ashton in 1875 at the age of 21. His eldest son, Brig.-Gen. Walter 
Long, C.M.G.,D.S.O., late 2nd Dragoons,was killed in action in 1917, leaving,, 
by his marriage with the eldest daughter of Lord Derwent, one son, Walter 
Francis David, born in 1911, who succeeded as 2nd Viscount. Lord Long's 
second son, Capt the Hon. R. E. O. Long, and his second daughter, the Hon- 
Mrs. W. G. Cooper, survive him. The eldest daughter, wife of the Rt. Hon.. 
G. A. Gibbs, of Tyntesfield, died in 1920. 

In 1886 he was made Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government 
Board, 'and in 1895 President of the Board of Agriculture, with a seat in 
the Cabinet. It was while holding this office that he carried out that Dog^ 
Muzzling Order and the consequent extirpation of the scourge of rabies in 
England, with which his name will always be honorably connected. " Those,"^ 
says The Times, " who remember the violent agitation, by no means confined 
to the less instructed members of the community, the campaign of the 
Canine Defence League, and the petition with 80,000 signatures demanding 
the minister's dismissal from office, will recognize how great is the debt 
which the country owes to Walter Long's courage and sense of duty." He 
held the same office again after 1900 and afterwards became Chief Secretary 
for Ireland, where he was " undoubtedly the most successful Chief Secretary 
since Mr. Balfour." In 1911, when the leadership of the opposition in the 
House of Commons obviously lay between Mr. Long and Mr. Austen 
Chamberlain, both magnanimously stood aside and put forward Mr. Bonar 
Law as leader instead. In 1915 he was again President of the Local Govern- 
ment Board, and in 1916 Colonial Secretary and afterwards First Lord of 
the Admiralty, resigning in consequence of ill- health in 1921. As a sportsman 
he was especially devoted to cricket and to hunting. The Wilts Yeomanry 
owed him a great debt ; he joined it in 1876 and commanded the regiment 
from 1898 to 1906. He became a Privy Councillor in 1895 and was raised 
to the peerage in 1921. He succeeded Lord Lansdowne as Lord Lieutenant 
of Wilts. Throughout his own district, round Trowbridge, he was known 

Wilts Obituary. . 103 

by everybody as " The Squire," and the universal respect and affection with 
which he was regarded by all classes, whatever their politics might be, was 
shown in the heading of the Wiltshire Times, " Wiltshire in mourning for 
* the Squire.' " He was by common consent regarded as a typical example of 
the country gentleman at his best, both in his own county and in the Mouse 
of Commons. "He will be chiefly remembered," said The Times, "as a 
man who, though playing a notable part in politics for some forty years, 
proved himself incapable of a single mean or unworthy action." " He was," 
said Mr. Asquith, "the least selfish of mankind. He devoted all that he 
had and all that he was capable of giving, which was much, from the 
beginning to the end of an honourable and strenuous public life to the good 
of his country." 

All the London papers contained long obituary notices, especially 2'he 
Times of Sept. 29th, and the Daily Telegraph, Sept. 30th (by the Rt. Hon- 
T. P. O'Connor), reprinted in the Wiltshire Times of Oct. 4th, which had 
also good portraits of "The Squire," " The late Lord Long and Master David, 
the new Viscount," " The new Viscount," and a View of Rood Ashton 
House, and three photographs of the funeral. The Wiltshire Gazette had 
a very long notice on Oct. 2nd, with three portraits and other appreciations 
and reminiscences, on Oct. 9th. 

He was the author, amongst other things, of the following : — 
The Business Man and his Empire : an Address. Article in The 

British Dominions^ Year Book for 1918. 
The Secret Service and Communism. Nineteenth Century^ Feb., 

Why we should concentrate on the Empire. Ibid, Oct., 1922. 
The Conservative Party. Ibid, Feb,, 1923. 
The Prospects of Agriculture. The Financial Review of Reviews, 

June, 1923. 
IVCemories. By the Rt. Hon. Viscount Long of Wraxall, P.R.S. 

London. Hutchinson. 1923. 8vo, cloth, pp. xv., + 380. Twenty 

illustrations. (Reviewed in all London and Wiltshire papers.) 
A Memoir of Brigadier-General Walter Long, C.M.G., D.S.O., 

with Portraits. Printed for private circulation. London. 

John Murray. 1921. Cloth, 8|in. X 5|in., pp. vii. + 77. [Only a 

portion of this Memoir was by Lord Long. 

Canon William Caldwall Masters, died August i9th, 

1924, aged 80, buried at Stanton Fitzwarren, s. of the Rev. John Smalman 
Masters, b. Nov. 25th, 1843. Magd. Coll. Oxon., B.A., 1865, M.A., 1869, 
Deacon 1866, Priest 1867 (Rochester). Curate of Hitchin 1866—69 ; Curate 
of Tringand Vicar of Long Marston 1870—85, Rector of Stanton Fitzwarren 
1885, until his resignation in 1919, when he retired to live at Clifton. Hon. 

i Canon of Bristol 1912 He was one of the first members of the Advisory 
Committee for Churches in Bristol Diocese and up to a short time before 
his death was actively engaged in its work. He leaves behind him at 
Stanton Fitzwarren a very remarkable memorial in the shape of the screen, 

i reredos, and many other fittings of the Church designed and carved entirely 

104 Wilts Obituary. 

by his own hand, all of it of quite unusual excellence for amateur work. He 
also presented a wooden pastoral staff to Bristol Diocese — a fine example 
of his work. He married, 1870, Ellen, d. of the Rev. John T. C. Ashfordby- 
Trenchard, of Stanton Fitzwarren. He leaves two sons, John T. 0. 
Masters, of Blunsdon, and W. A. H. Masters, the architect, and one 
daughter. He was greatly respected and beloved. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 28th ; Bristol Times and Mirror, 
Aug. 26th, 1924, and a very sympathetic " In Memoriam " article by Arch- 
deacon R. T. Talbot in Bristol Diocesan Review, Sept., 1924. 

He was the author of : — 
Some Notes on the Ancient Church of St. Leonard, Stanton 

Fitzwarren, Wilts : and otherwise. Printed by A. R. Mowbray 

& Co., London and Oxford, 1913. 4to. cloth, pp. viii. + 49 + 1. Six 

Plates. Price 4s. 
Christian Architecture, two addresses, dedicated to the 

Bight Bev. George Forrest Browne, late Bishop of Bristol. 

Pamphlet, 9| x 7iin. [1916] pp. 35. Two illusts. Price Is. Qd. 
The Soldier and the Cross, an address by Canon Caldwall 

Masters, Bector, on Sunday, January 23rd, 1916, at the 

dedication of the Churchyard Cross St. Iieonard, Stanton 

Fitzwarren. Pub. by Morris Bros., Swindon. Pamphlet, 6jin. X 4Jin., 

pp. 12. Price 6d. 

Major Arthur Thomas Fisher, died Dec, 1924, aged 8i, 

s. of T. R. Fisher, M.R.C.S., of Frewen Hall, Oxford, educated at Harrow. 
1st Batt. 2nd Queen's Royal Regt., 1864 ; exchanged to 21st Hussars, 1870. 
Served in India and at home. Retired 1883, when he married Esther Y. 
Apperley, d. of Col. Will, Wynne Apperley, of Morhen, Mongomeryshire. 
He lived first at Romsey Nursling, then at Broad Chalke, finally settling 
at Bemerton in 1895, and living there until his death. He held many 
public posts ; Hon. Sec. of the Salisbury Museum for over 20 years, Hon. 
Sec. of the Wilton Hunt for 17 years up to 1922, and for many years Hon. 
Treasurer of Soldiers' Welfare Board for Diocese of Salisbury, a member 
of Wilton Board of Guardians, Chairman of the Bemerton Parish Council, 
Treasurer of S. Wilts Archery Club, and Founder and Hon. Sec. of the 
Salisbury branch of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution up to the time 
of his death. During his time the branch contributed over £5,000 to the 
Institution. In his younger days he won many steeplechases, and drove 
his regimental four-in-hand. He shot and fished up to within a month or 
two of his death, which was due to an accident. 

He was the author of : — 
Through the Stable and Saddle Room. 
The Farrier. 
Hod and River. 
Outdoor Life in England. 

And was a contributor of articles to many sporting magazines and papers. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 1st, 1925. 

Wilts Obituary. 105 

Charles Garnett, died Sept. leth, 1924, aged 54, after an operation 
for appendicitis. Buried at Arnside, Westmoreland. S. of W. Garnett, a 
large Lancashire cotton manufacturer, of Low Moor, Clitheroe, b. Jan., 
1870. Educated at Uppingham (1884) and Pembroke College, Cambridge, 
B.A. and M.A. He entered Lincolns Inn and was admitted as a barrister 
1894, and practiced for some years. He hunted with the Beaufort Hunt 
several years before he finally bought the fine old house known as Great 
House, at Kington Langley, about 1909, and after adding largely to the 
building and re-modelling its interior, had lived there until his death. 
*' Quiet and unassuming, Mr. Garnett was extremely generous, and always 
handsomely supported any good cause. To the poor people he was a 
philanthropist — the person who had a genuine case was never refused." 
A strong Conservative he had been asked to stand for the Chippenham 
division, but declined. He was an alderman of the County Council and 
served on many committees. He was High Sheriff in 1922, and J, P. for 
Wilts 1919, took a prominent part in Church matters, and indeed in all 
sorts of public institutions and causes in the Chippenhham neighbourhood. 
As a sportsman he had been a notable oarsman in his younger days, was 
"Well known in the Beaufort Hunt, and as a fisherman, but in one branch 
of sport, and that one of the oldest in England, he was especially dis- 
tinguished ; he was one of the leading spirits of the small band of practical 
and expert Falconers who still fly their trained hawks on the Plain or the 
Marlborough Downs. He married Miss Clare Pennington, of Cheshire, 
who, with their two children, Christopher and Barbara, survive him. He 
was greatly esteemed round Chippenham. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 18th ; Wiltshire Times, Sept. 20th, 

Mrs. J. W. Clark. Died suddenly July 26th, 1924. Buried 
( at London Road Cemetery, Salisbury. Daughter of John Bidwell, of 
] Salisbury, married 1885, J. W. Clark (Messrs. Clark & Lonnen). J. P. for 
i the city, 1922, one of the two first women Justices. Connected all her life 

with the Brown Street Baptist Church, for some years Treasurer of the 
1 Salisbury branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 

Secretary of the British Womens' Temperance Association, and actively 
! concerned with many other charitable and philanthropic institutions. 
' Portrait and obit, notice, Salisbury Times, Aug. 1st, 1924. 

John Chapman. Died Aug. 12th, 1924, aged 82. Born at Trow- 
I bridge, 1841. In early life he spent many years in the counting house of 
Messrs. Stancomb, Bros., cloth manufacturers. A Congregationalist, he 
iwas associated with the Tabernacle as a bible class teacher and local 
preacher for 56 years. He was President of the Wilts and East Somerset 
Congregational Union, and had been President of the Trowbridge and 
iDistrict Free Church Council. He was for 16 years the organising secre- 
5:ary of the Trowbridge Chamber of Commerce, the existence of which was 
largely due to his energy. He was a prominent Freemason. 
Good portrait and obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, Aug. 16th, 1924. 

106 Wilts Obituary. 

Kev. Andrew Pope, died Oct. I7th, 1924, aged 80. Buried at 
Much Marcle (Heref.). Trin. Coll., Oamb., B.A. 1866, M.A. 1870, Deacon 
1867 (Wore), Priest 1868 (Heref.) ; Curate of Cusop 1867—73; Vicar of 
Preston-on-Wye with Blakemere (Heref.) 1873—80; Diddlebury (Salop) 
1880—90; Upton Bishop 1890—1910; Rector of Langley Burrell 1910; 
and Rector of Tytherton Kelloways. 1913, until his retirement in 1919. 

George Davis, died Sept. 24th, 1924, aged 59. Buried in London 
Road Cemetery, Salisbury. Born at Bristol, began life as solicitors' clerk 
with Messrs, Hodding & Jackson, of Salisbury. Started business on his 
own account, 1900, as auctioneer and house agent. Member of the Town 
Council from 1913 until his death. A very prominent Oddfellow, in which 
order he held very high rank. Churchwarden of St. Thomas. Me was 
partly responsible for starting the " Wilts and Dorset Motor Services." He 
was an " extremely valuable member of the Corporation." 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Times, Sept. 26th, 1924. 

Capt. Leonard Durnford Pinckney, O.B.E., of the 

P. & O. SS. Mantua, died suddenly at Port Said, Oct. 23rd, 1924, aged 55. 
Second son of John Pinckney, of Great Durnford Manor. Educated at 
Dr. Burney's, at Gosport, and in the training ship Conway. During the 
war he was in command of the Somali, at first as a troopship, and later as a 
hospital ship, conveying wounded from Gallipoli to Malta and Alexandria, 
and afterwards to England. Later on he commanded the P. & O. SS. 
Khyber taking troops to Canada, repatriating Belgian refugees, and bring- 
ing back English prisoners from Rotterdam. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 30th, 1924. 

Thomas Edward Redman, died Nov. 27tb, 1924, aged 74. 

Son of T. H. Redman. Born 1850. About 1865 learned the bacon curing 
business under his uncle, George Harris, of Calne, and became manager and 
secretary of " Messrs. Charles Harris & Co.," and afterwards of the amalga- 
mated firms, retiring in 1907, when he went to live at Shawford. He was 
Mayor of Calne, 1880 and 1890. J. P. 1898. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 4th, 1924. 

Henry James Horton, died Sept. 1st, 1924. Buried at Eisey. 
Born at Down Ampney, s. of Henry Horton. J. P. for Wilts 1912, a Com- 
missioner of Taxes for theCricklade Division, Guardian and Rural District 
Councillor, and Chairman of the Assessment Committee. He lived most 
of his life at Cricklade but latterly at Eisey Manor,where he had built up a 
large agricultural business, first as tenant and then as owner, " Mr. 
Horton could be said without a doubt to be the best known agriculturist 
in Wiltshire, more particularly on the dairying side of the industry." It 
was in connection with the National Farmers' Union that he was chiefly 
known. "Of that organisation he can well be said to have been the 
* Father' in this part of the country." He believed in co-operation and 
gave his whole energies to make the Union a success. He was the first 
Chairman of the County Executive. " With what conspicuous ability he 

Wilts Obituary, 107 

filled the position is known to every delegate," and when at last he was 
allowed to resign, the office of President was created especially for him, 
that he might still be in touch with the organisation. Upon the milk 
trade he was one of the greatest authorities in England, and in the contest 
between the wholesalers in London and the producers in Wiltshire, he was 
given a free hand to fight the case for the latter. " Mr. Horton was in a 
position to tell the wholesalers that he had but to raise his finger in 
Wiltshire and ten per cent, of the whole of London's milk would not be 
put on train." On his resignation of the chairmanship of the Union he 
was presented with three silver salvers in appreciation of his long and 
valued services. Mrs. Horton died two years ago. Their three sons, 
Charles at Eisey, Robert at the Manor Farm, Broad Hinton, and Henry at 
Wilsford, are all on large farms, which by their fathers' will now become 
their own property. 
. Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 4th, 1924 

Rev. Mills Robbins, died suddenly Dec. 21st, 1924, s. of Frederic 
Bobbins, of Spitalcroft, Devizes, partner in the Southbroom Brewery. 
Educated at the Chancellor's School, Lincoln, 1888, Deacon 1889, Priest 
1890 (Winchester), Curate of Hook (Hants) 1889—92 ; Arreton (I. of W.) 
1892—95 ; Yorktown (Surrey) 1895—98 ; Vicar of West End, Chobham, 
Surrey 1898 until his death. He always kept up his connection with 
Devizes and the county of Wilts, was for many years a regular attendant 
at the meetings of the Wilts Arch. Soc, and was never absent from the 
dinners, etc., of the Association of Wiltshiremen in London. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 24th, 1924. 
He was the author of : — 
Gleanings of the Robins or Robbins Family of England with 
lithograph of armorial window and other engravings. Devizes, 
C. H. Woodward, 1908. For private circulation only. Cloth Bjin. X 5|in., 
pp. 114. Four illustrations. [This is the 2nd Edition of " Gleanings 
of the Robins Family," issued 1880, with some additional matter]. 

Rev. Geoffry Hill, died Jan. 1st, 1925, aged 78. Buried at 
EastHarnham. Born Oct. 6th, 1846, at Coombe Bissett. Son of Rev. 
Richard H. Hill, Vicar of Britford, one of a family of sixteen, of whom five 
became clergymen. Educated JVlagdalen College School (of which his elder 
brother, Rev. Dr. Richard Hill, was headmaster) and Exeter Coll., Oxon. 
B.A. 1870, M.A. 1877, Deacon 1877, Priest 1878 (Edinburgh). Curate of 
St. James', Leith, 1877—78 ; Abbey Hill Mission, Edinburgh, 1879—80 ; 
St. John's, Edinburgh, 1180-83 ; St. Columba, Edinburgh, 1883—88 ; 
Dioc. Super., Edinburgh, 1888—91 ; Vicar of East Harnham, 1891, until 
' his death. He never married. In politics he was a pronounced Liberal, a 
fisherman, a keen cricketer, and musician, well known in the neighbour- 
hood of Salisbury. 

Long obit, notice and good portrait in Salisbury Times, Jan. 9th, 1925. 

He was the author of : — 
Wiltshire Folk Songs and Carols, collected and Edited by the Rev. 

108 Wilts Obituary. 

Geoffry Hill, M.A , Vicar of East and West Haruham, Salis- 
bury. The music edited and arranged by Walter Barnett, 

F S.A. W. Mate & Sons, Bournemouth [1898]. 4to., wrapper, pp. 23. 

[9 aongs, all sung in a village near Salisbury. The music taken down 

from the mouths of old men]. 
The Dioceses of England, a history of their Limits from the 

earliest times to the Present Day. London : Eliot Stock, 1900. 

Demy 8vo. 10 maps. Cloth. \2s. 6d. [Reviewed /Spec^a^or, Ap. 21st ; 

Speaker; Athenaeum ; Notes and Queries, May l2th, 1900.] 
The aspirate or the use of the letter " H " in English, Latin, 

Greek, and Gaelic. London : T. Fisher Unwin. 1902. pp. viii. •\- 

151. Cloth. 3s. Qd. net. 
Some Consequences of the Norman Conquest. London: Eliot Stock. 

1904. Demy 8vo. pp. ix. + 251. 7s. 6d. net. 
The Influence of the Norman Conquest upon the Invasion of Eng- 
land. Antiquary, July, 1904. pp. 208—212. 
Cerdic's Landing Place. Salisbury : Brown & Co. [1911]. Pamphlet 

8vo. pp. 24. Price Is. 60?. [An enlargement of a paper read at the 

meeting of the Wilts Arch. Society at Salisbury a^nd printed in Salisburj/ 

Journal, July 18th, 1908.] 

Mrs. J. C. Hudson, died January 16th, 1925. Buried in London 
Koad Cemetery, Salisbury. Daughter of Dr. Hugh Miller, physician, of 
Glasgow, came to Salisbury on her marriage in 1908. Active during the 
War in Queen Mary's Needlework Guild, and one of the hostesses at the 
Guest House, on the Canal ; Governor and member of Committee of the 
Infirmary, and the Town Council Committee on Child Welfare ; hon. 
treasurer of the Women's Liberal Association. She had recently been ap- 
pointed J. P. for Salisbury, but had never sat on the bench owing to ill- 
health. She was a member of the United Free Church of Scotland. By 
her kindness and devotion she had endeared herself to a wide circle, and 
her death was felt as a real loss to the city. 

Obit, notice, with good portrait, in Salisbury Times, Jan. 23rd, 1925. 

Brig.-Geu. Frederick Hopewell Peterson, C.B., 

D.SO., died suddenly, Jan, 25th, 1925, aged 60. Buried at Berwick 
Bassett. For the last three years he had lived at Parsonage Farm House, 
Winterbourne Monkton. Hejoined the Yorkshire Regiment, 1885 ; captain 
1896 ; commandant of the 32nd Sikh Pioneers ; Sikkim Expedition 1888 
(medal with clasp) ; Hazara 1891 (clasp) ; Relief of Chitral Fort 1895 
(despatches, D.S.O.,with medal and clasp) ; Tibet 1903-4 (despatches, medal 
and clasp) ; Abor Expedition 1911-12 (despatches, Brevet-Colonel, medal 
and clasp). 

Harry Foole, died Jan. 27th, 1925, aged 74. One of five brothers, 
all born in Malmesbury, who became afterwards the famous showmen and 
proprietors of Poole's Myriorama, which travelled England in the nineties 
of the last century. At one time the brothers had nine Companies on the 

Wilts Ohihiary. 109 

road. The whole of the scenery for these extensive shows was painted in 
Malmesbury. They made the Colston Hall, Bristol, their chief centre. 
They were the originators of the Bioscope, the forerunner of the C'inemato- 
graph. He had of late years lived at " Bloomfield," Malmesbury, but took 
no prominent part in local affairs. He leaves a son, Stanley, and daughter, 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette^ Jan. 29th, 1925. 

John MoultOU, died Jan. 30th, 1925, aged 85. Buried at Christ 
Church, Bradford-on-Avon. Born Sept. 7tb, 1839, at Bradford. Youngest son 
of Stephen Moulton, educated at Bradford and Pembroke Coll., Oxon., M.A, 
Oxon. Called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1864. Married, 1866,A lice Blanche, 
d. of Rev. Thomas Coney, of Bray wick Grove, Berks. His eldest and only 
surviving son, John Coney Moulton, is in the Far East. His second son, 
Lieut. Eric Moulton, was killed in the war in 1916. J. P. for Wilts. 1894 ; 
High Sheriff in 1917. He was chairman of the local bench from 1911 to 
1922, and represented Bradford on the County Council for many years 
until 1919, and was chairman of the Urban District C'ouncil from 19<'4 to 
1913. Throughout his life he was a most generous benefactor to the town 
of Bradford. The purchase of Westbury House, the provision of the Public 
Baths, and of the Drill Hall for the Territorial Detachment, the Church 
Institute, the Curate's Augmentation Fund, the new Organ at the Parish 
Church, were only a few of the public or parochial matters in which he was 
the prime mover or chief donor. He was the president of almost every 
society and organization in the town, and was in every way the leading 
townsman of Bradford. The great rubber business of G. Spencer Moulton 
& Co. was founded at Bradford in 1848 by Stephen Moulton, who settled 
in Bradford from America. Dying in 1880 the business devolved on his 
sons, Alex, and Horatio Moulton, after their deaths their brother, John 
Moulton, succeeded as chairman in 1893. From 1894 the business of the 
firm increased rapidly until it now has over 700 employees. 

Long obit, notice, with good portrait and view of the Hall, in Wiltshire 
Times, Feb. 7th, 1925. 

John Turton WooUey, died Feb. nth, 1925, aged 70. Buried 
at Romsey. Born at Loughborough (Leics.), s. of W. J. Woolley, solicitor. 
Educated at Haileybury College. Farmed at Rodmaston (Gloucs.) and 
Stockton from 1875 to 1883, when he set up in Salisbury as auctioneer, 
estate agent, and land valuer. The business, " Woolley & Wallis," extended 
with branches at Romsey, Fordingbridge, and Ringwood. About fifteen 
years ago he went to live at Spursholt, near Romsey He was president of 
the Auctioneers' and Estate Agents' Institute, 1914, and was one of the 
founders of the Hants, Wilts and Dorset Branch. He was secretary of the 
S. Wilts Chamber of Agriculture from 1884 to its end, two years ago, when 
a silver salver was presented to him in appreciation of his services. He 
was on the Town Council of Salisbury for three years, and for many years 
churchwarden of Fisherton Church, and was keenly interested in the 
Church Missionary and Bible Societies. A cricketer and Rugby footballer. 
He leaves three sons and three daughters. 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Journal, Feb. 13th, 1925. 

110 Wilts Obituary. 

Rev. Herbert Ault, died Feb. 12th, 1925. Buried at Canford 
Cemetery. Lichfield Theolog. Col]., 1873. Deacon 1875, Priest 1876 
(Lich.) Curate of Hednesford, 1875— 79 ; Chaplain of Sharpness Docks 
and Curate of Berkeley, 1879—86 ; Vicar of Bishopstone (N. Wilts), 1886 
— 1 91 6; Rural Dean of Cricklade, 1910—1913; Chaplain to Bristol 
Diocesan Refuge and Training Home, 1916 — 1921. 
Obit, notice, iV. Wilts Herald, Feb. 20th, 1925. 

Edward Slow, died Feb. I6th, 1925, aged 83. Buried at Wilton 
Cemetery. He had rendered valuable service to Wilton all his life. He 
was one of those who were instrumental in obtaining a new charter in 1885, 
and became a member of the Corporation in that year, and, except for a 
break of three years (1887—90), he remained a member of it, as a councillor 
and afterwards alderman (1893), until he resigned in 1924. He was mayor 
in 1892 and 1905. He was formerly the owner of the Wilton Carriage 
Works, at Ditchampton, but had long since retired from the business. A 
prominent Churchman and Conservative. He represented W^ilton on the 
management of the Wiltshire Friendly Society for many years. He was 
interested in antiquarian matters and was a member of the Wilts Archae- 
ological Society ; doing what he could to help the society when occasion 
served. He was, however, best known in Wiltshire and beyond its borders 
as a writer of stories and " Rhymes " (the title he himself gave to his 
writings) in the Wiltshire dialect, and as such he will be long remembered. 
Indeed in South Wilts he stands alone in this. His output was prolific 
and his dialect was the real thing. He was one of the very few educated 
Wiltshiremen (in his case self-educated) who could speak and write the 
dialect of his own county. To him it came naturally as a living language. 

Obit. noticeSfSalisbury Journal, reprinted in Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 26th ; 
Salisbury Times, Feb. 27th, 1925. 

He was the author of : — 
Harvest Home at Wilton. Pamphlet. 

Poems in the Wiltshire Dialect. By the Author of "Harvest 
Home at Wilton." Printed and Published by Alfred Ghalke, 

Wilton, and £. W. Allen, 11, Ave Maria Lane, London, 1867. 
Rhymes of the Wiltshire Peasantry and other Trifles. P. A. 

Blake, Salisbury, and E. Slow, West End View, Wilton, 1870. 
Wiltshire Rhymes, a series of Poems in the Wiltshire Dialect. 

Never before published. London : Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. 

Salisbury, Pred. A. Blake. 1881. Boards, cr. 8vo, pp. vii. + 143. 

Price Is. 
The Fourth Series of Wiltshire Rhymes containing twenty-five 

new Poems in the Wiltshire Dialect, never before published, 

also a Glossary of some words now used in Wiltshire and 

adjoining Counties. Salisbury, P. A. Blake. Wilton, B. Slow, 

West End, 1889. Boards, Or. 8vo, pp. 128. 33 Poems. Price 1/6. 
The Fifth Series of Wiltshire Rhymes and Tales in the 

Wiltshire Dialect, never before published. Wilton, E. Slow. 

Salisbury, R. R. Edwards. Gillingham, James Rideout & Co., 

Wilton Printing Works. [1894 or 5]. Cr. 8vo, pp. 156. 

Wilts Obituary. Ill 

Wiltshire Rhymes with Glossary, new issue, 1898. Cloth 8vo, 
pp. 250. 3/6 net. 33 Poems. Cheap edition of 20 of the Poems. 8vo, 
pp. 128. 1/6 net. 

Hnmourous West Countrie Tales. By the Author of Wiltshire 
Rhymes. Salisbury, R. R. Edwards. [1899]. Cloth, Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 147. [Two or three of these stories had been already published in 
pamphlet form]. 

West Countrie Tales containing Ben. & Nancy Sloper's Good 
Fortune, &c., . , . Salisbury, R. R. Bdwards, [1902]. 
Pamphlet, Cr. 8vo., pp. 31. Reprinted from Salisbury Journal, Oct. 25th, 
1902. Price 6d. 

Humourous West Countrie Rhymes containing Tha Wiltshire 
Moonrakers, &c. ... Salisbury, R. R. Edwards. [1902]. 
Pamphlet, 16mo, pp. 36. 

Humourous West Countrie Tales, No 2, containing Tha Pedigree 
Vowls and tha Lunnen Shearper, &c. . . . Salisbury, R. R. 
Edwards. [1906]. Pamphlet, 6Jin. X 4^in., pp. 30. Price 6d. 

Voices from Salisbury Plain or Who's to blame ? a dialogue on 
the Franco Prussian War, between Willum and Jeames (Wilt- 
shire Labourers). By the Author of " Poems in the Wiltshire 
Dialect." London, Simpkin, Marshall & Co. Salisbury, Fred 
A. Blake. Pamphlet, 16mo, pp. 20. 

G-lossary of Wiltshire compiled by E. Slow., Wilton. Printed 
by the Wilton Printing Works. 1892. Pamphlet, T^in. X 5in, 
pp. 12. 

Tha Parish Council Bill. [1894]. Pamphlet, 12mo. Reprinted from 
The Weekly Record. 

Smilin' Jack : a True Stowry of a Midnight Adventure. Printed 
at the Wilton Printing Works. [1894?]. Pamphlet, 7in. x 4fin., 

Hob Beaker's Visit ta Lunneu ta zee tha Indian & Colonial 
Exhibition. R. R. Edwards, Salisbury. Pamphlet. 12mo. pp. 
13. [A prose story prefixed to more than one local almanack for 1896.] 

Aunt Meary's Soup, a True Story. [4pp. in Edwards' Salisbury 
Almanack Compendium, 1897.] 

Ben Sloper's Visit to the Zalsbury Diamond Jubilee Zelebray- 
shun, what he zeed and zed about it. R. R. Edwards, Salis- 
bury [1897]. Pamphlet. Crown 8vo. pp. 19. Price 3d. [Also pre- 
fixed to Edwards' Almanack for 1898.] 

Ben Sloper at tha Military Manoovers on Zalsbury Plaain. . . . 
Salisbury : R. R. Edwards [1898]. Pamphlet. Crown 8vo. pp.26. 
Price Qd. 

3en Sloper an he's Nancy's visit to Barnum & Bailey's girtest 
Show on Earth at Zalsbury, July 10th 1899. . . . Salis- 
bury : R. R. Edwards. Pamphlet. Cr. 8vo. pp. 23. [Printed as a 
local appendix to Moore's Almanack, &c.] 

2am & Zue's Visit to tha "Girt Wheel." R. R Edwards, Salis- 
bury. Pamphlet. Cr. 8vo. pp. 6. Price 2o?. Signed "Moonraker" 

112 Wilts Obituary. 

T he Transvaal War. Who's to blame ? Boer or Briton. A Dialogue 
between Willum and Edderd, two working men of Salisbury 
Plain. Salisbury : R, R. Edwards, 1900. Pamphlet. 6^in. x 4in. 
pp. 28. Price 6d. 
Ben and Wancy Sloper's Visit to Zalsbury Vair, what they zeed 
and how they enjoyed ther2selves. Salisbury: "R. H*. Edwards. 
[1901.] Pamphlet. Cr. 8vo. pp. 30. 
Buffalo Bill's Wild Waste Show at Zalsbury. August tha zis: 
Nineteen underd an dree. By Janny B>aa. Also a Nigger 
Dialogue, " The Spider and the Fly." Salisbury : R. R. 
Edwards [1903]. Pamphlet. Cr. 8vo. pp 20. 
Rekerlections an' Yarns of a Woold Zalsbury Carrier var auver 
vivty years. Rote in tha Wiltshire Dialect, Contents, . . . 
Salisbury, R. R. Edwards. [1910]. Pamphlet, 6jin. X 4iin., pp. 61. 
The Old Age Pension Act. A Dialogue between Fred, a woold 
Varm Leabourer and tha Squire's Bailee. In the Wiltshire 
dialect. Also good King Edderd's and Queen Alexander's visit 
to Zalsbury. . . . Salisbury,R. R. Edwards. [1911]. Pamph- 
let, 6|in. X 4|in., pp. 31 [Verse and Prose]. 
A Humourous Tale in the West Countrie and Cockney Dialects, 
entitled "Jan Ridley's New Wife," with an account of her 
London Nephew Mr. Dick Daisher. . . . R. R. Edwards» 
Salisbury. [1913]. Cloth, Cr. Svo, pp. 260. Price 3/6. 
Chronology of Wilton, also an account of its Bishops, Abbesses, 
Rectors, Mayors, Members of Parliament, Churches, Royal 
Charters, Hospitals, Benefactors, Celebrities, &c. Wilton, Ed. 
Slow. Salisbury, R. R. Edwards. [1903]. Cloth, Cr. Svo, pp. 150. 
Price 2/6. 
The Military Manoovers in tha IJayberhood a Zalsbury, Zept- 
ember, 1907. . . . Also the Reception of the Wiltshire 
Regiment by the City of Salisbury. Salisbury : R R. Edwards 
[1907J. Pamphlet. Cr. Svo. pp. 27. 
The Great War. A West Countrie Dialogue between Fred and 
Mark, Soldier and Pacifist. . . . Salisbury : R R. Edwards. 
Wilton : Miss Winters. [1918]. Pamphlet. B^in. x 4in. pp 26. 
[A large number of the rhymes and stories published in the various 
series of Wiltshire Bhymes were also published separately in pamphlet 
form, in addition to those mentioned above.] 

John Sadler, died Feb. 15th, 1925, aged 77. Second son of E. T. 
Sadler, of Horley, Surrey. Born at Gt. Yarmouth, Sept. 1st, 1847. 
Educated at Canterbury, entered War Office, Chelsea Hospital about 1860, 
retired 1890. He founded, and was the hon. secretary of, the Civil Service 
Benevolent Fund. Married Oct., 1877, the daughter of Edward Smith, of 
Tottenham, who survives him. He leaves a son, Ralph T. Sadler, and a 
daughter. He had for several years been a member of the committee of the 
Wilts Arch. Soc. and was very regular in his attendance, though he lived at 

Wilts Obituary. 113 

Ealing, and was also often present at the annual meetings. He was specially 
interested in the topography and family history of Wiltshire. 

Me was one of the joint editors of the series of Wiltshire Marriage 
Registers, published by Phillimore, from 1905 onwards, and was for some 
years editor of the " Canterbury and York Society." He left to the Wilts 
Arch !Soc. all his MS. papers, &c., comprising an enormous mass of abstracts 
of wills, extracts from registers, pedigrees, &c., of Wiltshire persons and 
families, obviously the fruit of years of untiring research. It is hoped that 
these papers may shortly be arranged and rendered available for consulta- 
tion in the Society's library. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 19th, 1925. 

He was the author of the following : — 
Morse of Rodbourne Cheney, &c. Wilts N. <k Q., VI., 361—364, 

503—507, 562—565. 
Crawlboys. Ibid., VII., 32-34. 
Notes on Ashton Keynes. Ibid., VII., 122—130. 
Notes on Eemble, Oaksey, and Poole. Ihid., VII., 131—133. 
Notes on Blunsdon St. Andrew. Ibid., VII., 814—319, 366—370. 
Compton Comberwell. Ibid,, VIII., 82—88, 136—140. 
Notes on Wiltshire Parishes. Avebury. Ibid., VIII., 214—224. 
Lydham Weeke, in Iilddington. Ibid, VIII., 458—464. 
Aldbourne, Manor, Chase, and Warren. Wilts Arch. J/ag'., xlii., 576 
I —587. 

Sir Prior Goldney, Bart, C.B., C.V.O., died May 4th, 

1925, aged 81. Buried at Halse (Som.). Eldest son of Sir Gabriel Goldney, 
Bart. Born Aug. 4th, 1843. P]ducated at Harrow and Exeter Coll., Oxon. 
Called to the Bar by the Inner Temple, 1867. Recorder of Helston, and 
afterwards of Poole, a member of the Commission to enquire into corrupt 
practices at Norwich, 1875. City Remembrancer, 1882— 1902. C.B. 1902, 
C.V.O. 1903. Succeeded to the baronetcy 1900. High Sheriff of Wilts 
1906. J. P. for Wilts and Somerset, one of H.M. Lieutenants for the City 
of London, a Past Master of the Merchant Taylors' Company, Major in 
Royal Wilts Yeomanry. He never married and is succeeded in the 
baronetcy by his brother, Frederick Hastings Goldney. He had lived for 
many years at Derriads, a residence which he built near Chippenham, for 
a portion of the year, living the rest of the year at Halse Manor (Som.), a 
property which he inherited from his uncle. Dr. Prior. 

Obit, notices, Times, May 5th ; Wiltshire Gazette, May 7th, 1925. 

Canon William Gardiner, died April loth, 1925, aged 77. 

Buried at Wallingford. Exeter Coll., Oxon, B.A. 1870, M.A. 1873, B.D. 
1891. Deacon 1871, priest 1872 (Bath and Wells). Preb. and Canon of 
Salisbury 1909. Curate of St. James', Taunton, 1871— 73 ; Vicar of St. 
George's, Claines, 1873—87; St. Mary's, Marlborough, 1887--97; Rural 
Dean of Marlborough, 1891—97 ; Vicar of Southbroom 1897 — 1918, when 
he resigned ; Rural Dean of Avebury, Cannings portion, 1906 — 19. He 
was a prominent Freemason and a Past Grand Chaplain of England, and 

114 Wilts Obituary 

was the originator in Devizes of the Boy Scout movement. As Vicar of 
Southbroom he was also acting chaplain to the Devizes Depot of the Wilts 
Regiment, as he had been before to the 3rd Battalion of the county 
regiment at Worcester. He was especially interested in Church schools. 
On his resignation of Southbroom he went to live at Wallingford. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, April 16th, 1925. 

He was the author of : — 
The Laying on of Hands, commonly called Confirmation. By 

W.G. Oxford and London : Mowbray & Co. Price '2d. Pamphlet, 

4|in. X 5in., pp. 29. 
Southbroom Catechisings on the Church Catechism, 1907. 
Rural Deanery of Avebury (Cannings Portion) Memorial 

Tablets, &c., Church Plate and Bells. A.D. 1910. 8vo, pp. 


Canon Ernest Edmund Dugmore, Succentor of Salisbury 

Cathedral, died March 10th, 1925, aged 82. Fourth s. of Will. Dugmore, 
Q.C. Educated at Bruce Castle School, and Wadham College, Uxon.. B.A. 
1867, M.A. 1869. Deacon 1867, priest 1870 (Winchester). Curate of St. 
Peter's, Vauxhall, 1 867—72 ; Vicar of Parkstone (Dors.) 1872— 1910. Preb. 
and Canon of Salisbury 1917 until his death. Widely known in Salisbury 
Diocese as an advanced High Churchman, and more widely still as one 
whose singularly beautiful face was the true expression of his character. 
For many years he took a prominent part in the meetings of the Diocesan 
Synod. He married Lady Elizabeth, d. of the tenth Earl of Kinnoul and 
widow of Col. Sir Fred. Arthur, Bart, who died 1902. He had lived of late 
in Salisbury Close. 

Obituary notice, 

He was the author of : — 
From the Mountains of the East, a Quasi Dramatic Poem. 1882. 
Gospel Idylls and other Sacred Verses. 1884. 
Hymns of Adoration for Church use, 1900. 

Francis Edward Newman Rog^ers, died March 28th, 

1925, aged 56. Buried at Oare. S. of Walter Lacy Rogers. Educated at 
Eton and Balliol Coll., Oxon. Married, 1893, Louisa Annie, d. of Edward 
Jennings, of Gellideg, Carmarthenshire, who, with a son and a daughter, 
survives him. Liberal M.P. for East Wilts 1906—1910. Chairmnn of the 
East Wilts Liberal Association. He contested the elections of 1900 and 
1910 in East Wilts and that of Dec, 1910, in S. Wilts, unsuccessfully. J. P. 
for Wilts, 1894. He was for years an active member of the County 
Council, having been Chairman of the Charities and Hecords 
Committee, and Vice-Chairman of the General Education Com- 
mittee, and for a short time Vice-Chairman of the Council itself. He 
was also for thirteen years Chairman of the Governors of the Dauntsey 
School Foundation, and "the greatly improved position which the 
school now occupies in the educational system of the country is due in 
no small degree to Mr. Rogers' untiring devotion to its best interests." He 
was appointed in 1911 a Small Holdings Commissioner of the Board of 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 115 

Agriculture, and in this connection his former political opponent, Lord 
Bledisioe, who defeated him in South Wilts in 1910, said of him that his 
death " leaves his country, his county which he loved so well, and a wide 
■circle of friends and acquaintances of all classes and and all parties 
markedly and irreparably the poorer." 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, April 2nd, 1925. 


[^]s^/B_ — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
ctppeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their works, and to 
•editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
of articles, views, or portraits, appearing in the newspapers.] 

Frederick Edward Ridgeway, Bishop of Salisbury, 
A Memoir by Ernest Cross, MA., Leeds, Vicar 
Choral, Salisbury Cathedral, and Domestic Chap- 
lain to the Bishop of Salisbury, with Foreword by the Lord 
Bishop of London, and three portraits. A. R. Mowbray & Co. [1924]. 

Cloth, cr. 8vo., pp. xi. + 212. 6s. Photographs of the Bishop in cope 
and mitre, 1920 ; in his robes as Bp.of Kensington ; and in his cassock "In 
his study," all three admirable likenesses. 

The working life of Bishop Ridgeway was practically divided into four 
stages, his work at Glasgow ; as Vicar of St. Peter's, Cranley Gardens,South 
Kensington ; as Suffragan Bishop of Kensington ; and finally as Bishop of 
Salisbury. Little is said of his early life, he does not seem to have made 
:any considerable mark either at school at Tonbridge or at Cambridge, 
where he took a pass degree, but in his third curacy at Holy Trinity, Hyde, 
it is noted that his preaching made a great impression. It was during 
I the period from 1878 to 1890, when he was incumbent of St. Mary's, Glas- 
I gow, and when the Church became the Cathedral, its first dean, that he 
really came into prominence, and by his work there "He won for himself 
respect and regard far outside the Episcopal ('hurch," so much so indeed 
that the University of Glasgow conferred on him the honorary degree of 
D.D., an unique compliment to an Englishman In 1890 he came to 
London as Vicar of St. Peter's, Cranley Gardens, S. Kensington, where he 
became " one of the most prominent priests in the London Diocese," and 
I I 2 

116 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

*' his ten years' work practically transformed the Church so that his 
Vicariate has since been termed ' the Golden Age.' " In 1901 he became 
Suffragan Bishop of Kensington, and Vicar of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate. 
During this period he was in great request as a preacher, and there fell to 
his special share of the general work of the London Diocese, the fouir 
following matters : — Temperance Work, the Evangelistic Council, the 
Church Lads' Brigade, and Preventive and Kescue Work. Of the Church 
Lads' Brigade he was one of the founders as he was also of an Ordination 
Candidates' Fund, probably the first of its kind. Of his work in the 
Diocese of Salisbury from 1911 — 1921, that which will probably be longest 
remembered, was his unceasing endeavour during the four years of the war 
to do something for the vast camps of the new army which covered whole 
districts of Dorset and Wilts. In 1918 he said of himself that he was 
" practically an Army Chaplain quite as much as a Diocesan Bishop," and 
it was literally true. He had addressed 200,000 of the men, and had con- 
firmed thousands of them. From the first he determined, however, to be a 
" Diocesan Bishop," and as far as possible to do nothing outside his own 
Diocese. Himself in later life a pronounced High Churchman, as he 
showed by his sermon to the Anglo-Catholic Congress in 1920, he 
never took in diocesan matters a party view or a party side ; on the con- 
trary he did much to foster and encourage the already existing spirit of 
tolerance and unity for which the Salisbury Diocese had always been 
known. He sympathised in very real measure with the country clergy and 
their difficulties, and stood up squarely for them against their detractors,, 
especially he brought the poverty of many of the clergy prominently before 
the laity of the diocese, and by a personal appeal raised a fund of some 
£7,000 for their relief, and himself contributed most generously to many 
cases which came to his knowledge privately as Bishop. He was all for 
the sale of large Vicarages, and Glebe Lands, and the union of small livings^ 
and he set up at Gillingham an example of the way in which he wished to 
see several small country parishes served by a body of clergy living to- 
gether in a central parish. In opinion a Liberal, he was not a politician, 
and his ideal was that the Church " should stand for an independent view 
of national affairs." The strain of his unending war work told upon his 
strength, and he really wished to resign in 1920 but was, perhaps un- 
fortunately, dissuaded by a generally-supported request from the clergy of 
the Diocese that he would continue his work. The memoir, which is well 
written and founded largely on quotations from visitation or conference 
addresses by the Bishop, for the author had only a very short personal 
knowledge of him, rather leaves the impression that the Bishop him- 
self would have said that his work as a parish priest of Glasgow and St. 
Peter's, Cranley Gardens, was really the portion of his life which best 
suited his natural gifts and genius, for on the pastoral side his gifts were 
great. A series of appendices at the end of the volume give in full six 
sermons or addresses — (l)To former Confirmation candidates at St. Peter's,. 
Cranley Gardens, April 8tb, 1897. (2) A Lent address at St. Peter's,. 
Cranley Gardens, March 16th, 19()0. (3) Sermon to officers and men of the 
West Riding Regt. and Lancashire Fusiliers in Wimborne Minster, Feb. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 117 

^Ist, 1915. (4) Address at Memorial Service at Tonbridge School, June 
17th, 1919. (5) Sermon at Thanksgiving Service in Salisbury Cathedral, 
Nov. 17th, 1918. (6) Sermon at St. Albans, Holborn, June 29th, 1920 
{Anglo-Catholic Congress). 

He was the author of : — 
emails to Service ; being 27 Sermons and Addresses delivered 

in the Diocese of London. Longmans, London. 1912. Cr. 8vo. 5s 
Address to the Synod at Salisbury, April 17th, 1912. Wiltshire 

Gazette, Ap. 18th, 1912. 
Ditto, 1913. Salisbury Journal, Ap. 5th, 1913. 
Ditto, 1915. Wiltshire Gazette, Ap. 15th, 1915. 
Ditto, May 10th, 1916. Salisbury Journal, May 13th, 1916. 
Sermon preached at Netheravon, Dec. 23rd, 1911, on the 

occasion of the Dedication of a Sixth Bell in memory of T. W. 

Hussey. Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 28th, 1911. 
Sermon preached at St. John's Church, Devizes, May 6th, 1912, 

at the Annual Festival of the Salisbury Diocesan Guild of 

Ringers. Wiltshire Gazette, May 9th, 1912. 
Sermon preached at the Trowbridge Parish Church on June 8th, 

1912. Wiltshire Times, June 15th, 1912. 
The Horror of War, Sermon preached in Cathedral August 9th, 

1914. Salisbury Journal, Aug. 15th, 1914. 

M"ew Year's Letter. Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, 3, 1915. 

Ditto. Ibid., Jan., 1916. 

Sermon preached at Trowbridge Parish Church, Sept. 29th, 

1915, at Diocesan Missionary Intercession Service. Wiltshire 
Gazette, Sept. 30th, 1915. 

Diocese of Salisbury. National Mission of Repentance and Hope. 

Preparation Sunday, Sept. 24th, 1916. Bishop's Pastoral, to 

be read on the above Sunday in every Church in the Diocese. 

Pamphlet, 8^in. X 6|in., pp. 8. 
The Dead who are alive. Sermon preached at Potterne at the 

Dedication of the Memorial Organ. Wiltshire Gazette, June 3rd, 


The (Five) Reports on the Excavations at Stone- 
lienge, 1919—1923 By Lt-CoL W. Hawley, PSA. 

The recent work of excavation at Stonehenge, carried out by Lt.-Col. W. 
Hawley, F.S.A.., for the Society of Antiquaries, began in September, 1919, 
and has been carried on down to the present time. This work has been 
described by Col. Mawley in five " Reports," printed in the Antiquaries* 
Journal, Vol. I., No. L, January, 1921, pp. 19—41 (eighteen illustrations) ; 
Vol. II., No. I., Jan., 1922, pp. 36-52 (eight illustrations) ; Vol. Ill, No. I., 
Jan. 1923, pp. 13-20 (four illustrations) ; Vol. IV., No. I., Jan., 1924, 
pp. 30—39 (plan and two illustrations) ; Vol. V., No. I., Jan., 1925, pp.21 
— 50 (plan, one illustration, and many sections). No account of these 
reports has as yet appeared in the Magazine, and it seems well to give a 
short abstract of the work which has been accomplished up to the end of 

118 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

1923, as described in these reports. The first work done by the Oflfice of 
Works was on Stones Nos. 6 and 7, on the south side of the outer circle^ 
which were leaning badly in opposite directions, so that the lintel on the 
top of them was in danger of falling off. This lintel, weighing between 
6 and 7 tons, was lifted oflf and the bases of the supporting uprights were 
excavated. The base of stone 7 was found 5ft. below the surface, and five 
round holes were found penetrating the solid chalk, evidently to hold posts^ 
arranged so as to guide the base of the stone to its correct position. A 
quantity of wood ashes, and signs of fire on the large blocks of sarsen, with 
which the bottom of the stone was packed and wedged, seemed to show 
that when these posts had done their work they were burned, as they could 
not be withdrawn. Great numbers of chips and fragments, both of the 
sarsens and of the blue stones, were found at all depths, but the latter were- 
more than five times as numerous as the former. Stone 6 was dealt with 
in the same way. This was found to have a pointed end 4ft. 6in. below the 
surface, with sarsen packing stones braced by large slabs of Chilmark oolite 
ragstone set on edge behind them. Here, again, a mass of wood ashes was 
found. The two stones were then jacked up straight, concreted in that 
position, and the lintel replaced upon them. In this excavation a con- 
siderable number of fragments of pottery and other small objects of Romano- 
British age were found down to a depth of 15 inches, and a few Bronze Age 
fragments below these. 

Aubrey Holes. In the plan of Stonehenge accompanying the MS. 
Monumenta Britannica in the Bodleian Library, Aubrey showed certain 
depressions inside the earth bank, where he suggested stones had been,. 
There was no sign of these upon the surface, but on trying with a 
steel bar a hole was found at the spot indicated by Aubrey and subsequently 
a series of others, occurring at regular intervals of 16ft. Of these, which 
the excavators called the " Aubrey Holes," twenty-nine were excavated at 
different times, all about the same size, and varying from a depth of 3ft. 5in^ 
to 2ft. and a maximum diameter of 5ft. 3in. to 2ft. Gin. They are more or 
less circular, regularly and sharply cut in the chalk, and many have the edge 
of the chalk bowl cut away or crushed on the side towards the present 
circle, this being apparently caused by the erection or withdrawal of a 
stone from the inner side, probably the latter. Col. Hawley believes that 
they once held small upright stones, and all except four of the twenty-three 
excavated had cremated bones deposited in them. Many sarsen and blue 
stone fragments, and a few pieces of Romano- British pottery were found 
in the filling of these holes, together with flint fabricators and flakes, and^ 
in one case, a number of flint flakes which had obviously been struck oflf 
by a flint worker who worked on the spot. In one hole the position of the 
cremated bones pointed to their having been deposited in the hole after the 
withdrawal of the stone which stood in it. In three cases the holes had 
been apparently dug too deep to fit the stone, and some of the excavated 
chalk had been returned to the hole again ; the sarsen and bluestone chips 
were rarely found below 20in. from the surface. These holes were filled up 
again and their positions are marked by round patches of white chalk. 

Ditch and Rampart. A 3ft. trench was cut from one of the Aubrey holes 

Wiltshire Books, PamphletSy and Articles. 119 

thronofh the rampart and across the ditch. The rampart was found to be 
only 2ft. 6in. high above the chalk rock, and the ditch 39in. deep below 
the present turf level. The lowest stratum yielded roughly- worked 
flints and flakes. A section of the ditch 9ft. X 12ft. was subsequently 
excavated, in which the depth was found to increase to 54in. A cremation 
was found in a bowl- shaped cavity in the solid chalk at the bottom, which 
was roughly flat. No chips of stone were found below 25in. deep. The 
width of the ditch was 9ft., the edges being perpendicular for the first 2ft 

Slaughter Stone. W. Cunnington, F.S.A., had examined this in 1801 
and the banking round the stone is apparently his work, " but we could see 
that the stone had been buried earlier in a pit very roughly dug in the solid 
chalk and just deep enough to allow the soil to cover it at ground level. 
Perhaps the intention had been to bury it deeper, but the hole was not 
made long enough, consequently the top and bottom rest on sloping chalk 
and cause a void of about 10 inches under it." On examining the ground 
westof the stone a very large hole, 10ft. in diameter by 6Jft. deep was found 
and excavated. In the upper layer was a coin of Claudius Gothicus and 
at the bottom two deer-horn picks rested against the curved side. "There 
can be no doubt that a large stone once stood in the hole," possibly the 
Slaughter iStone itself. No traces of holes for the stones marked by 
Aubrey on his plan were found. 

An appendix, pp. 38, 39, gives a note by C. R. Peers, F.S.A., on the method 
adopted for setting leaning stones upright. 

The next work undertaken by the Ofiice of Works was the setting up 
straight of the four uprights 29, 30, 1, and 2, supporting three lintels, on 
the north-east side of the outer circle. When the latter were taken ofi", the 
accurate work on the tenons of the uprights and the mortise holes of the 
lintels was very observable. In the excavations the proportion of sarsen 
and blue stone chippings remained as before, and a number of hard quartzite 
nodules for use as hammer stones were found, and in the lower layer of the 
excavation thirty-six mauls of all sizes varying from some quite small to 
others of 11, 30, and 43 lbs. in weight, and two deer-horn picks broken, 
together with flint implements of a rough description No. 1 stone tapered 
slightly at the base. Here, again, glauconite and Chilmark ragstone were 
found with sarsen used as packing blocks round the base, and there was a 
post-hole on the south side. Under one side of the base of Stone 30 a 
number of holes from 15in. to 20in. in depth were found, containing decayed 
wood matter. These holes were, it is suggested, for posts to support the 
base of the stone, which had a large crack in it and had not in consequence 
been trimmed. There were fifty-eight packing stones round its base, chiefly 
of glauconite and Chilmark stone, showing, as Colonel Hawley remarks, 
that there was no sarsen available on the Plain, beyond pieces knocked ofi" 
the uprights in the process of trimming, and stone for the purpose had to 
be brought from a distance. The four uprights were all straightened and 
concreted, and the three lintels replaced. The base of Stone 29 was found 
only 55in. below datum line, the hole in which it stood had, like that of 
Stone 1, no inclined plane starting from the outside. There were forty-seven 
packing stones, two flint, nineteen sarsen, and twenty-six Chilmark and 

120 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Hurdcott ragstone. There were seven post-holes round the base of the 
stone, containing woody matter. The base was bluntly pointed. No. 2 
Stone was concreted, but it was not necessary to move it ; its base was 
84Jin. below datum line. The hole in which it stood had an inclined plane 
from outside. One large maul weighing 351bs. and twelve smaller ones 
were found round it. 

2%e Blue Stones. The excavations round Stones Nos. 1 and 30 extended 
close to Nos. 31 and 49 of the inner circle of " Blue Stones," or " Foreign 
Stones." and it was decided to concrete the bases of three on the north side. 
Stone 31 was found to extend 46in. below the surface, its total height being 
9ft. 4ia. and No. 49 was also 46in. below ground, and its total height was 
9ft. lOin. The usual fragments of sarsen and blue stone were found round 
them, but no packing stones. 

2'he South '* Barrow." The radius of this was found to be 26ft., the 
height not exceeding 14in. from the chalk rock. Three sections of 12ft. X 6ft. 
crossing the ditch and taking in part of the " barrow," were cut. Three 
Aubrey holes were found under the rubble of the " barrow." A piece of 
the edge of a finely polished stone celt was found near the top of the 
"barrow," and the usual chippings of sarsen and blue stone. Col. Hawley 
concluded that the mound was not a barrow, and it must have been long 
subsequent to the Aubrey holes. There was a small ditch round the 
" barrow," varying in depth from Sin. to 16in., and from 15in. to 18in. wide. 
The place had been excavated by Hoare without result, and as a large hole 
about 4ft. deep was found in the centre of the mound, it was concluded 
that a large stone had stood here, and that it was not a barrow at all. 

The Rampart Ditch. Sections of this were excavated, showing a more 
or less flat bottom varying from 52in. to 63in. in depth below ground-level. 
In the counterscarp side of the ditch bulging projections of 2ft. were 
found with curved recesses in the bank between them, which Col. Hawley 
suggested might have been habitations. In the upper 20in. from the surface, 
sarsen and blue stone chippings, Bronze Age and Romano- British pottery 
sherds were found, and a cremation occurred at 35in. ; but below this, and 
on the bottom, only roughly chipped flints, a borer, a few cores, and many 
flakes were found, and many stag's-horn picks, some of which had the 
bes-tine left on the stock as well as the brow-tine, to ena'ble the pick to be 
used in both hands. The flints found on. the bottom of the ditch had a 
white patina, as distinguished from the dark colour of those of the upper 
layer and of the rough Stonehenge type. On the north-east side a section 
of the ditch was cleared, and the width was found to be 13ft., the depth 
varying from 69in. and 74in. to 36in. and 57in. A grave containing a 
skeleton only 22in. below the surface was judged to be that of a modern 
criminal, probably hung in chains. Stag's-horn picks were again found on 
the bottom of the ditch. On the excavation being carried on to the point 
where the south-east avenue bank and trench would meet the main ditch, 
it was found that both bank and trench of the avenue died out before 
reaching the edge of the ditch, leaving a ridge of undisturbed chalk between 
the two, and that the ditch continued its course almost to the centre of the 
avenue, where it ended in a large crater-shaped space, which had on the 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 121 

inner side a large hole from which apparently a stone had been removed. 
The hole was 4ft. Sin. deep, and its maximum width 42in. In it, 35in. below 
the surface, were the disturbed bones of a child of 8 or 9. At this point 
the ditch ended in a nearly perpendicular wall of solid chalk, 4ft. 9in. high, 
the south-east side of the entrance causeway, which proved to be 37|ft. 
wide, beyond which the ditch began again in a large crater or pit, 22|ft. 
wide and 7Jft. deep, with an opening 7ft. wide into the ditch or another 
pit beyond it. Ool. Hawley regarded the first pit as a dwelling pit. It 
contained ox bones, and on the bottom seven deer-horn picks, and it had 
been partly filled up by white chalk rubble from some other excavations 
being thrown into it. In this chalk, 38in. from the surface, cremated 
remains of an adult and child were found, and there were signs of a fire 
on the bottom. 

The Causeway. The entire surface of the causeway was uncovered, no 
sign of the north-west avenue trench and bank being found. Right across 
the causeway from side to side more or less parallel lines of holes, fifty-three 
in all, dug in the solid chalk, 12in. to 15in. in diameter, and varying in 
depth from that of a mere cup, where the traffic through the entrance had 
worn the surface away, to about 24in. Diagonally across these parallel lines 
certain other larger holes, ISin. to 24in. in diameter, seemed to lie in a line. 
Col. Hawley regards the smaller holes as made for posts, lines of which 
would stretch across the entrance, whilst the larger holes may have held 
small stones for the same purpose, and he looks on the whole of this 
arrangement as connected with the ditch, and earlier than the present 
structure of Stonehenge,and thinks that "The original use of the site was as a 
defensive dwelling." 

He suggests that the Slaughter Stone may possibly have been standing 
in the entrance, with other stones, as a stone hole 3Jft. deep was found close 
to the large hole in which he supposes the Slaughter Stone originally stood, 
and that it was taken down when the existing Stonehenge was erected with 
a view to being used, but being found defective was buried instead. 

No trace of the four stones shown by Inigo Jones as standing at the 
entrance could be found, nor any holes in which they could have stood. 
Col. Hawley, however, suggests that these stones may have been placed 
where they were*shown in modern times to mark the entrance and have 
subsequently disappeared. 

An "Aubrey Hole" was found in the centre of the passage-way, showing 
that the line of these holes was carried across the entrance. 

The Avenue. The avenue ditches were found to be independent of the 
earthwork ditch, and began 10ft. from it. The parallel ditches were 70ft. 
apart, carelessly made, on an average about 3ft. deep, with 12in. of chalk silt 
on the bottom, in which horn picks and flint chips, but no stone chippings, 
which were confined to the upper layer, from which Col. Hawley infers 
that the avenue ditches preceded the erection of Stonehenge. Two stone 
holes were found 4ft. 6in. deep, and both about 24ft. from the Helestone. 
Col. Hawley suggests that the Helestone may have formed one of a group 
independent of Stonehenge. Round the Helestone itself, at a distance of 
10ft., a trench 4ft. deep and 3|ft. wide with nearly perpendicular sides was 

122 Wiltshire Books, Famphlets, and Articles. 

found and excavated. It apparently surrounded the Helestone, but on the 
road side no excavation was possible. It was certainly partly open when 
Stonehenge was built, as chippings were found in the higher part of it, but 
not in the bottom layer, in which one horn pick was found. 

Discovery of the Y. and Z. Holes. The systematic trenching of the 
ground between the earth bank and the outer circle of stones on the north- 
east side led to the discovery of a row of stone holes 36ft. from the outer 
circle of stones and roughly concentric with it, of oblong shape, 5tt. to 6ft 6in» 
long at the top, by about 3ft. 4in. wide, and at the bottom 32in. X 16in. 
Their depth was about 37in. The distance between these holes, 
distinguished as Y holes, was 18ft. 6in. At the bottom of one of these 
holes were two stag's-horn picks and three antlers, showing that no 
stone had stood in it. Thirteen of these Y holes were excavated. 
Inside this line of holes another line of precisely similar holes of 
about the same size at a distance of 12ft. from the present outer 
circle of stones, and nearly but not quite concentric with it, was hit upon 
and twelve of them were excavated. These were distinguished as Z holes. 
In one hole a piece of rhyolite from the blue stones was lying on the bottom 
of the hole, but the excavation of the incline leading to iStone No. 7 of the 
outer circle showed that that stone was erected before the Z hole opposite it 
was dug. On the whole it seems unlikely that stones ever actually stood 
in these holes. In one case (Z 8) no hole was found in the line where it 
ought to have been. The details of the excavation of all these holes is 
given in an appendix to the report of January, 1925. On the south side 
of the circle a number of pestholes similar to those at the entrance 
were found, and amongst them a grave containing a skeleton which has been 
assigned to the Roman or Late Celtic period. The excavations at this 
point were not completed. The stone on the rampart to the south-east was 
dug round and found to be a rough sarsen with no appearance of dressing 
or shaping, 9ft. long by 3ft. 8in. across the front and 3ft. at the side, 
which had stood in a hole 4ft. deep. There was nothing to show its age. 
Several cremations, generally very small quantities of bones only just under 
the surface, were found mostly at or near the inner slope of the rampart. 
Nothing was found with them except in one case in which the burnt bones lay 
in a shallow cist scraped 2in. deep in the chalk rubble, 7i»n. below the sur- 
face. Among the bones lay a beautiful little hammer or mace head of horn- 
blendic gneiss, probably of the Bronze Age, perforated with a cylindrical 
hole which is not countersunk and is polished all over. The material pro- 
bably came from Britanny. It is cushion-shaped, i.e., both ends are bluntly 
rounded. Eight similar examples seem to be known, five from Scotland and 
three from the Thames neighbourhood. 

The Problem of Wansdyke. By Albany P. Major, 

O.B.E., P.S A. Antiquaries' Journal, April, 1924. Vol. iv., pp. 142— 
145. In this short paper the writer criticises the theories set forth in the 
Antiquaries' Journal, Jan., 1924, by VIr. A. D. Passmore. He allows that 
all the digging yet done in Wansdyke, whether in Wilts or Somerset, sug- 
gests a Roman or Post-Koman origin, as Gen. Pitt Rivers long ago proved 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 123 

so far as his own diggings were concerned, but he suggests that " Wans- 
dyke is such a vast work, some 60 miles long, and varies so in size and 
construction at different points . . . that it may be a composite work 
constructed at different periods." " Whether it continued through the 
Forest (Savernake) is still uncertain. Some two miles east of the Forest 
it again incorporates a big camp, Chisbury, and half-a-mile beyond this 
it branches into two. What appears to be the original branch runs on 
eastwards and ends near the base of the chalk escarpment under Inkpen 
Beacon, ten miles north of Andover. The other branch turns south, and 
has been traced to the neighbourhood of Ludgershall, some nine miles 
N.W. of Andover. It is almost certain that there was no extension of 
either branch in the direction of Andover. The object of the original 
branch was evidently to cover the open country between the valley of the 
Avon and the Thames — Kennet against attack from the north." He sug- 
gests that the Inkpen branch rested on marsh and that the branch that ran 
south may be later than the other, and may have been thrown up to cover 
the flank after the original line was turned. He agrees that in forest 
country the line may have been represented by abbattis or timber defences. 
As to Mr. Passmore's identification of the " turf wall " mentioned by Uildas 
as built from sea to sea, with Wansdyke, Mr. Major remarks with consider- 
able force that Gildas goes on to say that as the turf wall proved of no use, 
the Britons applied again to the Romans who " built a wall different from 
the former ... of the same structure as walls generally." There is, 
says Mr. Major, no trace of Wansdyke being replaced by a stone wall, and 
it seems much more likely that Gildas, who wrote a century and a half 
after the legions left Britain, was introducing into his story a confused 
recollection of the two walls which we know the Romans built, the turf 
wall from the Forth to the Clyde, and the stone wall from the estuary of 
the Tyne to the Solway Firth. As to the possible dates when Wansdyke 
might have been built to defend the country south of the Thames and 
Avon he suggests the troubles of A.D. 181 and the worse disasters of 36V— 
8, on both of which occasions the Picts and Scots raided far into Southern 
England. Both Mr. Major and Mr. Passmore regard Wansdyke as a de- 
fensive work, but could such a work have ever been really defended ? 

Saxon Land Charters of Wiltshire. By Gr. B. 
Crrundy, D. Litt, Second Series 

This very important paper, occupying pp. 8—124 of the Archseological 
Journal, vol. Ixxvii. (2nd series, vol. xxvii) March— Dec, 1920, recently 
published, contains the author's investigations of the Land Charters of 
Wilts, the first instalment of which was noticed in W.A.M., vol. xlii., pp. 
514—517 (June, 1924). As before, the Charters are taken in the order in 
which they occur in Birch's Cartularium Saxonicum, the reference to 
I Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus, being also given; a few charters from other 
printed sources are dealt with in addition. 

Birch 59, 59a. Charlton, near Malmesbury. This is called Cherletone 
prope "Tectan" (z>., Tetbury) and is not identified by either Birch or 
Kemble. The boundaries are most uncertain but Odda's Bourne and the 

124 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

" Grundle " are identified with the stream i-mile south of the east end of 
Charlton village. At the point where boundary and stream meet is an old 
quarry (Orundle), '* Cea&terhroke^' the brook of the Roman fort or station* 
a name which Dr. Grundy cannot explain, was the stream crossed by the 
modern road to Malmesbury at the point where it leaves the south boundary 
of the park. Sondhey, the sand hedge or enclosure, is Sundey's Hill in the 
north of Brinkworth parish. 

Birch 754. Liddington. Lyden is the stream flowing through the north 
part of Liddington and Wanborough. Dorcyn called Dorterne Brok in the 
Badbury Charter and Dorceri in that of Chiseldon, is the large brook 
forming the north boundary of Liddington. Snodeshelle survives as Snod's 
Hill. This charter has been attributed to Litton Cheney, and to Lidentune 
on the river Lidden, both in Dorset. 

Birch 867. Idmiston. Dr. Grundy thinks this refers to the land unit 
of Idmiston only without Porton, but cannot identify the boundary with 
any confidence. 

Birch 870 and 956. West Knoyle. 

Birch 879. Winterburna, possibly Laverstock, identified by Kemble 
with Laver (Dorset). No bounds identified. 

Birch 886. Winterborne, ? in Wilts. 

Birch 1145. At Winter Burnan, identified by Birch with Winterbourne 
Monkton. Grundy cannot identify it. 

Birch 1192. Aet Winterburnan. Birch and Earle say Winterbourne 
Monkton, Grundy says no. 

Birch 917. Broad Chalke, Bower Chalke, Ebbesbourne Wake, Alvediston 
(?), Berwick St. John, Tollard Royal, &c. Cnihta land survives as Knighton. 

Ghetoles Beorge or Cotelesburgh, i.e., Chetol's Barrow, is Kits Grave, at 
the point where Hants, Wilts, and Dorset meet. Micel Burh (Great Camp) 
survives in Mistleberry Wood, and " Trogan " is Trow Down and Drow 
Copse. Lefreshmere is the modern Larmer Grounds, and Tilluces Leah is 
Tinkley Bottom. 

Birch 917 and 970. The latter is identified rightly by Birch with Easton 
Bassett tithing in Berwick St. John, perhaps formerly a tithing of 
Donhead. The name survives in Easton Farm. The " Ox Drove " 
Ridgeway is called " Straet " at this point, i.e., it was a made road. 
Mapuldor Gumb is the modern Maccombe. Winterburh is Winklebury 
Camp. Stoc is Stoke Farthing in Broad Chalke. In Semley the modern 
Billhay Farm and Bridge represent the Billan Leah of the Charter. 

Birch 921, 922. Brokenborough Manor. Gorsa Brok is the modern 
Gauze Brook. The survey apparently includes Corston but the boundaries 
present great difficulties. A survey attached to this Charter refers to lands 
at Sutton Benger. 

Birch 948. Lands of EUandune in Wroughton, Lydiard Millicent, and 
perhaps Lydiard Tregoze. 

Birch 960 and 1072. Withiglea noted in a 16th century hand as Phiphide 
(or Fyfield). The two are practically identical, but Birch identifies one 
with Widley, near Southampton, in which Grundy says he is wrong, and 
the other with " Fyfield, near Wilton," but Grundy can trace no connection 
with either Wiltshire Fyfield in the surveys. 

Wiltshire Boohs^ Pamphlets, and Articles. 125 

Birch 962, which he identifies with Ebbesbourne. Grundy cannot 
identify it. 

Birch 970. Donhead St. Andrew. 

Birch 992. Upton Lovel. 

Birch 1067. Burbage. Kemble places this in Berks. Uorth Burg the 
earth camp at Crowdown Clump, to which the name Godsbury erroneously 
applied to a barrow, really belongs. 

Birch 1071. Ehheshurna identified by Birch and Kemble as Ebbesbourne 
Wake, said by Grundy to be Coombe Bissett. 

Birch 1118. Patney. 

Birch 1124. Easthealle, identified by Birch with Snap (Aldbourne) but 
says Grundy it is not a Wiltshire Charter. 

Birch 1127. Steeple Ashton, West Ashton, N. Bradley, and Southwick. 
Keevil appears as Kefle. 

Birch 1213. Great Bedwyn, Grafton, and Burbage. Mr. Crawford has 
dealt with these boundaries in W.A.M., but Dr. Grundy does not agree 
with his identifications. 

Birch 1215. Edington. Bodeleshurgge is Bowie's Barrow, but the present 
boundary does not reach to this point. Padecanstan is Patcombe Hill. 

Birch 1216. Bemerton. 

Birch 1286. Auene, Afene is Stratford-sub-Castle. Mihelwara is appar- 
ently Old Sarum, and Eald Burhdic the north ditch of the same. 

Kemble 632. Rodbourne, derived from Keed Bourne, the stream which 
falls into the Avon at Great Somerford. 

Kemble 641. Tisbury, East and West, and Wardour. Cigelmarc is 
Chilmark. The "Twelve Acre Copse" of to-day perpetuates the Twelf 
Aceron of the charter. Funtgeal is the original name of Fonthill. 

Kemble 655, Bblesburnam, identified by Kemble as Ebbesbourne Wake, 
is ascribed by Grundy to Stratford Tony. 

Kemble 658. Westwuda, identified with Westwood (Hants), is really the 
Wiltshire Westwood. Stanford=i:itowford and Igford, Iford. The use 
of the word Straeet of the road from Bradford to Winkfield Common, part 
of the great Ridgeway along the west border of Wilts, shows that this was 
one of the old Ridgeways which had in parts been Romanised or "made." 

Kemble 706. Bradford-on-Avon, identified as Bradford (Dorset) by 
Kemble. The Bissi is the Biss river, Pomeray Wood is Pumperig, Warleigh 
Wood is Werleghf and Broughton Gifi'ord, Broetun. 

Kemble 767. Seafonhaematun is wrongly attributed to the Wiltshire 

Manningford Abbas. Charter from the Liher de Hida. 

Longbridge Deverill, in Hoare's Modern Wiltshire. The A.S. Efeheorh 
has been connected with the modern " Long Iver," but that is derived from 
the A.S. Yfre, an escarpment. 

Sherington from the Wilton Cartulary in Monasticon. 

Crudwell. Three charters. Murcott (Archseologia, XXXVIT), Eastcourt 
(Kemble 584), and Chelworth (Birch 584-586). A list of the field names 
of Crudwell is appended. Little Cindrum preserves the A.S. Sunderhamm. 
Idover, which occurs also in Dauntsey, is from the Celtic dofr, water, and 

126 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

refers to springs which rise in the field. Barrow Field and Stadborough 
Copse testify to former barrows or earthworks. Chedglow is from Geaggan 
Hlaew, and Hickmore from HyTcemeres Streme. 

The Church of St. Bartholomew at Corsham in 
Wiltshire. By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. Devizes. 

Printed by Geo. Simpson & Co., 1924. 8vo. pp. ix. + 148. Price 12/6. 

This solid work is probably the most complete and exhaustive history of 
any parish Church in the county and is obviously the fruit of a prodigious 
amount of original research. The early history of the Church is indeed a 
curious one. William the Conqueror shortly after the Conquest granted 
the Church of Cosham to his newly founded Abbey of St. Stephen's at 
Caen, and it is so recorded in Domesday. Hen. I. confirmed the grants to 
St. Stephen's and added new gifts of his own,but in the charter of confirm- 
ation there is no mention of Corsham, which he gave to the Abbey of 
St. xVlartin at Tours, known as " Marmoutier," probably giving some other 
Church, in its place to Caen. Hen. II. confirmed this and specified that 
the whole of the tithes of Corsham were included in the gift. It was usual 
for foreign abbeys to build a small religious house or cell on property 
owned by them in this way in England, and these were called " Alien 
Priories " and Tanner and Dugdale state that there was certainly one if not 
two such Priories at Corsham. Mr. Brakspear, however, shows that this 
is a mistake. The Letters l/atent of 1237 mention the three priories of 
Marmoutier in England as Holy Trinity, York, Newport Pagnell (or Tyke- 
ford), Bucks, and Overton, Yorks, and the " Church of Corsham " and the 
*' Manor of Thorverton " clearly distinguishing Corsham from the IMories. 
It is true that there were Monks of Marmoutier settled at Corsham to take 
charge of the Church and lands, and their leader did once at least call himself 
" Prior," but he appears to have had no right to the title. Tanner's ISotitia 
Monastica refers to an " extent of Corham Priory " in the British Museum. 
This, however, turns out to be an extent of the possessions of the Abbot 
of Marmoutier in " Cosham," and is printed in an appendix in this volume. 
A long Chancery suit took place in 1344, in which the Prior of Tykeford 
claimed that the Church of Corsham was subordinate to his Priory, and 
was not an independent unit. The Court, however, decided that it was 
annexed directly to Marmoutier, and so was not dependent on Tykeford. 
Its history during the French wars, when the property of the Foreign 
Abbeys passed into the King's hands is given here in full from entries in the 
Public Hecords. At the end of the 14th Century Corsham was thus 
administered together with the English possessions of the Abbey of St. 
Nicholas of Angers, and this led to much later confusion as to its original 
status. In this way Corsham Church was granted during the first half of 
the 1 5th century to Queen Joan, Sir Hugh Luttrell, Sir Kdmund Hunger- 
ford, Syon Abbey and King's (yollege, Cambridge, and apparently to the 
two latter at the same time. The whole of these comi)licated transactions 
are here followed and references to the authorities are given. In one grant 
the "Alien Priory of Cosham " is mentioned in so many words, but this 
Mr. Brakspear says is a clerical error, for the Alien Priory never existed. 

Wiltshii^e Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 127 

In the end Corsham Church remained in the possession of Syon Convent 
until the suppression. The Vicar's are mentioned as they occur and a very 
-complete list of Vicars and Patrons is given as an appendix. After the 
suppression the advowson passed through a number of hands all carefully 
traced here. Mr. Brakespear quotes an indenture of 1647 as mentioning 
^' Corsham alms Cosham " as the earliest instance of the change to the 
modern name from the earlier " Cosham." Between 1572 and 1745 when 
the Court, Manor, and Advowson were bought by Paul Methuen, of Brad- 
ford, they passed through a large number of hands. The descent of the 
Rectory Manor is traced from the suppression through the Smythe, 
Downes, Deeke, and Neale families to Sir Gabriel Goldney, Bt., who 
bought it in 1857, and left it to his son Sir John T. Goldney. Kt, Coming 
to the architecture of the Church, which occupies pp 27— 59, Mr. Brakespear 
suggests that the evidence of the walls of the present nave and entrance 
door points to the existence of a very early Saxon Church, destroyed no 
doubt by the Danes, and re-built and enlarged after the Danish invasion. 
Of both these Saxon (Churches he gives conjectural ground plans as also of 
the Church at the end of the 12th century, at the end of the 15th century, 
and at the present time, tracing its development throughout, century 
by century, and describing it in detail with its furniture as it probably was 
at the end of the 15th century. 

From the time of the second Saxon Church to 1874 there had been a 
central tower, and the late Saxon foundations of that tower probably 
support the present chancel arch. At the end of the twelfth century the 
tower was rebuilt above the roof, but the belfry stage was an addition of 
the fourteenth century. In 1810 the spire v^^hich Mr. Brakspear suggests 
may have been rebuilt cir. 1631, was condemned as unsafe and the upper 
part was taken down. In 1813 further dilapidations very nearly led to a 
new Church being built, and the old pulled down. In 1815 the rest of the 
^pire was taken down and other " improvements " were made in the interior. 
In 1848 the idea of a new Church was again mooted, but nothing was done. 
In 1874 C. E. Street was called in ; the paramount consideration was to 
provide more seating accommodation, and he very reluctantly came to the 
"Conclusion that the only way in which this could be done was by removing 
the central tower. Two alternative plans given by him are reproduced in 
the book. In the event the central tower was removed, a new chancel arch 
built, a new tower and spire built as a south transept, and the Methuen 
pew or chapel built as a north transept to balance it. This work 
was finished in 1878. Having thus brought the Church as a whole down 
to its present condition, Mr. Brakspear takes the separate portions of the 
building and gives a detailed description of each. As regards the stone 
screen to the I .ady Chapel at the end of the north aisle, its similarity to 
that at Great ( 'h^lfeld makes it likely that it was built for Thomas Tropenell 
by the same masons who worked for him at Chalfield. Buckler's drawing 
of this screen in 1809 shows various diflferences from its present condition. 
The staircase built to the east of the S. Porch by Lady Margaret Hungerford 
to reach the gallery erected by her in the south aisle (destroyed in 1874) is 
dated 1631, and is a curious instance of the survival of pure Gothic forms 

128 Wiltshire Books, PampJiletSf and Articles, 

long after they are usually supposed to have disappeared. In the Methuen 
Pew are the fragments of a great monument to Mistress Alice Cobb (died 
1627), which stood in front of the sedilia in Adderbury Church, Oxon, until 
1837, when it was taken down. The pieces remained there until 1879 when 
they were handed over to Lord Methuen, as representing the family, taken to 
Corsham, and re-erected there. They do not, however, pretend to be in their 
original positions. There are a whole series of appendices, the Extent of the 
possessions in Corsham of the Abbot of M armoutier ; the Customs of the 
Rectory manor ; the Rectory or Parsonage House, which was pulled down 
by Hen. Pullen at the end of the eighteenth century, after he had built the 
present Priory House. Of this the history is carefully traced and a series 
of deeds recording its descent are quoted. The history of the two chantries 
is given at length. The most important endowment was the Feoffee, or 
Our Lady's Lands, which still remains as an active charity. It consisted 
of lands given for finding a priest in the parish Church for ever and was 
not a chantry in the usual sense of the word, and owing to the fact that the 
lands were copyhold of the two manors of Corsham and were not for the 
endowment of any particular " chantry," they were, in spite of extensive 
inquiries and litigation, under Ed. VI. and Eliz., here described, saved from 
the hands of the Crown and remain to this day as the ecclesiastical and 
non-ecclesiastical Feoffee charities with a total income of £195. 

The next appendix deals with the Vicarage, with list of Vicars and 
patrons from 1244, terriers, and an account of the "Peculiar of Corsham.'^ 
Until 1857 the Vicars of Corsham possessed a " Consistory, or Peculiar 
Court, to deal with ecclesiastical offences and for proving of wills of the 
parishioners." When Peculiars were abolished in 1857 the Corsham Book 
of Wills, dating from 1712, and containing one hundred and seventy-five 
entries, was sent to Salisbury, and later, with all the other Salisbury wills, 
was lodged at Somerset House. The Peculiar Court was held in the 
Consistory Room, at the east end of the south chapel of the chancel. The 
Peculiar seal of the Vicar, now in the possession of Lord Methuen, here illus- 
trated, was probably made for Latimer Crosse, instituted 1713. Hegisters, 
Vestry minute books. Chained books, are next dealt with, and a register of 
pews and seats from 1710 to 1856 is given at length. The monumental 
inscriptions are printed in full, bells and plate are described, and the parish 
chest, cir. 1660, lately restored to the Church, is illustrated. In addition 
to the illustrations already mentioned, are: — West View of the Church ; 
South-East and South-west Views, and Interior from a sketch, all before 
1874 ; Chancel and Chapel from South-East ; Interior looking East ; 
Terminal of Gable of Lady Chapel ; Screen of Lady Chapel ; Thos. 
Tropenell's monument ; North Aisle, interior ; West End of South Aisle ; 
South Porch; Font and North Doorway. 

There is a long and excellent notice of the book in Wiltshire Gazette^ 
Dec. 18th, 1924. 

Air Survey and Archseologfy. By O G S. Crawford, 
r.S.A. Ordnance Survey. Professional Papers. 

New Series, No 7. Southampton, 1924. Paper Covers, 4to, pp.39, 
2 maps, 18 plates, and 3 cuts in text, 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 129 

This valuable publication contains the paper read by Mr. Crawford before 
the Royal Geographical Society on March 12th, 1923, supplemented by a 
whole series of large size reproductions of air photographs of earthworks, 
camps, lynchets, &c., of which thirteen have to do with Wiltshire, and the 
remaining seven with Hants and Dorset, each illustration having a page 
of explanation and description to itself. The main thesis of the lecture is 
that the two systems of lynchets, the rectangular chessboard system so 
often found in the neighbourhood of the Romano-British villages on the 
downs and the terraced or strip lynchets found chiefly on the steep sides 
of the down valleys are characteristic of two entirely diflferent systems of 
agriculture, the small rectangular fields with the boundary ditches often 
extending for long distances on the downs, being the remains of the Celtic 
system, which began perhaps with the Iron Age some 450 B.C. and lasted 
without break until roughly 450 A.D. and the coming of the Saxons who 
swept it, and the hill-top villages which it served, utterly out of existence, 
and substituted for it the system of lynchets of acre or half-acre strips, 
with the open field system which lasted right on down to the enclosures at the 
end of the eighteenth century. He does not deny that there may have 
been agriculture in the Bronze Age, though the evidence of it is small, but 
he asserts that for Neolithic agriculture in England there is no proof at all. 
On the other hand, that such a system was in full force in the Early Iron 
Age there is ample proof. Pytheas, writing in the La Tene I. period, speaks 
of the quantity of wheat grown and stored in large barns by the Britons, 
and Diodorus Siculus later on in the latter part of the first century says 
that they cut off the heads of the corn and stored it in "underground 
dwellings," such as the storage pits at Fovant, in which Dr. Clay found so 
much charred grain. 

As to the relative age of the chess-board fields and the great hill camps 
he proves that in many cases where these rectangular lynchets exist inside 
the camps, the ramparts of the latter can be shown to have cut across the 
already existing lynchets, which were therefore older than the camps, the 
majority of which were, he thinks, of the middle or later part of the Early 
Iron Age. The boundary ditches, again, which he connects with the rect- 
angular lynchets, are clearly of later date than the Bronze Age barrows, as, 
for instance, near Sidbury Hill, where a ditch bisects a disc barrow, and in 
many other places, where the ditch either avoids or is obviously laid out in 
line with an already existing barrow, whilst they are equally clearly in many 
cases older themselves than the camps, the ditches of which, as at Quarley, 
cut right across them. He believes that a new group of invaders somewhere 
about 700 — 500 B.C., were responsible for the introduction of square camps, 
such as South Lodge Camp, Angle Ditch, and Martin Down Camp, finger- 
tip pottery, new types of bronze implements, the use of iron, and the 
rectilinear system of Celtic agriculture and boundary ditches. 

As to the Saxon system of agriculture, the strip lynchet, and the open 
field, which took the place of the older Celtic system, Mr. Crawford prints 
a photograph of a map of Calstone preserved at Bowood, dating from 
between 1713 and 1732, showing all the acre or half -acre strips still in 
existence and grouped together in parcels of a furlong long and a furlong 

130 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

broad. Many of the existing lynchets on the hillside at Calstone can be 
identified on this map. It was these same Calstone lynchets which were 
assigned by Gomme, in his " Village Community" to the imaginary " Pre- 
Aryan Hill Folk," whom he created. Mr. Crawford gives maps showing 
the positions of the Pre-Roman and Romano-British villages in South 
Wilts on the Downs, and of the villages with Saxon names that took their 
place, all of them strung out along the course of the streams in the 
valleys. He dwells on the extreme importance of air photography as 
showing all sorts of earthworks not visible to the eye on the ground, and 
reproduces air photographs of the Course of the Avenue at Stonehenge ; 
of Stonehenge itself ; of Celtic fields near Ann's Farm, Cholderton ; of 
Charlton Down (near Pewsey) ; of Young Plantation in Orcheston St. Mary ; 
of Compton, in Enford ; of Middle Hill, near Warminster; of Soldier's 
Ring, in S. Damerham, formerly in Wilts and now in Hants ; of Yarnbury 
Castle ; of Scratchbury Camp ; and gives an Ordnance folding Map of 
Figheldean Down, on which the extensive series of rectangular Celtic fields 
as visible in air photographs have been laid down, as well as a larger map 
of Central Hampshire treated in the same way. It is, however, a pity that 
the more delicate lines clearly visible on silver prints of the air photographs, 
as, for instance, those of the Avenue of Stonehenge, do not lend themselves 
to reproduction by half-tone blocks, and are quite invisible on the plate 
here given. On the other hand, the internal ditch of Scratchbury comes 
out well, but the circular internal ditch of Yarnbury is barely visible. This 
internal ditch had not been marked on the later editions of the Ordnance 
Maps, though it was marked on the 1808 Survey, and had been forgotten 
until air photographs called attention to it again. The photograph of 
Charlton Down shows the original rectangular system overlaid by the strip 
system, and the terraced lynchets, of Compton (Enford) and Middle Hill 
come out very clearly. 

Excavations at East Grlmstead, Wiltshire. Being 
a record of the discovery of a Roman Villa, with 
plans of the site, of the excavations, and other 
illustrations. By Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. London : 

Printed at the Chiswick Press, Tooks Court, Chancery Lane, E.C. 4, and 
to be obtained there. 1924. Price 3s. Qd. net. 

Svo., paper covers, pp. 54. A geological map showing Roman sites near 
West Dean, Ground Plan of the site of the Villa, four other plans with 
sketch views, six plates of relics, and four cuts in the text. 

This is a record of the author's excavation of a Roman villa at East 
Grimstead, near West Dean, in 1914, 1915, and 1922—24, in the same 
charming form as the monographs in which he has recorded his previous 
diggings. It is, indeed, in many ways a model of what such a record should 
be. The account of the diggings of 1914 appeared in the " Festival Book 
of Salisbury " of that year— but no report of the subsequent completion of 
the work has appeared before this. In the picturesque " Introduction " he jj 
suggests that the best way to reach the site is by Eyre's Folly, now known 
as the " Pepper Box," the small hexagonal brick tower bearing the 

Wiltshire Books, Pam'phlets, and Articles. 131 

inscription " Eyre's Folly, erected when Brickwell House was built by Giles 
Eyre Esqre in 1606," called on the Ordnance Map of 1817 "Eyre's 
Summerhouse." He notes that in the whole area of the New Forest no 
Roman villa site has been discovered. The soil was not good enough for 
the practical lloman farmers ; whereas just outside the borders of the Forest 
there were " Villas " at West Dean, East Grimstead, and no doubt also at 
Holbury, although the actual site of the latter has not been identified. He 
mentions, also, incidentally, that " Two worn Sestertii, one of Antoninus 
Pius (A.D. 131 — 161), the other illegible, a Roman horseshoe, stone tiles, 
nails, and many sherds of ornamental and coarse New Forest ware have 
been found at Farley Farm, in a field belonging to Mr. E. S. Williams, on 
the southern side of Hound Wood, but I have failed to locate any wall 
foundations on this site." He compares the house at East Grimstead with 
those at West Dean, close by, and at Rockbourne Down, Hants. The latter 
was a poor man's, West Dean a rich man's. East Grimstead a "well-to-do 
man's " house. The first portion of the site excavated proved to be a bath 
house, isolated from the rest of the building, and eventually two more bath 
houses, similarly isolated, were found. In the first he notes that a heap of 
148 oyster shells were found, and there was a semicircular bath, as at Box. 
Two of these buildings had bypocausts, and all the arrangements for hot 
and cold chambers, but the third, a small building, a considerable distance 
away from the house itself, had only a cold bath, 6ft. X 5ft., lined with 
hard pink mortar, and with steps down to it, in perfect preservation. This, 
he suggests, may have served for the slaves working on the farm. In this 
connection a note by the late Prof. Haverfield on the numerous examples of 
these isolated bath houses, both in Britain and on the Continent, is given. 
He considers that they were so isolated to minimise the danger of fire — and 
in many cases a single bath house served perhaps for a village, or several 
small houses, which, being built of mud, cob, or wattle and daub, have left 
no remains behind them. The house itself was of corridor type, 142ft. long, 
and%leven rooms were excavated, whilst the site of probably two more had 
been destroyed by flint-diggers. One of the rooms, 19ft. 6in. square, was 
warmed by a composite hypocaust, with a flue leading from the firehole 
outside to the centre from which four other flues led to the walls and ended 
in Box tiles leading up the inner face of the wall and not imbedded in the 
masonry. Otherwise, except in the bath houses, no hypocausts seem to 
have been discovered, and no tessellated floors except in one room, where 
plain cream-coloured tesserae alone occurred. One room was floored with 
tiles 8in. square, all the rest, except one, with puddled chalk and pebble 
stone. Fragments of window glass were found in all the rooms except two. 
He notices that " Heathstone" from the Tertiary sands of the New Forest 
is used for the cheeks of hypocaust furnace walls on all Roman sites in the 
neighbourhood, and that the slab stone roofing tiles are from Purbeck. A 
curious point is raised in connection with a large block of freestone 2ft. 
square, standing 6ft. outside the southern foundation with a + incised on 
its upper surface. Mr. Sumner suggests the possibility of this having been 
a " central stone," marking the cardinal points, in accordance with which 
the plan of the building was set out. He says that as a matter of fact all 

K 2 

132 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

the walls of the building do accord with this +, but he does not dogmatise 
on the point, merely stating the case for and against " Centuriation " in 
Britain. Three curious " fireplaces " were found, two in the yard and one 
in the middle of one of the rooms, rather after the fashion of the " T-shaped 
hypoeausts " common in " British villages " on the Downs. These Mr. 
Sumner assigns to " Squatters " on the site, after the abandonment of the 
villa as a residence. This, he thinks, was the result of gradual desertion 
and decay rather than of any sudden disaster. Of the objects found, which 
have all been placed in the Salisbury Museum, most of them found not in the 
rooms but in a ditch drain into which rubbish was thrown, the most notable 
were fifty-nine coins, from Gallienus, A.D. 253, to Valentinian, 365 — 375, 
a silver spoon of the usual type, a white glass bowl, and many fragments of 
blue, amber, and olive-green glass vessels, Samian ware of A..D. 100 to 135, 
many bone pins with knob tops, bronze amulets, a bronze brooch of La 
Tene III. type, iron gouge, keys, knives, pruning hook, sandal cleats, &c., a 
bone counter with five pips, a curious double-handled globular pottery 
vessel of Belgic affinities, the base of a pottery candlestick, a mortarium 
with a curious spout, and some of the stamped ware from Ashley Rails. 
Nine hundred and thirty-three oyster shells were found in the ditch, to- 
gether with mussel and snail shells {Helix pomatia). 

Chippenham in Bygone Days. Compiled by 

George A. H. White. Devizes. Printed by George Simpson & 
Co., Wiltshire Gazette Office. 1924. Cloth, llin. X TJin., pp. 33, 24 plates. 
Paper covers, 5s. ; cloth, 10s. 

This is a book of plates with just enough Jetterpress to each to explain 
it properly. As Mr. White says, these' reproductions" include most of 
the old views and plans of Chippenham which I have been able to find," 
all except three being reproductions of original maps and plans or oil or 
water-colour drawings, not accessible to the public. They are well re- 
produced and the presentment of them in this form is a happy idea of the 
compiler. The arms of the borough are illustrated and their origin explained. 
The Map of the Town and Borough by John Powell, 1784, belonging to the 
Corporation, the Map of the Borough Lands in 1*781, and the Plan of the 
Borough by J. and W. Newton, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
showing the position of the 129 Burgage, or Free Houses, and a plan showing 
the Bath Road and Lowdon Hill in 1742, by I. Overton, when the main 
road opposite Ivy House was only 9ft. wide. It is noted that before 1802, 
when the new Derry Hill road was made, the coaches from Calne came to 
Chippenham by Studley and Stanley. A drawing of Monkton Old Manor 
House, with the gardens running down to the river, is reproduced from a 
Map of the Manor of Monkton of 1710. The present house on the same 
site was apparently built after 1778. A sketch of the history of the manor 
is given. Originally the private demesne of the Crown, it was given by the 
Empress Matilda to Monkton Farleigh Priory. At the Dissolution it was 
granted to Sir Edward Seymour, the Protector. In 1676 Lady Elizabeth 
Seymour, the heiress, married Thomas Lord Bruce, Earl of Ailesbury, and in 
1686 they sold the property to Thomas Goddard, of Rudloe, gent., and 

Wiltshire Books j Pamphlets, and Articles. 133 

Arthur Easmeade, of Calne, woollen draper, Easmeade eventually taking 
the manor and a portion of the estate, and Goddard taking the rest. Arthur 
Easmeade died 1705, and his son, a lunatic, in 1778. 

The Old Town Hall is reproduced from a water-colour sketch, and a plan 
of the Shambles in 1856 is given, together with a reproduction of a drawing 
of the Buttery and the Shambles from a water-colour sketch. The pictu- 
resque Butter Cross was pulled down in 1889 and the stone pillars which 
supported its roof are now in the grounds of Castle Combe Manor House. 
The Market Place (S.E. side) and Town Pump, from a water-colour of 1820 ; 
the same, from the S.W., from a sketch of the same date ; a Ground-Plan 
of the Church, in 1787, showing the allotment of the pews ; the Interior 
of the Church, looking west in 1830, from a drawing ; the Interior, 
looking East, from a drawing of later date, shows the Norman 
chancel arch removed to the north side of the chancel in the restoration of 
1874 — 8. A more accurate view of this last is the reproduction of a photo- 
graph taken before 1874. It is noted that the Old Vicarage, exchanged for 
the present house in 1826, was the house called "The Limes," No. 15, St. 
Mary Street. The present Vicarage belonged to Jonathan Rogers, and 
afterwards to Rogers Holland, M.P. for Chippenham, 1727—1741, who 
covered a well in the garden supposed to possess medicinal virtues, with a 
vaulted building and called it Chippenham Spa. The illustration of the 
Town Bridge is from Robertson's Itinerary of the Bath Road, published 
1792. The bridge was altered and widened in 1796 and again in 1878, and 
the view of it from Britton's Beauties of Wilts in 1815 is given. The High 
Street, North-East End ; The Bell Inn, in the Market Place ; The Three 
Crowns Inn (The Causeway) ; Monkton Hill ; Fair Day at Chippenham, 
1865 ; are all from water-colours. The welcome to Joseph Neeld, M.P., at 
the opening of the Cheese Market, 1850, is from an illustrated paper, and 
Nos. 24 and 25, High Street, the author's home, the finest piece of domestic 
architecture in the town, and one of the nicest things of its kind in the 
county, is from a photograph. Mr. White thinks that this facade was added 
to the older house, together with the fine oak staircase and panelling and 
fireplaces between 1749 and 1777. 

Noticed, Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 28th, 1924. 

The Monastic Church of Amesbury. A con- 
troversy revived — and closed. This is the title of a long 
article of four columns in the Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 11th, 1924, in which 
an extremely useful review is given of the history and cause of the con- 
troversy which has been carried on at intervals ever since Canon Jackson 
read his paper on Amesbury Monastery in 1867. He decided on the 
whole against the documentary evidence of the destruction of the monastic 
Church, that the existing Church is that of the monastery. This conclusion 
was apparently accepted by everybody until the Wilts Arch. Soc.'s meeting 
at Amesbury in 1899, when Mr. C. H. Talbot, supported by the Rev. C. S. 
Ruddle, contended that the Parish Church was not the monastic Church, 
i Mr. Doran Webb maintaining the contrary opinion that it was. In 1900 
Mr, Ed. Kite wrote a series of articles in Wilts Notes and Queries on 

134 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Amesbury Monastery, giving an account of some excavations at the back 
of the present Mansion House in which remains of the monastic buildings 
were found, and marshalling the arguments in favour of the belief that the 
existing Church was that of the monastery, as local tradition has apparently 
always asserted, arguing that the chancel of the Church was the monastic 
Church, of which the roof, &c., was destroyed, whilst the nave— the parochial 
Church— was left. Mr. Talbot also in Wilts Notes and Queries attacked 
these arguments, but the writer of the present article distinctly considers 
that Mr. Kite had the best of the dispute all round. Two useful plans 
accompany the article, one of the Church, the other of the Church, park, 
and mansion, showing the site, at the back of the house, where the excava- 
tions were made in 1860, and the spot to the left of the house, where monastic 
remains were taken down in 1826. In the Wiltshire Gazette^ Sept. 18th, 
1924, Mr. H. Brakspear replies to this article in a short letter contending 
that as all monastic orders had a certain general plan to which their 
buildings more or less approximated, it was natural to expect that the 
monastic Church of Amesbury would correspond in size and style with 
that of Nuneaton, in Warwickshire, founded about the same time, and the 
only other large house of the order of Fontevrault in England. The dimen- 
sions of the latter correspond fairly nearly with the documentary dimen- 
sions of the Amesbury Abbey Church, but neither these dimensions nor the 
architectural features of Nuneaton correspond with those of the existing 
Parish Church of Amesbury. Mr. Brakspear ends his letter by a confident 
prophecy that if permission to excavate on the site could be obtained he 
would prove his assertion within a month of beginning to dig. In the issue 
of Sept. 25th appear short letters from the Rev. E. Rhys Jones (Vicar) and 
Mr, L. E.Williams (author of a good little account of the Church), reiterating 
their belief that the present Church is the Church of the monastery, and 
citing the apparent evidence of a cloister on the north side of the nave, and 
entrances to it from the Church, &c., and hoping that permission might be 
obtained to dig and settle the matter. Summing up the arguments in notes 
in the same issue (Sept. 25th), the Editor allows the importance of Mr. 
Brakspear's opinion, and urges recourse to the spade. On Oct. 2nd Mr. 
Ed. Kite reiterates the arguments for the existence of only one Church at 
Amesbury, more especially the dedication to St. Melore, and the absence 
of any mention of a second Church. 

More Notes on Amesbury Church. Carter's 

Scheme of Restoration^ Wilts Gazette, Sept. ISth, 1924, has a 
further article on the Church. The screen cast out in the restoration of 
1852—53 was given by Sir Edmund Antrobus to Mr. Job Edwards, who 
built a room to contain it. After his death it was removed to a stable, and 
from thence to Amesbury Abbey, whence it was returned again to the 
Church. At the Society's visit to the Church in 1924 the Vicar exhibited 
a water-colour of the south side, by a Mr. Baskerville, painted in 1794, which 
shows the Old Vicarage, a small house between the Church and the present 
Vicarage. This was enlarged by Mr. Fulwar Fowle, but pulled down by 
Mr. Phelps, and its site has become the private burial ground of the Antrobus 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Ai^ticles. 135 

family. The drawing also shows the large porch to the doorway into the 
Church at the south-west corner of the nave, then the usual entrance, 
removed in 1853 on the ground that people going into Church were annoyed 
by the idlers who congregated in the porch. The door also was built up. 
In the Library of the Museum at Devizes there is a drawing of the south 
side of the Church, by Owen B. Carter, dated 1848, intended to be published, 
which, instead of depicting the actual condition of the Church at that date, 
when the south end of the transept consisted of a round-headed doorway, 
a tall narrow round-headed window over it, and above that a small oval 
window, all of the eighteenth century, shows three lancet windows as they 
are to-day, but without any door. The explanation appears to be that 
Carter prepared plans for the restoration at the same time as Butterfield, or 
before him. Two sheets of these plans were exhibited to the Society at 
Amesbury by the Vicar, and the ground-plan which accompanied them, is 
in the Society's Library, He proposed to remove the Perpendicular window 
at the east end and substitute a group of five lancets, to replace the two 
large Decorated windows in the chancel by lancets, to add a clerestory to 
the nave, and to add a fourth window to the north wall of the nave. In 
fact Butterfield's actual restoration was the most conservative plan of the 

Marlborough College Nat. Hist, Soc. Report for the 

Year 1922- Several birds rare in North Wilts were noted during the 
year. Golden Oriole seen near Knowle, Shag killed by the telegraph wires 
on the Ogbourne Road, Goldeneye shot at Stitchcombe, Great Grey Shrike 
seen between Aldbourne and Baydon, Cirl Bunting at Rainscombe and 
Cherhill, Wryneck heard at Bedwyn Brails, Pochard and Teal on Coate 
Reservoir. Snipe and Redshank nested again. 

The botanical section reports ten new species or hybrids as added to the 
list, but several of these are obviously escapes or casuals, such as Potentilla 
norwegica at Pewsey Station. Hypericum androssemum was found in the 
Forest, Anchusa sempervi^^ens (possibly only an escape) at Milton Lilbourne, 
Alisma lanccolatum Kennet and Avon Canal, Menihoj piperita Bedwyn 
Brails (perhaps an escape), Geranium phoeum, Saponaria, Polemonium 
coeruleum, Ornithogalum pyrenaicum, Potomogeton alpinus. 

The entomological section reports Clouded Yellow, Pale Clouded Yellow, 
and Comma as fairly common, and notes the capture of a single specimen 
of Pararge negsera (Wall Butterfly) "a species that has grown very scarce." 
A specimen of Lyccena argus was caught in 1921. A young adder was 
caught at Pewsey. 

Mr. H. C. Brentnall gives an extremely useful digest of references to the 
Castle, from 1070 down to 1922, filling eight pages, the authority for each 
reference being given, accompanied by a good reproduction of the drawing 
of the Castle Mound from the east in 1788. Mr. C. P. Hurst sends lists of 
Mollusca, Mosses, Hepatics, Lichens, Plant Galls, and Rust Fungi recently 
ji observed, including a rust, Puccinia Phleipratensis, which appears to be 
new to Britain. 

136 Wiltshire Hooks, Pamphlets, and Articles 

Salisbury, South Wilts, and Blackmore Museum, 
Annual Report for 1923—24. Pamphlet, 8vo, pp. 15. 

During the past year the total number of visitors to the museum was 
9021. The great event of the year has been the completion and opening 
for use of the " Edward Stevens Lecture Theatre," admirably equipped for 
the purposes for which it is intended. The committee record their special 
thanks to Mr. William Wyndham, of Orchard Wyndham, Taunton, for the 
gift of ^£400 to form a " Specimen Fund, as well as a donation of ^100 
towards the Lecture Theatre. As usual Mr. Stevens records many courses 
of lectures attended by some 1716 children in addition to adults. The 
number of annual subscribers to the museum is 94, contributing a sum of 
£60 18s. 6d. 

Life and Letters of George Wyndham. By J. W. 
Mackail and Guy Wyndham. London. Hutchinson 
& Co., Paternoster Row. [1925.] Two vols., svo. Vol. L, 

pp. viii. + 406. Vol. IL, pp. vi. + 408—817. 

The portraits include George Wyndham (2), George and Guy Wyndham 
(4), George Wyndham and his son, the Hon. Percy Wyndham, the Hon. 
Percy and Mrs. Wyndham, The Hon. Mrs. Percy Wyndham (2), Percy 
Lyulph Wyndham, Lady Grosvenor with son, and Sargent's picture of 
the Three Sisters. There is also a view of Clouds House. The scope 
of these two stout volumes is defined in the preface. "The Letters of 
George Wyndham that have been preserved constitute an almost com- 
plete autobiography. Those available are given here practically in their 
entirety, the omissions being mainly to avoid repetition. . . . The 
aim has been to retain sufficient to present a true picture of a life so 
full of diverse interests." The life written by Mr. Mackail occupies 
the first 12V pages, the letters the remainder. There is a chapter on 
the ancestry and descent of the family, and the sketch of George Wyndham's 
public and private life sets forth the lines on which it was lived— but as the 
preface foreshadows, the immense series of letters fill the bulk of the book. 
Few of them are long ones, all of them witness to the extraordinary width of 
his interests and the eagerness with which he entered into everything, hunt- 
ing and art, travelling and politics, literature and the cares of a great landed 
estate, music, poetry, Irish government and sport of all kinds, nothing came 
amiss to him. He lived a full and brilliant life, and through it all, as these 
letters bear constant witness, shone the tenderest family affection, especially 
for his mother and his only son, Percy. His own almost sudden death in 
June, 1913, saved him from what would have been the crushing sorrow of 
that son's death in action on Sept. 14th, 1914. The letters, singularly 
readable, show the man as he lived in all his brilliancy. 

Stonehenge. *' Druid Burials," The announcement that 
Mr. Jowett, First Commissioner of Works, had given permission to the 
modern sect of the " Druids " to bury the ashes of their dead within Stone- 
henge, led to the passing of a strong resolution of protest at the Wilts 
Archaeological Society's Meeting at Salisbury, which was duly reported in 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 137 

the limes of Aug. I3th, 1924, and other papers, and was followed by a series 
of letters of protest in the same sense, from Lord Crawford &: Balcarres, 
President of the Society of Antiquaries, and Sir William Boyd Dawkins, in 
the Times, of Aug. 28th, in which issue there appeared also a short leading 
article supporting the protest,entitled "Stonehenge as a Cemetery." Further 
letters in the same sense from J. H. Round and J. U. Powell appeared in 
the Ti7}ies on Aug. 31st. 

On the other hand, " A Druidical Apologetic," signed by Arthur Thomas 
ap Llewellyn, appeared in the Salisbury Journal, and was reprinted in the 
Wiltshire Gazette, of Sept. 4th, 1924, claiming that the " Druid Order" is as 
old as the Church of England, and that they knew of the Aubrey Holes long 
before they were discovered by Mr. Newall and Col. Hawley. These Aubrey 
Holes he calls " Talamh Cupan," and asserts that he was present when in 
1919 the ashes of "Our Arch Abu B (G. W. Catchlove)" were buried in 
one of these holes and that these ashes had been disturbed by Col. Hawley's 
excavation of the holes. If this really is a fact, it has to be considered 
when weighing the evidence of the cremated interments found recently in 
the Aubrey Holes. 

Stonehenge as a Shadow Almanack. A letter from 

Alfred Eddowes, M.D., to the Morning Post of June 17th, 1922, is reprinted 
in Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 4th, 1924, maintaining that the Grooved Blue Stone 
was to hold a mast secured to it by withes, the marks of which he says can 
still be seen, which formed the gnomon of a great dial, the 30 stones and 30 
intervals forming the degrees or minutes, whilst the point formed on the 
Slaughter Stone by the row of holes across its corner gave the line on the 
avenue on which the shadow of the pole advanced or receded according to 
the seasons. 

The Purpose of Stonehenge. Following the publication in 
the Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 14th, 1924, of the paper read at the Salisbury 
Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeological Society, in August, 1924, on 
"Stonehenge in the light of to-day," in which he strongly advocated the 
idea of the sepulchral origin and purpose of the structure, and a review of 
Mr. E. H. Stone's book, " The Stones of Stonehenge,'' also by Mr. Engleheart, 
in the Wiltshire Gazette, July 17th, 1924, there followed a controversy in 
the Wiltshire papers as to " The Purpose of Stonehenge," between Mr. E. H. 
Stone, F.S.A., and the Rev. G. H. Engleheart, F.S.A., the former having 
letters in the Wiltshire Gazette, July 24th, and Sept. 25th ; the Wiltshire 
Times, Aug. 30th, and Sept. 27th ; and the Salisbury Times, Sept. 26th ; 
with rejoinders from Mr. Engleheart in the Wiltshire Times, Sept. 20th, and 
the Salisbury Times, Sept. 19th, &c., each maintaining their own point of 
view with some asperity. 

Stonehenge. "In praise of England by H. J. Massingham. 
Methuen & Co." [1924]. Cr. 8vo, pp. ix. + 237. Contains a chapter, 
pp. 46 — 53, on Stonehenge, an essay with a certain number of archaeological 
terms thrown in. Later on in the same volume is a chapter headed "Maiden 

138 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Castle, a Theory of Peace in Ancient Britain," in which there is much talk 
of Stonehenge and Avebury and "the Archaic Civilisation," and "the 
Children of the Sun" of Prof. Elliott Smith and W. J. Perry. The 
Palaeolithic Age of Hunters was a time of perfect peace and war was unknown 
until later on. Civilisation all over the world sprung from Egypt, and 
the Egyptians voyaged to the ends of the earth in search of gold and other 
metals. . . . The great camps on the Downs are " certainly not post- 
Bronze Age." The Egyptians as sun- worshippers probably built Avebury 
at the centre of a flint-mining district, as all great megalithic structures are 
placed in mining districts. (It is a little unfortunate that the two greatest, 
Avebury and Stonehenge, happen to be placed on the chalk, where by no 
stretch of imagination could anything but flint be mined.) "If, then, 
Avebury, the Long Barrows, the Dolmens, and the great earthworks, are all 
the product of the first Near East penetration of Britain, and if Stonehenge 
and the Round Barrows continue the tradition in a lower key, we must look 
for real war to a period subsequent to them both. For the best evidence 
of peaceful conditions in pre-Celtic Britain concerns the megaliths, barrows, 
and earthworks themselves. Consider their extraordinary abundance, both 
in the Avebury and Stonehenge periods . . . they were reared in thou- 
sands. How could hard warfare possibly co-exist with such a hum of in- 
dustry all over the country side ? " " The numerous stone circles of Britain 
must have been a kind of aristocratic Rural District Council and Church 
combined, with governing as well as priestly functions, and Avebury a 
fusion of Whitehall and St. Paul's." When pushed to extreme, as it is here, 
this theory seems extravagant and absurd, but it is quite possible — after 
all notched glass beads of apparently Egyptian origin are found in the 
round barrows of Wilts — there may be a grain of truth at the bottom of it. 

The Proceedings of the Meeting at Devizes, 20th 
to 24th July, 1920, of the Royal Archaeological 

Institute and Wilts Arch SOC. are printed in the Archseological 
Journal, vol. Ixxvii. (Nos. 305—308) for 1920, pp. 323-357, with plans of 
Old Sarum (3) ; Stonehenge (3 plans and view from air) ; Avebury (2 
plans) ; and plans of S. Wraxall Manor, Great Chalfield Manor, The Barton 
Barn, Bradford, and Devizes Castle. Some account of Stonehenge with an 
abstract of Col. Hawley's address on the excavations is given. Fifty-six 
" Aubrey Holes " had been located, and the presence of 4 more, making 60 
in all, was probable, of these 23 had been excavated, many of them contained 
cremated remains, placed there when the holes were filled up with chalk. 
From the appearance of the sides of the holes it looked as though stones 
had once stood in them and had been removed from them, possibly the 
Blue stones, which may have formed the original circle, and were removed 
to the interior of the structure when the sarsens were afterwards erected. 
The slaughter stone now lies in a long pit evidently dug to bury it, there 
is nothing to show when this was dug, but a large hole was found close 
to it on the west side, in which apparently the stone once stood erect. In 
this hole only two deer horn picks were found. That the pit in which it 
now lies was dug later than the Aubrey holes was proved by the fact that 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 139 

one of the latter had been cut into when the pit was dug. Speaking as a 
geologist Sir William Boyd Dawkins dismissed the idea that the Blue 
stones could possibly be drift boulders brought to the Plain by ice action. 
There was a clear geological proof that no part of England S. of a line drawn 
between Bristol and London was ever glaciated. They were obviously 
brought to the Plain by man. A note on the barrows follows. There is a 
note on West Lavington Church, and a fuller one on Bishops Cannings. As 
to the " Carrell," or " Seat of Meditation," in the latter Church, Sir Henry 
Howorth and Mr. Aymer Vallance were of opinion that it was of post- 
Reformation date. Some account of Wansdyke, the Avebury circles, the 
Church and Manor House, and Silbury Hill follows. S. Wraxall Manor 
House, the Saxon and Parish Churches, and the Barton Barn at Bradford, 
Westwood Manor and Church, Great Chalfield Manor House, Potterne 
Church and Porch House, Edington Church, Steeple Ashton Church, the 
red-brick granary in the garden of the Manor House there, the Manor House 
and Talboys at Keevil, the Castle and Churches of Devizes, with Brownstone 
and Greystone Houses and the Museum, are all shortly described. As to 
St. John's Church, Mr. Brakspear's remarks on the tower are noted. He 
thought that the south-west pier of the tower collapsed in the 17th century 
and brought down with it the whole of the south and most of the west side 
of the tower. He suggested the 17th century as the date because mediaeval 
builders would not have rebuilt the tower as it was before, but have made 
a clean sweep of it. The fact that three of the bells were placed in the 
tower in 1670 suggests some general re-arrangement at that time. The re- 
builders, however, took extraordinary care in replacing the Norman work 
outside. The evidence of the rebuilding is to be seen in the fact that the 
patch of the diamond pattern panelling of the wall over the western arch 
occurs only on the north side, the arcades inside the ringing chamber are 
only partially continued on to the south and west walls, and the base of the 
south-west pier supporting the tower does not quite correspond with the 
base of the north-west pier. In the south and west walls of the interior, 
too, certain carved stones are not in their right position. 



Presented by Mr. K. S. Newall, F.S.A. : Cast of British coin found at 
Bapton, Fisherton do la Mere. 
„ „ Capt. and Mes. B. H. Cunnington : The objects found during 

their excavations at Figsbury Rings. Bronze arrow- 
head from Enford. The Drinking Cup from Lockeridge 
(found with fine flint dagger). Three Bronze Fibulae 
from Marlborough neighbourhood. 

„ „ Lt.-Col. R. L. Waller, C.M.G. : Cinerary Urn from N. side 

of Barrow No. 19, Figheldean. 

„ „ Mr. Percy Farrer : Pointed Bone Implement and frag- 

ments of Beaker pottery from pit on Bulford Down, 
1917. Bone comb found with skeleton near New 
Plantation, Amesbury, 1920. Mediaeval pottery and 
flint strike-a-light found at Knighton Farm, Durrington, 
1923. Teeth and Antler of very large Red Deer from 
gravel at Alton Magna. Human skull and bones from 
top of Barrow E. of Bulford Camp. Human skull from 
pit near New Buildings, Figheldean, and another from 
a pit at Alton Magna. 

„ „ Dr. R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A. : Large Cinerary Urn from barrow 

on Barrow Hill, Ebbesbourne Wake. The whole of 
the collection of objects found during the excavation of 
Early Iron Age pits on Swallowclifi"e Down, 1924. 
The whole of the objects found during the excavations 
of a Saxon Cemetery at Broadchalke, 1924. 

„ „ Mr. John Tanner : Quern from Colerne. 

„ „ Rev. H. G. O. Kendall, F.S.A. : The whole of the objects, 

pottery, fragments of Sarsen rubbers, animal bones, 
etc., found by him in his excavation of the Ditch of 
Windmill Hill Camp, Avebury. A quantity of frag- 
ments of pottery, and four coins from a Romano-British 
site disclosed by flint digging on Winterbourne Monkton 
Down. Fragments of pottery and flints found with a 
crouched skeleton on Winterbourne Monkton Down. 

„ „ Major Scarth (late Wilts Regt.) : A set of standard weights 
and measures of Bradford-on-Avon. 

„ „ The Rev. the Hon. Canon B. P. Bouverie : A Fibula of 
white metal and fused glass bead (?) from Roman inter- 
ment at Stanton St. Quintin. 

„ „ Mr. C. E. Ponting, F.S.A. : Roman coin from Stanley Copse, 

Additions to Museum and Library. 141 


Presented by The Earl of Pembroke, through Mr. O. G. S. Crawford : 
A number of old Maps of the Wilton Estate. 
„ Canon Knubley : Drawing. 

„ Mr. H. W. Dartnell : " The Ground Ash, A Public School 
Story." Salisbury, 1874. Melksham and Shaw Parish 
Magazine, 1900—1908. Amesbury Deanery Magazine, 
,, „ TheEditors, M.V.Taylor and R.G. Colling WOOD, "Roman 

I Britain in 1923." Reprinted from The Journal of 

Roman Studies. ' 

„ The Author, Mr. Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. : " Excava- 
tions at East Grimstead," 1924. 
„ Rev. E. H. Goddard : ", Notes of the Family of Mervyn of 
Pertwood, by Sir W. R. Drake. Privately printed, 1873." 
Revised Map of Salisbury Diocese. Sarum Almanack. 
"North Wilts Church Magazine," "Sarum Diocesan 
Gazette," for 1924. 
„ Mr. J. J. Slade : Twenty Wilts Estate Sale Catalogues. 
„ Capt. B. H. Cunnington : Old Programmes of the Society's 
Meetings. Bank notes of old Wiltshire Banks. "Some 
Annals of the Borough of Devizes. Being a Series of 
Extracts from the Corporation Records, 1555 to 1791. 
By B. M. Cunnington, 1925." 
„ Rev. H. E. Ketchley : Articles on Biddestone in Bristol 

„ The Publishers, Messrs. Mowbray: "Frederick Edward 
. Ridgeway, Bishop of Salisbury. A Memoir by E. Cross, 
„ Mr. R. Steele : Old Wiltshire Deed. 

„ The Author, Canon J. M. J. Fletcher: " The SS. Collar 
in Dorset and elsewhere." 1 924. " Notes on the Cathe- 
dral Church of St. Mary the Blessed Virgin, Salisbury." 
Revised Edition. 1924. 
„ Mrs. Story Maskelyne : "The Bristol Diocesan Review" 

for 1924. 
„ Miss Eyre Matcham, through Lord Heytesbury : A 
number of Letters as to the raising of the Militia in 
Wilts. 1800—1810. 
„ Mr. W. R. Sudweeks : " The Bear Hotel, Devizes, and its 

„ The Author, Mr. H. Brakspear, F.S.A. : " The Church 
of St. Bartholomew, at Corsham, in Wiltshire." 8vo, 
„ Miss M. K. Swayne Edwards: Two Wilts Photographs. 
„ The Author, Miss Isabel Trumper : " A Song of Roumania 
and other Short Poems." 1924. 

142 Additions to Museum and Library. 

Presented by The Author, " M.iw£ Wiltshire " (Miss Isborn) : " Patricia 
Ellen." (Scene laid at Avebury.) 

„ „ Mr. G. Lansdown : Photograph of ancient gravestone. 

„ Rev. H. E. Ketchley : Cuttings. 

„ „ Mr. I. T. Rule : Twenty-five back numbers of the Magazine^ 

Inquisitiones, &c. 
„ Mr. B. H. a. Hankey : Nine Photographs of Stanton St. 
Quintin Church. 

„ „ Mr. R.T. Sadler : The Earldom of Salisbury, by J. G. Nichols. 

Wiltshire Parish Registers, Marriages. Fourteen vols. 

„ „ The late Mr. John Sadler: The whole of his MS. Col- 

lections of Notes on Genealogical Matters connected 
with Wilts, &c. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. V. F. Manley : Folk Lore of the War- 

minster District." 1924. Also, " Warminster, Wilts. 
OflBcial Publication of the Warminster Urban District 
Council." 1924. 

„ „ Miss Hampton : Devizes Road Act. 

„ „ The Author, Mrs. Richardson, of Purton House : " The 
Parting of the Way." A novel. 1925. 

28 0011358. 


C. H. Woodward, Printer and Publisher, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 


STONEHENGE AND ITS BAEEOWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
Magazine in separate wrapper 7s. 6d. This still remains one of the best and 
most reliable accounts of Stonehenge and its Earthworks, 

AUBREY, F,R.S., A.D. 1659-1670. Corrected and enlarged by the Eev. 
Canon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates. 
Price .£2 10s. 

pp. vii. + 501. 1901. With full index. In 8 parts, as issued. Price I3s. 

DITTO. IN THE REIGNS OF HEN. III., ED. L, and ED. 11. 8vo. 
pp. XV. 505. In parts as issued. Price I3s. 

DITTO. FROM THE EEIGN OF ED. IIP 8vo., pp. 402. In six 
parts as issued. Price 13s. 


WILTSHIEE, STONEHENGE, and AVEBUEY, with other references, 

i by W. Jerome Harrison, E.G. S., pp. 169, with 4 illustrations. No. 89, Dec, 

'■ 1901, of the Magazine. Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 947 books, 

papers, &c., by 732 authors, 

I THE TROPENELL CAETULAEY. An important work in 2 vols., 8vo, 
i pp. 927, containing a great number of deeds connected with property in many 
'Wiltshire Parishes of the 14th and 15tli centuries. Only 150 copies were 
printed, of which a few are left. Price to members, iJl 10s., and to non- 
members, £2. 


Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

Wilts Archaeological Magazine bound to match previous volumes. 
We have several back numbers to make up sets. 

H. WOODWARD, Printer and Publisher, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 


North Wilts Museum and 

In answer to the appeal made in 1905 annual subscriptions 
varying from £2 to 5s. to the amount of about £30 a year for this 
purpose liave been given since then by about sixty Members of 
the Society and tlie fund thus set on foot has enabled the 
Committee to add much to the efficiency of the Library and 

It is very desirable that this fund should be raised to at least 
£50 a year in order that the General Fund of the Society may 
be released to a large extent from the cost of the Museum and 
set free for the other purposes of the Society. 

Subscriptions of 5s. a year, or upwards, are asked for, and 
should be sent either to Mr. D. Owen, Bank Chambers, Devizes, 
or Eev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

The Committee appeal to Members of the Society and others j 
to secuie any 

Objects of Antiquity, 


Natural History Specimens, 

found in the County of Wilts, and to forward them to thej 
Hon. Curator, Mr. B, H. Cunnington, Devizes; 

Whilst Old Deeds, Modern Pamphlets, Articles, 
Portraits, Illustrations from recent Magazines, 
or Papers bearing in any way on the County, 
and Sale Particulars of Wiltshire Properties 
as well as local Parish Magazines, 

will be most gratefully received for the Library by the Kev 
E. H. GoDDAiiD, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon, Hon. Librarian. 


X- . . . —, . _ ^p-j, : , : 




Archaeological & Natural History 


Published under the Direction of the 

A. D. 1853, 


REV. E. H. GODDARD, Clyfte Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
statements made therein.] 


Printed for the Society by C. H. Woodward, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 

Price 8s. Members^ Gratis. 

[N.B.— The Flan of Figsbury Hings accidentally omitted from No. 142 
is issued with this number of the Alagazinej. 


TAKE NOTICE that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
volumes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are 
each fully indexed separately, 

The annual subscription is now raised to 15s. 6^., the entrance fee 
for new Members remaining 10s. Qd. as before. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society /br 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owen, Bank Chambers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
Subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
tary : the Eev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 


To be obtained of Mr. D. OWEN, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev. A. C. Smith, M.A. One Volume, Atlas 
4to, 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. Price ^2 2s. 
One copy offered to each Member of the Society at £1 lis. 6d. 

504 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev, T. A. Preston, M.A. Price to the 
Public 16s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society at half-price. 

IN THE SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

Part II. 1911. Fully illustrated. Price 2s, 

Price Is. APPENDIX No. L, II., and IIL, 3d. each. 

LIBRARY at the MUSEUM. Price Is. 6d. 

COLLECTION. Price 6d. 

BACK NUMBERS of the MAGAZINE. Price to the Public, 8s., 5s. 6d., 
and 3s. 6d. (except in the case of a few numbers, the price of which is raised). 
Members are allowed a reduction of 25 per cent, from these prices. 


Archaeological & Natural History 



Contents. page. 

Savernake Forest Fungi, Part IL : By Cecil P. Hurst 143 — 155 

Flint Implements from the Nadder Valley, South Wilts : 

By II. C. C. Ciay, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A., F.R.A.1 156—162 

The Church of S. John The Baptist, Inglesham, Wilts : 

By C. E. Ponting, F.S.A 163—167 

The Evans Family of North Wilts : By Canon F. H. Manley 168—174 
A Complete List of the Ancient Monuments in Wiltshire 
' Scheduled under The Ancient Monuments Act, 1913 

(up to March, 1925) 175—179 

Objects Found during Excavations on the Romano- 
British Site at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverill, 

1924: By R. de C. Nan Kivell 180—191 

The Customs of the Manors of Calstone and Bremhill : 

By the Earl of Kerry 192—206 

The so-called "Kenward Stone" at Chute Causeway, 

Wilts : By H. St George Gray 207—212 

The Seventy-Secoisid General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Arch^ological and Natural History Society, held 

AT Cirencester, August 6th, 7th, and 8th, 1925 213—220 

Wilts Obituary..... 221 — 226 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 227—251 

Additions to Museum and Library 251—252 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1924 253 — 255 

List of Officers and Members of the Society 256 — 266 

Figsbury Camp — Plan {To be inserted at p. 58 in No 142, 

June, 1925). 
Plates I. and II., Flint Implements from the Greensand 

Terrace, S. Wilts 161 

Figs. 1—6, Inglesham Church, Wilts , 163 

Moredon House, Rodbourne Cheney 168 

Plates I. — VIIL, Objects found during Excavations at Cold 

Kitchen Hill 182 

Plates IX. — XV., Objects found during Excavations at Cold 

Kitchen Hill : 190 

Map A. — The Open Fields of Calstone Manor, showing the 

Strips or Lynchets into which they were divided c. 1725 ... 194 
Map B. — The Coombes of Calstone Down. From air photo- 
graphs taken by Alex. Keiller, F.S.A., Scot 194 

The so-called " Kenward Stone," at Chute Causeway 208 

Excavation of the so-called "Kenward Stone," at Chute 

Causeway 209 

Plan of Cuttings made at the Excavation of the so-called 

"Kenward Stone," Chute Causeway 209 

Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 

FiGSBUKY Camp. Plan— Showing position and extent of the Excavations. Squares equal 50ft. 

To face p. 58, Vol. xliii. 




No. CXLIIL December, 1925. Vol. XLIII. 


Part II. (For Part I. see W.A.M., xlii. 543—555). 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 

The following agarics, or toadstools, about seventy in number, have 
recently (1923 — 1924) been observed in Savernake Forest and near the 
neighbouring village of Great Bedwyn. Rare plants recorded are the 
whitish Ciitopilus Smithii, on Stokke Oommon,the elegant orange Pholiota 
curvipes, in Foxbury Wood, the white-stemmed Inocyhe pallidipes^ and the 
pretty little mushroom, Psalliota dulcidula, near Rhododendron Drive, and 
the fleecy- capped and deliquescing Coprinus umbrinus, in Haw Wood. 
Interesting fungi are also the white form (the var. verna) of the deadly 
Amanita phalloides^ found in Haw Wood, the large sooty and funereal- 
looking Gollyhia fumosa, seen on West Leas and also in Haw Wood, the 
uncommon downy-stalked Omphalia velutina, found in some quantity on 
London clay at Dod's Down in November, the brownish or fawn-coloured 
Inocyhe cervicolor, the cap and stem of which are bristly with recurved 
fibrils, noticed in Foxbury Wood.the swollen-stemmed Stropharia merdaria 
var. major, growing on sawdust near Rhododendron Drive, Hygrophorus 
unguinosus with extremely sticky grey cap and stem, seen on West Leas 
and in Haw Wood, and the much-dwarfed Eussula punctata and its violet- 
stalked var. violeipes, observed on the side of the road cutting in Reading 
sands at Sadler's Hill, near Great Bedwyn. In Lactarius scrohiculatus^ 
found in Chisbury Wood, and L. chrysorheus^ gathered in Burridge Heath 
Plantation, the white milk becomes bright sulphur-yellow in colour when 
exposed to air ; every part of L.flavidus, of which a number of plants were 
seen in Chisbury Wood, turns violet when bruised or rubbed ; and the 
flesh of the crimson Gortinarius sanguineus, which occurred by the side of 
the Grand Avenue in the Forest, exudes a blood-red juice when squeezed. 
Poisonous plants noted are the pink-spored species, Volvaria gloiocephala^ 
growing in a copse near Rhododendron Drive in November, and Entoloma 
lividum, observed in Foxbury Wood in September, and mention is also 
made of the large edible Horse Mushroom {Psalliota arvensis), common 
generally in the surrounding pastures and meadows. Inocyhe pyriodora, 

144 Savernake Forest Fungi. 

gathered in Foxbury Wood and near Rhododendron Drive, has a very- 
pleasant smell of ripe pears ; but a disagreeably strong alkaline odour, some- 
times, however, absent, characterizes Entoloma nidorosum, also collected 
in Foxbury Wood. The rosy-capped Eussula emetica, a very acrid species 
promoting sickness and causing gastro-enteritis when eaten, was plentiful 
under the beeches at the top of the Grand Avenue in the Forest ; thepileus 
is much appreciated as an article of diet by slugs, which thrive upon this 
irritant plant, as indeed they do upon the highly poisonous Amanita 
phalloides. During the wet and mild December of the present year (1924) 
the little brown agaric Tuharia furfur acea has been plentiful on the thatch 
of barns at Great Bedwyn ; it appears to be common in such situations 
here all through the winter, the same plants persisting for weeks, if the 
weather is warm and moist. An interesting discovery was made upon 
Boxing Day, when the umbonate variety (var. umhonata) of the sooty- 
capped pink-spored Nolanea pascua was noted in a little clearing in a copse 
through which Rhododendron Drive runs, and with it, favoured by the 
climatic mildness, grew in some quantity fine specimens of the blackish cup- 
shaped Clitocybe cyathiformis, a very characteristic fungus of December. 
It may be mentioned that plants of the almond-scented Clitocyhe geotropa, 
forming an arc of a large circle, were seen on Merle Down in October ; this 
is one of the handsomest of all the British agarics, and grows in autumn in 
woods and pastures, sometimes in fairy rings of enormous size ; it is an ex- 
tremely fine fungus, though generally inferior in size to the huge C. maxima, 
also a not infrequent Bedwyn species. The well-known mycologist, Worthing- 
ton G. Smith, stated that he knew of a " fairy ring " of Clitocyhe geotropa on 
Dunstable Downs for forty or more years ; the diameter did not alter much 
during that period, for sometimes it grew outwardly and sometimes inwardly. 
Under favourable conditions of light it could be seen at a distance of more 
than a mile. One of the earliest spring toadstools to make its appearance 
near Great Bedwyn is the little brown purple-spored Hypholoma dispersum, 
which is found towards the end of March and is rather common, sometimes 
appearing in fairly large numbers, during April and May, upon the sloping 
meadows on the Tertiary outliers near the village ; the specific name, 
dispersum^ diffused or spread out, refers to its scattered mode of growth ; 
it is not usually a common plant, and sometimes grows on coniferous needles 
and twigs, and on sawdust, but here, apparently, always occurs on grassy 
swards. The range of the dark-coloured Cantharellus cinereus was much 
extended, and specimens of this generally infrequent species were seen near 
the Grand Avenue, near London Ride, and in Foxbury Wood ; it appears to 
be widely spread in the district. Among uncommon fungi gathered were 
two specimens of the dusky form (the var. umhrina) oi Amanita phalloides , 
noticed by the side of the Grand Avenue ; the dark cap and dark adpressed 
squamules on the stem make it easy of recognition. The conspicuous 
handsome orange Pholiota spectabilis was observed growing finely on 
felled timber in the Forest ; and additional localities, in Chisbury and 
Foxbury Woods, were found for the large long-stemmed Amanitopsis 
strangulata^ which one would expect to occur in this chalky district, as it 
grows chiefly in wood and pastures on calcareous strata. Mushrooms were 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 145 

Temarkably scarce here in 1924, and I also saw exceptionally few of the 
mushroom-shaped many-pored fungi known as bolets {Boleti). I am much 
indebted to Mr. Carleton Rea's " ^r^^^s^ ^as^c?^om?/ce^ae "( 1 922) and also 
to Mr. John Ramsbottom's "A Handhooh of the Larger British Fungi ^^ 
(1923), and in writing this paper I have followed the latter for the arrange- 
ment of the genera and the former for that of the species, and Mr. E. VV. 
Swanton, of the Educational Museum, Maslemere, ex-President of the 
British Mycological Society, has again very kindly named the plants. 

Amanita 2'>halloides, var, verna (Vaill.) Fr. A few specimens under beeches 
in Haw Wood in September ; the white form of ^. phalloides, which has been 
described as a distinct species by Boudier, with oval spores 10—14 X 7 — 9 
micromillimetres ; an uncommon variety ; it grew among the dry beech 

Tricholoma resplendens Fr. On the grassy expanse known as West Leas, 
near Great Bedwyn ; entirely shining white, becoming yellowish externally 
and internally; a rather common agaric. 2\ spermaticum (Pa^ul.) Fr. In 
a copse near London Ride, Savernake Forest ; wholly white with a somewhat 
fleshy viscid cap, and a strong disagreeable smell ; uncommon. T. fulvum 
(D.C) Fr. West Leas, a common Tricholoma, possessing a reddish-brown 
sticky cap, rufescent stem attenuated at both ends, and light yellow gills. 
T. columbetta Fr. Birch Copse, and also in a wood near London Ride ; 
entirely white, but occasionally spotted with red or blue ; the spots are 
probably due to the attacks of a parasitic Hypomyces ; a common species. 
T. vaccinum (Pers.) Fr. A few plants near Stokke Common, also, I think, 
occurring in Foxbury Wood ; the cap is rufous, and is torn into scales ; it 
has a brownish stem, and whitish gills at length rufescent, is a common 
plant, and is called vaccinum from its cow-like colour. T. argyraceum 
"(Bull.) Fr. Chisbury Wood ; a common agaric with a whitish or pale grey 
cap covered with grey scales and fibrils, often speckled with yellow, whitish 
or greyish stem, and whitish gills ; it was found in September, and occurs 
in beech, oak, and pine woods. T. ifiamoenum Fr. A few specimens in 
Bedwyn Brails. Cap dingy white and very dry ; gills rather thick, very 
broad and very distant ; stem white, firm, and- villous. An infrequent 
plant occurring in fir woods ; it resembles Hygrophorus ehurneus, which 
has a very glutinous cap and stem. In Tricholoma inamcenum the cap is 
very dry and the stem is pruinose. T. carneum (Bull.) Fr. A common 
little flesh-coloured Tricholoma seen on West Leas at the end of May after 
rainy weather ; the gills are shining white and very crowded and the tough 
•almost cartilaginous stem is at first flesh-coloured and then becomes pale ; 
it is a plant of pastures, heaths, and downs. T. melaleucum (Per.) Fr. 
Ohisbury Wood, and near London Ride. The blackish cap contrasts with 
the white gills and gives rise to the specific name melaleucum, melas, black, 
•and leukon, white, Greek ; it is a frequent inhabitant of woods and fields, 
^appearing from September to November. 

Glitocyhe hirneola Fr. Birch Copse ; near the top of the Grand Avenue ; 
near St. Katharine's, Savernake Forest. An uncommon species with grey, 
■umbilicate,smooth, shining cap, elastic concolorous stem,andwhitish crowded 
gills. In the Forest it grew among dead leaves, but it also occurs among 

L 2 

146 Savernake Forest Fungi. 

grass ; it is found in September and October. C pithyophila (Seer.) Fr. A 
poisonous plant of pine woods noticed in Bedwyn Brails at the beginning of 
October ; it has a white irregularly-shaped cap, white stem often compressed, 
and white very crowded gills ; it is a common autumnal species. C. meta- 
chroa (Fr.) Berk. A little Glitocyhe which grew in Bedwyn Brails near the 
above plant, with greyish cap, grey stem, and whitish cinereous, crowded 
gills, it is a common species in fir woods from August to November. 

Collyhia fumosa (Fers.) Quel. A big blackish Collyhia seen growing 
among grass near Haw Wood, and on West Leas ; it is not uncommon in 
woods and pastures, during September and October. The deep sooty tint 
of the whole plant is very characteristic, and makes it easily recognised. 
C. prolixa (Fl. Dan.) Fr. A large brick-red ferruginous agaric found in twa 
localities in Savernake Forest ; the gills are white and crowded ; it is an 
uncommon species. C. acervata Fr. Under beeches at the top of the Grand 
Avenue : a not infrequent plant with reddish flesh-coloured cap, which 
turns white when dry ; the gills are linear, narrow, and crowded, and the 
stem is rufous and sometimes brown ; it occurs on pine stumps from August 
to October. 

Mycena rugosa Fr. Haw Wood ; the pileus is cinereous and becomes 
pale, it is more or less corrugated ; the stem is very cartilaginous and the gills 
are white and then grey ; it grows on stumps and old posts and is common, 
M. sanguinolenta (A. & S.) Fr. A frequent Mycena seen in Fo?:bury Wood, 
with a pallid reddish pileus, which becomes dark, and an almost hair-like 
stem containing a red juice ; the pale reddish juice in the stem gives rise to 
the specific, sanguinolenta^ bloody. M. galopus (Pers.) Fr. Another com- 
mon Mycena found in Foxbury Wood ; it grows in woods, hedgerows, and 
on wood piles from July to January, and has a brownish or greyish cap 
with an indistinct darker umbo, white gills, and a fuscous or grey stem, the 
base of which contains a milk-white juice, whence the specific name, galopus^ 
gala, milk, and pous^ foot, Greek. 

Omphalia velutina, Quel. An uncommon plant seen in November in 
some quantity on London clay at Dod's Down ; the young stem is finely 
tomentose, and the gills are yellowish-grey and narrow. 0. fibula var. 
Swartzii Fr. A not infrequent variety of fibula which occurred in 
Foxbury Wood : it differs from the type which also grows in Foxbury 
Wood, in the firmer, at length plane pileus, with umbilicate fuscous 
disc, and in the whitish stem, externally and internally violaceous at the 
apex ; this variety grows among moss, short grass, and on charcoal heaps 
from August to December. 

Volvaria gloiocephala (DO.) Fr. A very poisonous uncommon species, 
with pink spores and dark viscid cap with smooth stem, noticed in a copse 
near Rhododendron Drive, in November; thegills are white, and then reddish, 
and the smell and taste are unpleasant ; the stem has at its base the 
characteristic volva, or " poison cup." 

Entoloma lividum (Bull.) Fr. Another poisonous pink-spored agaric 
observed in Foxbury Wood at the end of August ; the grey cap contrasts 
with the flesh-coloured gills ; it is a not uncommon plant, appearing early 
in the year, and containing irritant principles which cause gastro-enteritis 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 147 

if it is eaten. E. x>orphyrophaeum. A big Entoloma, growing on heathy 
ground near Cobham Frith Wood in September ; the pileus is brown and 
moist, the very broad gills are greyish-white, then reddish-grey, and the 
«olid, greyish, and clavate stem is streaked with violet or lilac fibrils ; an 
uncommon fungus. E. ameides B. & Br. On Conyger Hill in August, 
and under beeches near the top of the Grand Avenue in September ; it is a 
iieshy agaric vyrhich grows in woods and pastures, and has a peculiar smell, 
unpleasant at first, then faintly like burnt sugar ; it is pale reddish-grey, with 
whitish stem, and the flesh becomes reddish ; a not infrequent plant. E. 
juhatum Vy. A fungus of heaths and pastures growing in Tottenham Park 
and in a field near Fairway, Great Bedwyn ; a common species with brown 
floccoso-scaly or fibrillose cap, which is umbonate, and at first campanulate, 
and then expanded and flattened ; the gills are dark fuliginous, then purple 
fuliginous, and the stem is hollow and brownish, and is clothed with 
sooty fibrils. E. clypeatum (Linn.) Fr. A common plant found on West 
Leas and on Conyger Hill and appearing as early as April ; the fragile 
pileus is grey and is variegated, or streaked with darker spots or lines ; it 
is umbonate and finally flattened; the gills become red — pulverulent with 
the pinkish spores. E. nidorosum Fr. Foxbury Wood ; this frequent 
plant usually has a strong alkaline smell, but not unfrequently it is quite 
without any distinctive odour, yet is always recognizable by the shining 
\pileus, the flesh-coloured, broad, almost free gills, and the long white stem. 

Glitopilus popinalis Fr. Very fine on West Leas in September ; the 
cather irregular grey cap is here and there mottled with guttate spots and 
the margin is inrolled ; it grows on downs, sandy sea-shores, and in fields, 
and is an uncommon species generally ; the specific name popinalis is from 
the Latin popina, a cook-shop, from its supposed edible qualities. 

C. Smithii Massee. Wood on Stokke Common ; a rare species appearing 
in October ; the cap is whitish or has a yellow ;tinge, and soon becomes 
plane and orbicular ; the stem is pallid with^a reddish tint below, and the 
gills are salmon-coloured. 

Leptonia sohtitialis Fr. West Leas, in September ; an uncommon little 
■agaric with a brown cap, papillate in the centre, and flesh-coloured gills ; it 
sometimes appears at midsummer, hence the specific Latin name, sohtitialis. 
L. incana Fr. Merle Down : a common fungus, with brown and green 
■cap, and green or fuscous green stem ; it is said to have a smell of mice, but 
I could not detect this in the Merle Down specimens ; the emerald green 
colour of the pileus and stem is very distinctive, and makes it an easily- 
recognized and striking plant. 

Pholiota terrigena Fr. An uncommon brown-spored species noticed in 
Foxbury Wood : it has a dingy yellow pileus, fibrillosely scaly towards the 
margin, and the stem is covered with flocose, squarrose squammules which 
become ferruginous ; it grows in woods and hedgerows, and on old earthy 
stumps. P. curvipes Fr. A rare plant found in August on fallen branches 
in Foxbury Wood ; a very pretty, little, orange species, with flocculose cap 
torn into minute scales ; it occurs on sawdust and fallen trunks, especially 
poplar and birch, and is also found on rose bushes. P. mutabiiis (Schaeff*.) 
Fr. On a stump near London Ride ; a common Pholiota^ a caespitose species 

148 SavernaJce Forest Fungi. 

growing on stumps and trunks ; the cinnamon cap is pale when dry and 
the stem is ferruginous blackish or umber downwards, and squarrosely scaly 
up to the ring, F, marginata (Batsch) Fr. Near London Hide ; another 
common Pholiota ; the cap is honey-coloured when moist, and the margin 
is markedly striate, hence the specific name. The stem is concolorous, and 
commonly white velvety at the base, and the gills are pallid, and then darker 
cinnamon ; it was observed in mid-September, and is frequent on twigs and 
on the ground, especially in coniferous woods. Near London Kide it grew im 
a tufted mass on the stump of a tree that had been felled. Before we leave 
this genus it may be mentioned that Pholiota aegerita, a species common in 
Britain on elm stumps,has the distinction of being the only agaric cultivated 
by the Greeks and Romans. 

Inocyhe pyriodora (Pers.) Fr. Foxbury Wood, Chisbury Wood, and near 
Rhododendron Drive, in August and September. The cap is pale ochraceous 
in colour, and is often reddish when young ; it is campanulate and obtuse,, 
and everywhere torn into fibrils ; the stem is often tinged with red and the 
edge of the gills is whitish, like the apex of the stem ; the flesh becomes 
reddish. The smell is very pleasant, like ripe pears, and this was well- 
marked in my specimens ; it is a common species. /. tomentosa (Jungh.> 
Quel. Haw Wood ; a not infrequent plant with pale fawn-coloured, villose,, 
and campanulate pileus ; the specific Latin name, tomentosa, downy, refers 
to the villose cap ; it has a smell of new meal and occurs in woods and 
among fir-leaves, from August to October. /. pallidipes Ellis & Everh. A 
rare agaric noticed by the side of Rhododendron Drive in September ; the 
cap is light brown, and the gills are cinnamon, while the stem is white, as- 
indicated by the Latin specific name pallidipes. I. cervicolor (Pers.) Quel. 
A common species which occurred in Foxbury Wood at the beginning of 
September ; the brown cap and stem are covered with recurved, concolorous^ 
fibrils, which give it a characteristic bristly appearance which is rather 

Astrosporina asterospora (Quel.) Rea. Savernake Forest; a not infrequent 
plant, possessing an ashy cap with brown striae, reddish stem, and whitish 
bistre, then cinnamon, gills ; the base of the stem is marginately bulbous,, 
and the ferruginous spores are stellately-nodulose under the microscope ; it 
was noticed in the Forest in September. 

Heheloma crustuliniforme var. minus Cke. A few specimens in Chisbury 
Wood ; distinguished from the type by its smaller size, the floccose edge 
of the gill, and by its faint smell ; it was found towards the end of Septem- 
ber, and is not uncommon ; the woolly gill- edge is a very distinctive 
character easily observed with a lens. 

Naucoria Cucumis (Pers.) Fr. The dampish border of a stubble field 
near Bedwyn Brails ; the cap was tawny cinnamon, and the black stem was 
very downy ; the plant is said to have an unpleasant smell of fish, or 
cucumber, but I was unable to detect this ; of the synonyms, N. pisciodora 
refers to the fish-like odour, and N. nigripes to the black stem. N. melin-^ 
aides Fr. A common little species of heaths, pastures, lawns, and roadsides^ 
seen on West Leas; a honey-coloured plant appearing from June to No- 
vember ; the gill-edge is often denticulate in this agaric. 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 149 

Psalliota arvensis (SchaejBT.) Fr. The Horse Mushroom. A large species 
with the cap sometimes nearly eight inches across, common round Bedwyn ; 
Conyger Hill, near Folly Farm ; near Fairway, etc., etc. As showing the 
ubiquity and vitality of the spores, it may be mentioned that mushrooms 
grew this year (1924) in June beneath a tree grating on the Thames Em- 
bankment, and were found in August of the same year within a foot of the 
pavement in a garden in Lower Kennington Lane, S.E., in the heart of 
South London. In this species the ring is composed of two portions, an 
inner and an outer, the inner portion membranous and uniform, the outer 
shorter, thicker, and often appendiculate at the margin of the cap. The 
Horse Mushroom often grows in enormous rings ; it is best eaten when 
young and juicy as it becomes tough and dry with age. P. dulcidula 
Schulz. In the shrubbery bordering Rhododendron Drive ; a very pretty, 
dainty, and charming little plant resembling a mushroom in miniature ; the 
cap is livid white, the gills are grey, and the ring is erect, median and per- 
sistent ; it is a rare species, appearing in October, and is found under oaks, 
and on heaths. 

Stropharia merdaria var. major Fr. A number of plants in early 
August on sawdust near Rhododendron Drive ; it differs from the type in 
its much larger size and in the ventricose rooting stem ; it is not un- 
common ; the swollen stem is a very noticeable feature, and S. ventricosa is 
a synonym of this variety. 

Hypholoma capnoides Fr. Foxbury Wood ; Haw Wood ; Burridge 
Heath Plantation ; the cap is ochraceous-yellowish in colour, and is dry 
and smooth, the stem is pallid, and the gills are first pale grey and then be- 
come brownish purple ; it grows in tufts on coniferous stumps and is a 
common species, appearing early ; it was noticed on a coniferous stump 
near Stokke Common on the 14th April, 1925. 

H. epixanthum Fr. Haw Wood, and Burridge Heath Plantation ; a 
common caespitose fungus growing on stumps in frondose and coniferous 
woods, hedgerows, and parks ; the cap is light yellow with a darker disc, 
the yellow or pale rust-coloured stem becomes brownish below, and the gills 
are light-yellowish, and then cinereous. 

Goprinus umbrinus Cke. & Massee. A few specimens by the side of a 
road in Haw Wood ; a rare species with a volva persistently white, sheath- 
ing the base of the stem, and refiexed about two centimetres from the base ; 
I have found the plant for two years in succession in the above station ; 
the ring is very noticeable, as few Goprini possess such an appendage. G. 
umbrinus is a pretty species, as the dark umber cap has a large white patch 
at the apex, and is elsewhere covered with scattered, snow-white, fleecy 

Gortinarius (Myxacium) elatior Fr. Near the Grand Avenue, and near 
St. Katharine's ; a large, conspicuous, and easily-recognized Gortinarius 
with a pale yellow cap, plicate at the margin, and glutinous violet stem which 
becomes white ; the gills are yellowish, and then dark brown cinnamon ; it 
is frequent in woods. G. (Inoloma) pholideus Fr. A common plant 
noticed in September in Cobham Frith Wood ; the cap is brown, and is 
covered with blackish brown scales, the stem is also brownish, and the gills 

150 Savernake Forest Fungi. 

are violaceous, then clay colour, and at length cinnamon ; it is plentiful in 
deciduous woods. The dark brown scales on the cap form an easily- 
recognisable character ; they also occur on the stem below the ring. C 
(Dermocybe) sanguineus (Wulf.) Fr. A not infrequent smallish species seen 
near the middle of the Grand Avenue, on the ground below the beeches ; it 
is easily recognized, for the cap and stem are a dark blood colour, and when 
pressed the flesh pours out a blood-red juice ; it grows in woods, especially 
in coniferous plantations, in the autumn. G. {Telamonia) paleaceus 
(Weinm.) Fr. Foxbury Wood ; a not uncommon sylvan fungus, occurring 
especially in beech and birch woods ; it is also found on boggy heaths ; the 
brown cap is conical, and then expanded, is markedly umbonate, and the 
white superficial squamules with which it is covered are very distinctive ; 
the stem is also squamulose with white flocci, and the gills are pallid- 
whitish and then cinnamon. G. {Hydrocyhe) hicolor Cke. The cap is 
dingy whitish, with an occasional tinge of lilac, the stem is pale violet, and 
the gills are purplish-violet, and then cinnamon ; it is a rather common 
plant, and was collected in Foxbury Wood in early September. 

Hygrophorus virgineus var. roseipes. Massee. On grass near St. Katharine's 
Church, and in a copse near Savernake Lodge ; a not infrequent variety 
which dififers from the type in the stem being rose-coloured, externally and 
internally, towards the base ; it was seen near St. Katharine's at the be- 
ginning of October, and sometimes lasts till December. H. subradiatus var. 
lacmus Fr. Among grass on West Leas ; the cap is lilac, and then becomes 
pale, and the white or greyish stem is often yellowish at the base ; in this 
species, the variety is more common than the type. H. unguinosus Fr. An 
interesting Hygrophorus^ with very sticky grey cap and stem ; the stem is 
somewhat compressed, and the gills are shining white, thick, broad, and very 
ventricose; it is a common species, and was seen growing among grass on 
West Leas and near Maw Wood, in September. 

Lactarius scrobiculatus (Scop.) Fr. A big not uncommon Lactarius, 
observed in Foxbury Wood in September ; the yellow infundibuliform 
cap is covered with agglutinated down, and the margin is bearded when 
young ; the light yellow stem is pitted with darker yellow, broad, roundish 
spots, and the white milk soon becomes sulphur-yellow when exposed to air. 
L. circellatus Fr. Birch Copse, in the Forest, and near a clump of beeches 
not far from Haw Wood ; a rather scarce plant with dark brownish cap, 
from two to four inches in diameter, variegated with darker zones; the 
gills are whitish, and then yellow, and the stem is pale and tough. L. uvidus 
Fr. A not infrequent Lactarius, of which a specimen was found in Foxbury 
Wood in September ; a viscid plant, with greyish brown cap, first of all 
convex, then plane, and then depressed ; the stem is whitish, becoming 
light yellow, the white gills are spotted with lilac, when wounded, and the 
white milk also becomes lilac on exposure to the air. L. Jlavidus ^ond. 
A very fair number of specimens of this interesting species were seen under 
a dense growth of hazel in Foxbury Wood, towards the end of September ; 
every part of L.flavidus turns violet when bruised or even handled, a very 
slight touch at once producing the characteristic violet stain ; the cap, gills, 
and stem are pale yellowish in colour, as indicated by the specific Latin 

By Cecil P, Hurst. 151 

name Jlavidus, yellowish, and the taste is first mild and then acrid ; it is 
an uncommon plant, which occurs in woods during September and October. 
L. chrysorheus Fr. A frequent toadstool ; a few examples were gathered in 
Burridge Heath Plantation in September ; the white flesh when broken, and 
the white milk on exposure to air, become bright sulphur-yellow ; the cap 
is pale yellowish flesh-colour, with darker zones or spots, the yellowish 
gills are decurrent and very thin and crowded, and the stem is white, and 
delicately pruinose under a lens. L. pallidus (Pers.) Fr. was seen in Haw 
Wood and Savernake Forest in September ; it is a common plant in woods 
in autumn ; the flesh- or clay-coloured cap is obtuse and viscid, and the gills 
are pruinose and rather broad ; the milk is white and acrid. L. fuligi7iosus 
Fr. A very interesting plant, of which a little colony occurred in Bedwyn 
Brails in September ; it is common in woods from August to October, and 
is easily known by the " coffee and milk " colour of the velvety pileus, and 
the change of the hard whitish flesh when broken to a reddish-saffron colour ; 
the milk also becomes saffron-yellow on exposure to the air ; the odour is 
nauseous and pungent, and it is probably poisonous, 

Russula furcata (Pers.) Fr. By a clump of beech trees near Stokke 
Common, and in Wilton Brails ; a stout agaric, the cap is viscid in wet 
weather, and is green, becoming dull yellowish at the disc with age ; the 
gills are shining white, and are forked from the base, and the stem is white 
and firm ; it is a common species. R. suhfoetens W. G. Smith. An in- 
frequent Rusmla, gathered in Foxbury Wood in September ; the cap is 
yellowish-white, with a translucid, tuberculately sulcate margin, and the 
gills, which are white, and become yellow, are thick, distant, and narrow ; 
it grows in grassy places, and on lawns under beeches, as well as in woods. 
The translucid nature of the margin is well seen if the cap is held up 
towards the light. The generally scarce R. Integra (Linn.) Bataille, a 
brown toadstool, occurred near Rhododendron Drive; and near St. Kath- 
arine's Church, in October, was seen R. heterophylla Fr., a species with 
greenish or yellowish brown cap, and shining white gills and stem ; the gills 
are decurrent, and are very narrow and crowded ; it is an edible, uncommon 
species, which occurs in woods from July to October. The infrequent R. 
punctata (Gill.) Maire, and its violet-stemmed var. violeipes (Quel.) Maire, 
which is also uncommon, grew on the Heading sands in the road cutting at 
Sadler's Hill, near Great Bedwyn; they were much undersized, which was 
probably due to the arid substratum ; this species and its variety generally 
occur in coniferous woods. 

Marasmius erythropus (Pers.) Fr. A little plant with a pallid cap, dark 
red stem, and broad sub-distant gills, gathered in Burridge Heath Plantation 
in mid-September ; it is a common edible species, growing on heaths and 
in deciduous woods in autumn. 

Lentinus cochleatus (Pers.) Fr. Foxbury Wood, on stumps ; with flesh- 
coloured cap and flesh-coloured sulcate stem ; the gills are decurrent,crowded, 
and serrated ; it has a very pleasant smell, of anise, or tonquin bean, is edible, 
and is frequent on stumps from July to November. 

The Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps (January, 1925) records a 
mild outbreak of poisoning among soldiers stationed at Tidworth, caused 

152 Savernake I or est Fungi. 

by eating Inocyhe incarnata, which had been mistaken for mushrooms. 
Inocyhe incarnata is a toadstool not uncommon in woods from June to 
October; it has a flesh-coloured cap and stem, and whitish gills spotted 
with red ; the white flesh of the cap becomes deep red when broken, while 
that of the stem is red from the first. I have not yet observed this species 
near Bedwyn. 

The following paragraph which appeared under the heading " Exposition 
de champignons a Paris " in Le Petit Journal of the 15th Oct., 1924, indi- 
cates the interest that is taken in mycology abroad : — " La Societe 
mycologique!de France organise une exposition de champignons qui se 
tiendra k V Institut Pasteur, a Paris, du 19 au 23 Octobre. Elle com- 
prendra, outre les champignons, tout ce qui concerne la reglementation de 
la vente, jes marches, les measures et les moyens contre les empoisonne- 
ments, la statistique de ces accidents, Fenseignement, la vulgarisation, 
Tutilisation commerciale et industrielle des champignons." It is a pity 
that a knowledge of mycology is not more cultivated in Britain, for apart 
from the interest attaching to a very curious and varied group of plants, it 
is stated in a paper on " Edible and Poisonous Fungi," contributed by Mr. 
J. Kamsbottom, M.A., P.L.S., to the Proceedings of the Royal Society of 
Medicine {1925), Vol. xviii. {Section of Tropical Diseases and Parasitology)y 
pp. 13 — S6) that " few toadstools are poisonous, and many of the edible ones 
are of much more delicate flavour than the common mushroom, either wild 
or cultivated." Mycological opinion seems to be coming' round to the idea 
that the only fatal species is Amanita phalloides, though other fungi are 
poisonous, for Mr. Ramsbottom, in the very interesting and authoritative 
paper above quoted, says, " It may be said that in cases of fungus poisoning, 
if Amanita phalloides and its near allies can be ruled out of account, the 
chance of recovery is almost certain, for no other fungus causes the death of 
a healthy person," and M. Andre Billy, in Le Petit Journal of the 25th 
Aug., 1924, writes : — "A cause du mauvais temps, les accidents d'autos et 
les noyades ont ete en cet aimable mois d' aout., un peu moins nombreux 
qu'on ne pouvait le craindre. Mais 1' humidite eugendree par les averses 
cree un autre fleau qui, d'habitude, ne sevit guere avant septembre ou oct- 
obre ; je veux parler des champignons. 

II est malheureux tout de meme. 

En cet an dix-neuf cent douzieme, 

De voir encore des abrutis 

S'empoisonner 4 pleine bouche 

De champignons plus ou moins louches, 

Bien qu'ils soient du avertis. 
Comme 1' indique I'un d'eux, ces vers de Raoul Ponchon ne datent pas d^ 
hier. Deja, en 1912, les amateurs de champignons etaient dument avertis 
du danger. Depuis lors, ils ont ete avertis tous les ans. N'empeche que 
tous les ans les empoisonnements par les champignons sont aussi nom- 
breux et qu 'a cause de I'humidite precoce ils promettent de I'etre davantage 
cette annee. La preuve c'est qu '^ Villiers-au-Tertre, pres de Douai, trois 
enfants de la famille Waillien vienent de mourir empoisonnes pour avoir 
mange des champignons, alors qiie le pfere, la mere et les deux autres enfants 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 153 

ne s'en tiraient que grace a une intervention energique du medecin . . . 
De savants mycologues, comme M. Marcel Coulon, estiment que les cham- 
pignons mortels se reduisent en somme a seule categorie, celle de 1' amanite 
phalloide, flanquee de ses sous-especes, virosa et verna. Les autres cham- 
pignons malsains seraient simplement dangereux ou suspects, et M. Coulon 
ajoute qu' a condition d' ecarter soigneusement la funeste Amanite phal- 
loid€i on ne court gu^re de risque a manger n'importe quels champignons 
qu' on aura prealablement fait bouillir pendant trois ou quatre minutes. 
II est vrai que votre estomac peut avoir un caprice ou meme etre fonci6re- 
ment rebelle aux champignons les plus inoffensif. Dans ce cas, vous serez 
maladeetpeut-etrememe trepasserez-vous. . . ." In " JEdible and Poison- 
ous Fungi " Mr. Ramsbottom brings out the important fact that evidence 
is accumulating that the near neighbour of A. Phalloides, Amanita mappa^ 
not uncommon in woods near Bedwyn, which has had a very bad reputation 
in the past, is not poisonous, though all the Amanitse are better avoided as 
food ; he says :— " The older records may have been of Amanita phalloides 
poisoning, as the two species are sometimes a little diflScult to distinguish. 
Amanita mappa never has the olive tinge typically present in Amanita phall- 
oides ; the cap is usually covered with patch-like fragments of the volva, and 
there is a groove between the bulbous base of the stem and the thick free 
margin of the volva" {i.e., the sheath at the bottom of the stem) It should 
be stated that mushrooms never possess these volvas,and so are generally dis- 
tinguishable from the Amanitas, though the volvas in some of the Amanitas 
are friable and tend to crumble away. Poisonous fungi continue to take toll 
of human lives, as the following recent tragedies indicate,andthegreatest care 
should be taken in dealing with unknown species ; the only safe and sure plan 
is to know the plants by their characters, as one knows a rose bush or elder 
tree,and especially to make oneself acquainted with the distinguishing 
features of the fatal Amanita phalloides. Le Petit Journal of the 9th Sept,, 
1924, records " Une famille empoisonnee par des champignons. Deux de ses 
membres meurent, cinq sont gravement intoxiques" (near Metz), and on 
the 11th Sept. of the same year, "Empoisonnes par des champignons. Un 
enfant meurt. Trois autres personnes sont dans un etat desespere(at Corbeil), 
and also a fatality from the same cause near Epinal. The " Times^^ of the 
28th August, 1924, mentions a death that occurred near Sevenoaks, after 
partaking of fungi, and on the 30th April, 1925, states that near Tomar, in 
Portugal, a family of seven were poisoned by eating toadstools and that 
five of them died, and the ''Daily Mail " of the 7th September, 1924, reports 
an inquest at Ealing on a man who died after eating toadstools in mistake 
for mushrooms. In the latter case, the coroner, in recording a death by 
misadventure, said he thought it was common knowledge that mushrooms 
never grew in woods, but always in the open. That was one of the great 
distinctions between mushrooms and the fungi that grew in the wood. To 
avoid fungi growing in woods is sound advice for the non-mycological public, 
for whom the deadly Amanita phalloides, a plant of woods and pastures 
adjoining woods, is ever lying in wait. The ordinary mushroom {Psalliota 
campestris) is rarely found in woods, but the common wood mushroom 
{Psalliota sylvicola), with shining white cap, and long stem furnished with 

154 Savernake Forest Fungi. 

an ample ring, and the no less common Psalliota haemorrhoidaria, with, 
brown scaly cap, and flesh that immediately turns blood red when broken, 
both of which are not infrequent in Savernake Forest, are edible, sylvestral 
species, and there are other sylvan mushrooms which can be eaten with im- 
punity. To familiarize people with the very dangerous Amanita phalloides, 
it may be useful to append here the following characters, which are taken 
from Mr. Carleton Rea's monumental work on the British Basidiomycetae. : — 
*' Cap. 7 — 10 centimetres, greenish, or yellowish-olive, streaked with dark, 
innate fibrils, fleshy, ovato-campanulate, then expanded, obtuse, viscid, 
rarely covered with one or two fragments of the volva. Stem 8 — 12 X 1.5 
— 2 centimetres, white, rarely sprinkled with olive or pale yellowish olive, 
adpressed squamules, smooth or flocose, attenuated upwards, base bulbous. 
King white, superior, reflexed, slightly striate, swollen, 'generally entire. 
Volva free for half its depth, generally splitting up into three or four, more 
or less acute segments. Gills white, free, ventricose, 8 millimetres broad. 
Flesh white. Spores white, subglobose, 8—11 X 7—9 micromillimetres, 
with a large central gutta. Smell foetid when old. Taste unpleasant. 
Poisonous. Woods, and adjoining pastures. July — Nov. Common." 
The colour of the cap is very variable, ranging from whitish (var. verna, a 
little colony in September, 1924, among beech-mast in Haw Wood, near 
Bedwyn), pale primrose-yellow, with a tinge of olive (rather common near 
Bedwyn), yellowish-green, yellowish-olive, green (once near Bedwyn) to 
umber brown (var. umbrina, three times near Bedwyn). This species may 
be known by the large free volva, or sheath, at the base of the stem, with 
ragged edge, closely adherent to the bulb and by its ample ring. It is 
larger than its close ally, Amanita mappa^ which has a cream-coloured cap, 
a bigger bulb at the base of its stem, and appears later in the year. The 
white gills, ventricose in A. phalloides are narrow in A mappa, and while 
A. phalloides has a viscid cap, A. mappa has a dry one. The stem tapers 
upwards in A. Phalloides but is equal in A. mappa, that is, of the same 
diameter throughout its length. Other distinguishing features between 
the two species are included in a quotation from Mr. liamsbottom's 
" Edible and Poisonous Fungi " given above. It may be noted that the 
word Amanita is derived from a mountain called Amanos in Cilicia, which 
probably abounded in edible fungi, as Galen used the term Amanites for 
the common mushroom and that the boletus of the l^omans, so highly prized 
in classical times, was a species of Amanita, A. Csesarea, still greatly 
valued in Mid and South Europe for its esculent properties, and known to 
the French, from its colour, as the oronge. The great naturalist J. H. Fabre 
in the chapter " Insects and Mushrooms " in his work " I'he Life of the Fly *' 
states that the Romans of the Empire called Amanita Csesarea " the food 
of the Gods, cibus deorum, the agaric of the Csesars," and it will be remem- 
bered that the poison from which Claudius Caesar died, was conveyed to 
him in a dish of boleti, evidently then considered food fit for an Emperor. 
Boleti continued to be worshipped and eaten for many years, though the 
custom was discouraged by Cicero {Ad. Fam. vii., 26, Letter to Gallus), 
Seneca {Ep. xcv.) and Galen {De Aliment, Faculty lib. 11., 69), chiefly on 
the ground that they were not particularly wholesome. 

By Cecil P, Hurst. 155 

In conclusion, I heartily recommend to all those of our readers who are 
interested in fungi, the perusal of the recently-published " The Romance of 
the Fungus World,'' by Messrs. R. T. & F. Rolfe (Chapman & Hall), the 
pages of which are crammed with fungus information and fungus lore of 
all kinds. In this fascinating work, Amanita phalloides and its close rela- 
tions, verna and virosa, are designated an " inglorious trio," and the chapter 
on " Poisonous Fungi " is prefaced by the following extract from Le Petit 
Journal : — " De nombreux deces causes par I'absorption de champignons 
veneneux nous ont deja ete annonces des departements du Midi, de 1' Est, 
et meme des environs de Paris. Chaque annee, en octobre et novembre, 
une centaine d'habitants des campagnes meurent ainsi intoxiques par les 
poisons extraordinairement violents et subtils qui renferment surtout cer- 
tains agarics du genre amanite . . . Que f aire pour prevenir ces tristres 
accidents qui, chaque annee, se renouvellent avec la regularite d'un tribut 
paye par nos populations a quelque moderne Locuste 1 " 



By R. C. C. Clay, M.R.G.S., L.R.G.P., F.SA., F.RAJ. 

The terrace that runs from Barford St. Martin to Wardour along the 
south side of the River Nadder is composed of Upper Greensand of con- 
siderable thickness, and ranges from 400ft. to 500ft. O.D. 

Some implements of flint or chert can be found in all parts of this area, 
but above Horse-Shoe Gopse, on Fir Hill, Hill Ground, Harris' Hill, and 
above Swallowcliffe, worked flints are more numerous, and suggest the 
probability that these places were camping grounds or settlements. In 
other words, the settlements were situated on the highest spurs. It is 
interesting to note that they lie alongside ancient trackways, as would be 
natural in times when most of the country was covered by scrub. The 
implements on these sites are much thicker in certain circumscribed areas, 
and these may, like the band of implementiferous ground that divides the 
field of Petticole, on Hackpen, indicate former clearings in the scrub. 

The earliest tools found are three of typical Upper St. Acheul facies. They 
are white and lustrous and came from above Horse-Shoe Copse. One is in 
the Blackmore Museum, one has been found lately by Rev. H. G. O. Kendall, 
F.S.A., and the third is in my collection. They appear to be connected 
with pockets in the Greensand. 

In the collection of Rev. G. H. Engleheart, F.S.A., are two interesting 
implements (Antiq. Journal, Vol. iii., No. 2, p. 144). One is a small 
brownish-grey ovate of Le Moustier type, the other resembles an early 
Solutre blade of dark slate-coloured flint. They were found on Fir Hill, 
Fovant. At the same place I picked up an implement similar to the latter 
but made from chalcedonic flint, mottled with blue and fairly lustrous. 

The remainder of tHe worked flints from this area can be divided up 
into two categories : — 

(1.) A blue and a very lustrous black prismatic core industry. These 
appear to be contemporaneous, and the difference in the condition of the 
surfaces of the flints is due to the amount of exposure and to the position 
on or in the soil of the individual implements in prehistoric days. If a flint 
becomes lustrous before it patinates it will never patinate afterwards. In 
this industry only good quality flint was used, and none of the impure or 
cherty flint so common in the other. Possibly good prismatic scraper-cores 
could be made only from the best material. 

(2.) An industry containing many shapeless cores and a few inferior 
scraper-cores of the prismatic type. In this series the horse-shoe scraper 
is common, made from flint, like Jacob's coat, of many colours — chalcedonic, 
black, grey, cherty, and mottled. 

In over 2000 implements from this terrace I have many striking examples 
of re-chippings, that is to say, re-touches, by people of the second series on 
flakes or tools made by those of the first. 

Flint Im'plements from the N adder Valley , South Wilts. 157 

These two industries merge the one into the other and there appears to 
be no break in the occupation of the sites. Thus it is often difficult, if not 
impossible, to place certain implements in their proper categories : but 
taking large quantities we are able to separate the two series and to recognise 
the characteristics of each. 

Implements of " Cave Period " type are common and are of the same 
quality flint, in the same condition and with the same degree of patination 
as tools that are definitely not of that date, for example barbed arrow-heads 
and tools made from fragments of polished celts. The reason for this 
accidental survival is that flint of good quality had to be fetched and carried 
some distance, and was therefore valuable. The shape of the raw flake 
governed to some extent the shape of the finished article. A homely 
example may not be out of place. Experimenting recently on the results 
of using a scraping edge on different materials, I needed three fresh scrapers. 
As my block of good flint was small, I could obtain only three flakes of 
suitable size. From two of these I made horse-shoe scrapers, but from the 
third I was obliged to make a steep-faced keeled scraper. I have many 
examples of steep fluted and " tarte " scrapers of Aurignac type and end 
scrapers on blades similar to those of La Madeline. There are no true gravers. 

As the only difference in the implements from the various sites on this 
terrace is in quality of material, when studied " en masse," and not in type, 
they will be considered together. 

The only whole polished celt is in the Engleheart collection. The grinding 
is confined to the rounded cutting edge. It is thick but narrow, and the 
sides are slightly flattened. The butt is covered with crust and is pointed. 
It is exceptional in that it is curved on the flat near the butt. There are 
about sixty fragments of polished celts. Some have been re-chipped at the 
butt and edge to form serviceable tools, but the " business end " is always 
rounded. Most of the celts were thick, with more or less pointed butts and 
slightly flattened sides. One example was very thin, tapering to a pointed 
butt. These, according to Mr. Reginald Smith, F.S.A., belong to the 
beginning of the late Neolithic Age in Scandinavia {Proc. Prehist. Sac, 
East Anglia^ Vol. ii., part iv.). The material from which these were made 
is usually a hard greyish-white flint, probably the centre core of a large 
nodule. Some, however, from the condition and quality of the material, 
were evidently made at the same time as the majority of the other imple- 
ments, and from similar flint. The fact that I have a scraper, choppers, 
■cutting tools, and flakes from fragments of polished celts shows that the 
hardness of the material from which they were made was appreciated. 

I have half a well-chipped celt with blunt-pointed butt and a few roughly- 
made specimens. Two small chipped celts with broad ends may have been 
used as chisels. 

Arrowheads are not uncommon and are of all types : — leaf-shaped, 
triangular, hollow-based, tanged, tanged and barbed, tranchet and single 
barbed (harpoon barbs). Three are bueish-white in colour. Of these, one 
is a narrow harpoon barb, one triangular with a tang and the other a tranchet. 
The chipping on these is more bold and there is less finish about them than 
on the others. 

158 Flint Implements from the Nadder Valley, South Wilts. 

Horse-shoe and end scrapers are numerous and there are many of the 
thumb variety. Square-ended scrapers are rare and racloirs are relatively 
scarce. I have only one scraper tanged for hafting, but several of the end 
type have small encoches at the sides, which may have been used for fixing 
them into some form of handle. Good nosed scrapers are chiefly found 
near Harris' Hill and there are several examples of scrapers with a spur. 
Some appear to have been used as strike-a-lights : the smashing of the 
edges by repeated blows from one direction is as old as the rest of the flaking 
and cannot therefore be attributed to the action of the plough. None of 
the steep-ended variety nor of the scraper-cores show any of the small flake 
scars on the under side of the edge that would be expected if they had 
been employed as planes. It is very common to find the median aretes 
blunted for finger-hold by battering. Scrapers with rubbed and polished 
edges are quite as common here as at Windmill Hill. They vary in number 
on different parts of this area from 1^ % to 8 % of the total number of 
scrapers found. The rubbed portion may not be on the scraping edge 
proper but on the side of the flake. I have examples of scrapers made 
from thick ridged flakes which have the projecting aretes or portion of 
crust considerably rubbed. One large scraper has the under edge of the 
striking platform flattened and polished. I have tested scrapers which I 
have newly made by scraping vigorously with one portion of the edge many 
thousands of times against bone and hard pieces of oak, but I have not 
produced a rubbed edge, but by using it against another piece of flint the 
result was a distinct grinding and polishing of both opposing surfaces. 
This leads to the conclusion that these rubbed edges were produced when 
putting the finishing touches to the surfaces of polished celts. Although a 
block of sandstone was probably used to do most of the grinding, aided 
perhaps by sand and water, yet the scarcity of linear striae on some portions 
of polished celts lends strength to the theory that in some cases at least some 
other method was employed to complete the process, for the coarseness of 
the quartz grains in sandstone would surely leave many and obvious 
scoriations. I have been lent by Dr. Elliot Ourwen, F.S.A., a polished celt 
with a very much rounded and polished edge, and it might be argued 
" Would a polished celt be used to polish a celt ? " The answer is that the 
implement in question was originally a polished celt of late Neolithic date, 
and after being damaged it was re-trimmed at the butt, and that the rubbing 
of the edge is later than that on the body of the implement, and that stri^ 
are evident on the body but absent on the rounded edge If this tool had 
belonged to a maker of polished celts, for probably it was a specialized craft, 
what could be more natural than that he should use this damaged specimen 
to polish others ? It could be handled more easily and its weight would 
give it more efficiency than any scraper. I have a tabular piece of rough 
Greensand chert from an extension of the Harris' Hill site, on one surface 
of which there is a well-marked saddle-shaped polished area large enough 

to fit any celt. i • j 

Hollow scrapers are numerous, but the crescent is usually at the side and 

not at the end of the flake. 

The true borers are generally thick pointed and show the small alternate 

By R. C. C. Clay. 159 

use-flakings near the end caused by the to-and-fro action of the implement. 
These are uncommon and must have been used upon some hard substance, 
such as wood, bone, or possibly stone. The fine-pointed borers do not show 
these signs of use, and were probably employed as prickers to make holes 
in leather. Mr. Engleheart has called attention to a class of tool fairly 
common in this area, which is really a compendium — borer, round scraper, 
and hollow scraper. One of my thick-pointed implements has the end 
rounded and polished, and must have been used upon stone. 

Knives fall into three classes :— (1.) Double-edged, made from thick 
ridged flakes, the pressure flaking along the sides being of the parallel scale 
type. There is sometimes work on the bulbar face. (2.) Long thin flakes, 
with one side blunted by alternate chipping or minute and regular obtuse 
flakings. The plain edge of the flake on the other side being the business 
portion. (3.) Curved flakes with fine re-touches on the convex edge. 

Saws are rare. One specimen has twenty-eight regular teeth to the inch, 
Another is of the dos rahbatu variety. 

There are three types of fabricators common to both series : — (1.) Long 
narrow flakes with blunted edges and signs of use at the obtusely pointed 
end. (2.) Slug-shaped, with plain bulbar face and high-arched back blunted 
by alternate chipping and battering. (3.) Fabricators that are more or less 
rectangular in cross section. The edges have been blunted by alternate 
chipping followed by some battering. This variety often has a narrower 
point and does not show the rubbing and polishing at the end which is 
such a constant feature with (1) and (2), and denotes use as a strike-a-light. 
One implement of the slug type has near the bulb several parallel transverse 
striae, caused by intentional friction against another stone. 

A few discs have been found. They are of the type so often met with in 
early Bronze Age barrows in Yorkshire. (Mortimer, Forty Years^ Re- 

Prismatic scraper-cores and cones, mostly blueish or very lustrous black, 
are not so common as cores of the shapeless variety. They are made from 
good quality flint. Some are chisel-ended. If the base is not slightly 
concave, a small squat resolved flake was taken off underneath to give a 
more satisfactory scraping edge. The cones usually had their apices 
battered for fingerhold. Some of the shapeless cores may have been 
failures for prismatics. They are often of inferior quality flint and many 
have been used as hammerstones at some points. 

The blueish flakes are invariably of the prismatic series with narrow 
parallel facets, and show no signs of use. They are of good quality flint. 
It appears that, other things being equal, the better the quality the quicker 
does patination take place. I picked up a prismatic core that was almost 
buried in the ground and noticed that the only facet that was exposed to 
the light was blue-white, whereas the rest of the implement was a blue-black. 
I placed it on my window-sill and found after two days that it was uniformly 
white all over. Some of the unpatinated prismatic flakes, like a large pro- 
portion of the broader and larger ones of the second series, show signs of 
use. They may be of the same date. 

Iron-staining is more common on the patinated and grey flints. It was 


160 Flint Implements from the Nadder Valley, South Wilts. 

sometimes, but not always, caused by the plough. One scraper with several 
patches of stain has a thin iron-stained line running three-quarters of the 
way across the front, then over the top of a very fine spur on the edge, and 
is then continued in a straight line across the bulbar face. This could not 
have been caused by a plough. 

Quicksilver spots of high gloss are very common. Grey and chalcedonic 
flints rarely show it. 

Scratches of Sturge types 3, 4, and 6 are occasionally met with, commonest 
on the black and rarest on the grey. The immunity of the latter may be 
due to its hardness. These scratches are more deeply patinated than the 
rest of the flints owing to the fact that moisture with carbonic acid in 
solution is retained in them whereas it is liable to run off the smooth 
surfaces of the other parts. Chattering scratches may be caused by the 
plough, but it is difficult to ascribe all types to the same agency. 

At Walker's Hill, above Swallowcliffe, there is an outcrop of Greensand 
chert of a coarse variety from which implements were made on the spot. 
The characteristic fracture is starchy, but often a smashing one is seen 
similar to those on a flint " that will not flake." The knappers worked on 
the same lines as when using flint. Having quartered the lump they at- 
tempted to detach flakes by blows more or less at right angles to the edge 
of the striking platform. A rudimentary bulb was often produced but the 
flake was never incurving on the underside. For this reason they were 
unable to make the horse-shoe type of scraper. The commonest tools are 
borers, hollow scrapers, rough chopping implements, and square-ended 
scrapers. Fabricators are sometimes found. Very few re-touches were 
possible on such poor material, and the small facets on the edges appear to 
be for the most part caused by use. Flint implements on this site are not 
so common as those of chert. It is extraordinary that these knappers were 
satisfied with such inferior material when good working flint could no doubt 
be obtained from the downland ridge of upper chalk situated a mile to the 
south. Is the explanation that they were enemies of the people who con- 
trolled that portion of the downs ? Or was it due to the inborn laziness of 
all savage tribes ? Thinly scattered chert tools are found all along this 
terrace, but they are in a small minority as compared with those of flint. 

Several true pigmies have been picked up. They appear to belong to the 
first series, and to be associated with the prismatic core culture, as at Kimble 
P.P.S.E.A., vol. ii., p. 437) and Land's End {Ibid, vol. iii., p. 59). The 
commonest type is the Gravette point. I have one crescent and a few 
microliths of indefinite form with " work " round the edges. Another has 
several delicately-formed encoches with intervening spurs. Pigmies did 
did not end with the Tardenoisian period, they persisted through the 
Neolithic until the Bronze Age. Their relative scarcity may be due in 
some measure to their small size, and the consequent difficulty in finding 
them on the surface of cultivated fields. From Mr. H. S. Thoms' discovery 
near Brighton, there can be no doubt that the manufacture of these pigmies 
was a specialised art, and that thirty to forty flakes were struck off a core 
before one suitable for conversion into a pigmy was obtained. Those of 
the Gravette type could have been used as arrow points. 

>.. Plate, i 

' :$l ^n^ .' 


If' 4 ' ^'5""6 

7 8 


'&;P'13 '• ']\'|4 




!i' u,>i.i< 

■'. 'f ^ 



^*c^« t ;!^<'?x«rv 4^x'-;^ "" "^-^ 


^tr 'f "'t^* 


c n^ 




x/' 25 


-;«' * 


26 r^ -: 27 

Plate I.— Flint Implements from the Greensand Terrace, S. Wilts. 


^ ^^^ 

r \ 


^./■■' 3 

l'^'// \ 



ij: \)'.fx 

'" ^, ,, ,. 12VV ^-- ^'^■^' 






21 22 




Ci»- ' 28 

Plate II.— Flint Implements from the Greensand Terrace, S. Wilts. 


By B. C. a Clay. 161 

In dating these series we can, I think, exclude all ideas of a late Palae- 
olithic age, as the not uncommon survivals of " cave " types are of the same 
•date, being of similar quality and condition of material, as those implements 
which can be shown to be contemporaneous with polished celts. At the 
Blackpatch flint mine "flint implements of types usually associated with 
widely distant periods have been found together in the same shaft " (Sussex 
Archxol. Soc. Coll., vol. Ixv.) My earliest series corresponds closely with 
those at Kimble {P.P.S.E.A., vol. ii., p. 43*7). Land's End [Ibid, vol. iii., 
p. 59), Thatcham {Ibid, vol. iii., p. 500), and the buried " Lyonesse " floor 
{Essex Naturalist, vol. Ixx., p. 249, and P.P.S.E.A., vol. iii.) The latter 
industry was associated with beaker pottery and so can be assigned to the 
late Neolithic and the dawn of the Bronze Age. Windmill Hill {P.P.S.E.A^ 
vol. iii., p. 515), and Peppard {Archaed. Journ., vol. Ix., p. 33) are earlier, 
■although we have many types in common. The series from Golden Ball 
Hill, Wilts, and A and B from Hackpen {P.P.S.EA., vol. iii., p. 515) differ 
only in minor details, due perhaps to individual variations in fashion and 
technique. The "foothills" and "low country" series from S. Yorkshire 
P.P.S.EA; vol. iii., p. 277) may be contemporaneous with mine. The fact 
that I have portions of polished celts which are made from the same peculiar 
quality of flint as many of the other implements and are in the same con- 
dition of patination as these, is evidence that the industry flourished at a 
time when polished celts were in daily use. These celts are usually thick, 
with a rounded cutting edge and flattened sides, and belong to a period which 
Mr. Reginald Smith has correlated with the late Neolithic in Scandinavia. 
As I have mentioned above, the rubbing of the edges of scrapers and 
iiakes, so often seen on this terrace, can be caused by friction for a 
prolonged period against another flint, and we are forced to the conclusion 
that it happened during the final stages of the polishing of celts. I have 
produced a rubbed edge on a scraper whilst successfully using it to polish 
a flint flake. This again suggests that these implements were contempo- 
raneous with the manufacture of polished celts. As no instances of polished 
celts have been found in burials associated with cremation, with the ex- 
ception of the three barrows on Seamer Moor, Yorkshire (Evans' Stone, 
p. 134), which were probably Neolithic {vide B.M. Stone Age Guide, p. 78), 
•and as cremation was almost universal in Britain during the latter half of 
the Bronze Age, we can safely say that the implements from this terrace 
are not later than the first half of the Bronze Age. That any of them were 
used during the Early Iron Age can be overruled by the fact that in neither 
of the neighbouring inhabited sites of that period at Fifield Bavant ( WA.M., 
vol. xlii., p. 457), and Swallowcliffe Down {Ibid, vol. xliii., p. 59), were 
any flint tools found which could be of the same date as the dwellings with 
the exception of a strike-a-light and possibly two rough scrapers. 


Plate I. 

1 to 8, Arrowheads. 9 and 10, Fabricators. 11, and 12, 13, Knives. 14 

to 17, Borers. 18, Long Blue Flake. 19, Scraper-Core (domed type). 20, 

Scraper-Core (conical type). 21 and 23, Scraper-Cores (winged type). 22, 

LI 2 

162 Flint Irri'plements from the Nadder Valley, South Wilts. 

Scraper- Core. 24, Shapeless Core. 25 and 26, Spurred Tools. 37, Small 

Plate II. 

1, Disc. 2, Saw, with blunted back. 3 and 4, Worked Flakes or 
universal tools, 5, Square-ended Scraper. 6, End Scraper on Blade. 7, 
End Scraper. 8, Kite-shaped Scraper. 9, Scraper with Corner Spur. 10^ 
Double-ended Scraper. 11, Horse-shoe Scraper. 12, Steep-ended Scraper. 
13, " Tarte " Scraper. 14, Side Scraper, or Racloir. 15 to 19, " Button " 
Scrapers. 20 to 22, Pigmies. 23, Nosed Scraper. 24 and 25, Hollow 
Scrapers. 26 to 28, Implements of Chert. 

Once more I am indebted to Mr. Pugh for so kindly drawing the 

Fig. 1. — Inglesham Church, from S.E. 



Fig. 4.— Inglesham Church, 
Early Figure of Virgin and Child. 



By C. E. PoNTiNG, F.S.A. 

The parish of Inglesham is at almost the extreme north-east angle of 
Wilts, near the point at which the Thames receives its tributaries — Key 
a,nd Cole— before passing out of the county near Lechlade. It is in the 
part of Wilts which belonged to Berks until joined to the former in 1833. 
The Church is off the main road, and its remote position may be accountable 
for its having been overlooked, for few people seem to have heard of 
Inglesham until it was brought to notice by Mr. William Morris on his 
taking up his residence in the neighbourhood, since which the building 
has been strengthened and repaired. 

The Church possesses great dignity for so small a building ; and several 
unusual features ; the Vork, moreover, of every period is exceptionally 
good. It consists of chancel, nave with north and south aisles, south porch, 
and a later chapel on the south side of the chancel. 

The earliest part of the structure is the arcade of the south aisle (Fig. 6) 
where the carving of the abacus of the easternmost respond is of the 
scalloped type, and that of the central column of the stiff foliation of the 
Transitional Norman, while the abacus in all cases is octagonal, and the 
mouldings of capitals and bases distinctly Early English. 

The arcades of both north and south aisles are of pointed arches of two 
orders of chamfers ; in the case of the easternmost on the north only does 
the inner order die on to the jamb, in all others there are demi-columns, 
with carved capitals. The central cylindrical column of the south arcade 
<Kig. 6) is distinctly larger than that on the north (Fig. 5) ; and the label is 
<chamfered,while that on the north is moulded : both have similarly moulded 
bases. Thus it may be said that the two arcades are alike in their general 
■design, yet they differ in detail sufficiently to indicate that they were 
erected during a period of change— the last quarter of the 12th century — 
the work having been begun on the south side, the north following soon 
after. Each aisle had an altar at its east end. 

The south aisle, like the north, originally extended only to the east end 
■of the arcade, at which point its east wall stood. There was, as the existing 
trefoil-arched piscina in the south wall near indicates, an altar at this end ; 
a small 14th century two-light square-headed window, cinquefoiled, remains 
to light the same. This window once had a label over it, which may have 
been removed when the wall was raised, or possibly the window previously 
existed elsewhere. 

For some reason it is usually found that the north arcade of a Church 
with aisles is the earlier, and various conjectures have been made as to the 

^ The photographs for the accompanying illustrations were specially taken 
for the purpose by the Rev. B. W. Bradford, Rector of Broughton, Oxon. 

164 The Church of S. Jo hoi the Baptist, Inglesham, Wilts. 

reason for it, the most generally accepted being that, owing to superstitious 
objections to burying on the north side, the space for adding an aisle was 
more usually available there. But, in thejcase of Inglesham, the two aisles 
are not additions, but part of the original plan, so that, except for following 
a prevailing custom, that cause does not apply. 

Each of the aisles has a doorway in the outer wall a little westward of 
its centre ; the north doorway has a trefoil-cusped head chamfered on the 
outer edge, without label, and the arch on the inside set at a higher level to , 
allow the door to open. An old oak door, with small moulding to cover 
the joints, remains with its beautiful hinges, and with holes in the jambs 
for the draw-bar. The south doorway has a big roll as the arch mould, 
with the rudest bell capital and impost on the jambs. 

The south porch is a spacious but simple structure with span roof of 
post-Reformation work ; the outer doorway has an irregularly-shaped low- 
pitched arch, worked on a single stone, which is, doubtless, a later insertion ;. 
an old door remains. In the gable over is a beautiful ogee arched niche of 
the late fourteenth century. In the east wall is a square-headed window^ 
which has been blocked with masonry, and there are stone benches on both 

There is nothing to indicate what the west end of the early Church was- 
like, but the efforts of the builder seem to have been tranferred to the chancel 
early in the thirteenth century. 

The east and north walls of the chancel have an early roll-type string- 
course under the windows on the outside, carried from the south-east original 
buttress of the chancel and around the north-east buttress (which was 
obviously added to the earlier east wall and has a splayed plinth) and along 
the north wall of the chancel to the east end of the north aisle. A moulded 
base occurs above the plinth along the north wall, but is stopped at 4ft. 6in. 
from the inner angle. On the north there are two single-light lancet win- 
dows with broad inner splays to the jambs and arches, and (to a flatter 
pitch) the window sills. The string-course which runs across under the 
east window of the chancel is continued along the north wall below these 
windows on the inside, and carried over them as a label. This, however, 
together with the arches, was cut into and lowered when the roof was 
constructed and the whole wall reduced in height. 

Below the sill string-course the surface part of the north wall (Fig. 3> 
westward of the sanctuary and central with the western lancet window, is 
enriched by a continuous arcade of three bays in moulded stonework, con- 
sisting of round arches with labels over, the two outside arches having the 
mouldings continued down to the floor as jambs, the dividing two springers 
being supported on corbels having foliated carving, the whole suggestive of 
sedilia for stalls.^ The older parts of these walls date from early in the 
reign of King John. 

' In the Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archseological 
Society^ vol. xxii., p. 47, it is stated : " On January 25th, 1205, King John, i 
gave the Manor andChurch of Inglesham to the Cistercian Abbey of Beauliea ( 
in the New Forest, which he had founded." This would almost exactly 

By G. E. Pouting. 165 

The east wall of the chancel is carried up as a gable, with on the outside a 
flat stone coping, but without a cross or other finial. The east window is a 
pointed one of three trefoil cusped heads (the central one the highest), and 
on the inside the arch is enriched by cinquefoil cusping of the transitional 
Early English period. (Fig. 2.) 

In the south wall is a coeval tall two-light trefoil window with a circle in 
the head between the two : a label is carried over the inside arch, and the 
wall inside is recessed to form sedilia seat with moulded edge. The roundell 
in the head of the window retains fragments of its original glass. In the 
south-east angle, placed angle-wise, is a large piscina of coeval date, with 
shelf. The chancel arch is an acutely pointed one of two orders of chamfer 
with roll-mould label on the west side, the inner order dies on to the face 
of the jambs. 

The west end of the nave and aisles, on the outside, consists of a central 
pointed window of two lights, having two orders of moulding on the jambs 
and arch, and moulded label returned to stop against the flanking buttresses. 
In the tracery lights of this window are remains, in yellow stains, of the 
drapery of two figures without heads. In the centre of each aisle is a two- 
light square-headed window, with cinquefoiled arches and good moulded 
label returned at the ends. At the outer edge of the quoins between nave 
and aisles are two tall buttresses, having widely-spread base and plinth, 
above which occurs one small set-off with projecting string-course under it, 
and above it an unusually long and steep weathering carried up to die into 
the wall at its apex. The nave gable has a wide flat coping, with a base 
carried round and moulded at the top, on which is constructed a most 
interesting turret with two pointed-arched and cusped openings for bells, 
with pierced eyelet in the spandril formed by these arches and high-pitched 
crow-jointed coping of the turret, the whole group forming a delightful 
"bell gable." The main buttresses have evidently been added to, and 
erected after, the west wall, and not built up with it. This work was 
carried out in the I4th century, together with the raising of the wall of the 
nave, and aisles, and with the parapets with their moulded cornice and 
copings, apparently formed the completion of the structure. Both parts 
are striking features and add greatly to the dignity of the Church. 

Late in the fourteenth century, the east wall of the south aisle was taken 
down, the aisle extended eastward as an additional chapel, and the archway 
of two orders of chamfers, the inner of which stops at the springing, and the 
outer by nicely-designed " stops " on the chapel side ioserted for communica- 
tion with the chancel. (Fig. 6.) A priest's door giving access to the chapel 
from the outside was provided by a simple doorway having the head shaped 
to a flat four-centred form, slightly chamfered on the edge, and over this a 

coincide with the north wall of the chancel, and account for the stall-like 
arcading to which I have referred. A further statement says : " Little 
Farringdon, formerly in the county of Berks, is now in Oxfordshire. It 
was granted by King John to the Abbey of Beaulieu at the same time with 
Inglesham," and the view given of the south side of the Church indicates 
work of about the same time. 

166 The Church of S, John the Baptist j Inglesham, Wilts, 

tall two-light pointed window of the same width, with tracery and label 
similar to the one in the east wall of the north aisle. Two or three fragments 
of glass remain in the cusps of the easternmost light. In the east wall is a 
window not easy to reconcile with thft rest of the work here ; it is square- 
headed, and has two orders of moulding carried round, but no arch or cusp, 
and no label. There is a buttress at the angle with no middle set-oflf. 

At the north-east and north-west angles of the north aisle are buttresses 
of the type of that at the north-east of the chancel. In the east wall of the 
north aisle is a two-light pointed Decorated window, with " chisel " cusps and 
a typical label mould outside. The window has a considerable quantity of 
old glass, now much corroded which shows no sign of having ever been 
painted. Flanking it on the inside are two corbels, apparently for figures. 
This aisle appears to have been one long chapel, and a thirteenth century 
piscina in the east respond was for its use. In the west bay of this aisle 
are marks on the pillar and respond where a gallery may have been fixed. 

The screens in the chapels remain, but there is none other than doubtful 
evidence of a sill at the entrance to the chancel. The south chapel has an 
oak screen, with an opening for access, across the middle from the central 
pillar to the south wall, and a parclose screen in the western bay of its 
arcade, but the screen across the middle of the north chapel has had the 
post of its doorway cut oflf, and the open portion above its transom removed, 
leaving only the post against the wall — but retaining full evidence of what 
formerly existed. All the screens are of 14th century type : the pews are 
Jacobean, and have in the centre gangway square angle posts with turned 

On the wall of the south aisle is a valuable Norman relic which was 
found outside and has been set up here for better preservation (Fig. 4). It 
is a panel of coarse stone, representing the Blessed Virgin Mary and Child. 
The Mother is seated and has the Child on her knee, and her head is bowed 
over and almost resting on His head. Our Lord appears to be holding a 
book on His knee, while His right hand rests on Our Lady's right shoulder. 
In a narrow sunk panel over the Blessed Virgin's head are the Roman 
characters M.A.H.LA., while out of the upper corner appears the Hand of 
God with two of the fingers pointing down to Our Lord in blessing, and the 
other two fingers folded down over the palm. An aureola encircles Our 
Lord's head. The feature have been somewhat flattened, and part of the 
angle of the stone from which the hand proceeds has been broken off ; the 
hole in the block on which our Lady is seated has been made to receive the 
gnomon of a sundial, and some eight or nine hour lines — beside the meridian 
line — which have been incised, indicate that the stone once stood in a 
vertical position outside a south wall. In the floor of the sanctuary is a 
black marble slab, 10ft. long, forming the matrix of the brass of the full- 
size figure of a knight of the fourteenth century. 

The font is a Perpendicular one of not unusual design. 

The pulpit, and its canopy, were evidently made for this position early 
in the seventeenth century, together with the reading desk, and the pews 
in the eastern half of the nave. Probably the remainder, though of plainer 
type, are not much later. 

By a E. Pouting. 167 

An iron bracket-stand for the hour glass is fixed on the central pillar of 
the north aisle in view of the preacher. 

The roofs are of various types, but all are old. The chancel roof of 
trussed rafters is the oldest, but the walls cannot have been, as has been said, 
"fitted to" it to account for the cutting down of the very early lancet 
windows in the north wall ; it is impossible to conceive such reckless 
disregard for this beautiful wall, which was obviously designed for the 
arches and their labels to be visible for their full height. Moreover the 
slope of the roof at the east end, where boarded as a canopy over the 
sanctuary, comes too close down over the east window. Be that as it may, 
the chancel roof is a precious relic of the thirteenth century, and it is well 
held together by three tie-beams. 

The aisle roofs are also span roofs of flat pitch of the fourteenth or fifteenth 
century, and have corbels under the tie-beams on both sides. 

The nave roof is of span form and has the fifteenth century type of tie- 
beam, principals, and wind-braces. 

Placed now on the south aisle window sill is a remarkable stone, obviously 
a portion of a reredos found built up in the wall, still retaining small well- 
painted figures upon it. 

The churchyard cross — (it would be a mistake, I think, to call it a " Village 
Cross") — is in the usual position where it can be well seen from the main 
approach to the Church. It has, as may be expected, lost its canopied head, 
but the shaft with its sculptured cap, its octagonal moulded base, which is 
brought into form from the square of the block by bold steps, remains. 
Under this are two steps which lead the eye upwards, and the large square 
bench at the bottom at a suitable height for use as seats. All this work is 
sound and well preserved, in spite of the iron rod at the top which probably 
destroyed the head by rust, before its time. 

One turns away from this beautiful old Church with feelings of reluctance 
and gratitude. 


By Canon F. H. Manley. 

When the last link of a family connection with the county extending 
over more than two centuries is severed, the idea of placing on record some 
details of that connection naturally suggests itself. Mrs. Manley, whose 
death at Great Soraerford occurred last year, was the sole ' representative 
in the district of the Evans family ; which had^ since the middle of the 
eighteenth century been located in the parish of Rodbourne Cheney. On 
the walls of the parish Church there are to be found several imposing 
memorial tablets, and in the churchyard a large number of tombs, now 
crumbling to decay, all marking the last resting places of five generations 
of this family and their intimate association with that parish. Memorials 
of their relatives are to be found in the Churches of many adjoining parishes. 

The original habitat of the family is not known, but the arms which they 
claim " Ar. an eagle displayed, with two heads, sa. — Crest, an eagle's head 
between two wings, sa., holding in its beak a rose gu. stalked and leaved 
vert," are those of Evans of Marsh Gibbon, Co. Bucks, (see Visitation of 
Bucks, 1575 and 1634), and were borne by John Evans, Bishop of Bangor, 

The first member of the family of whom we have record is a certain 
Arthur Evans, of London, who, on 28th July, 1647, married EUinor Stiles 
at All Hallows, London Wall. The Stiles family were of Wantage, and 
Ellinor was the daughter of Henry and Elli«or Stiles of that place, being 
baptized in the Church there 11th December, 1623. Her brother, Robert, 
baptized there 2nd October, 1628, went into business in London, and later 
migrated to Amsterdam, where he amassed a very large fortune, dying, 
unmarried, 3rd October, 1680, The almshouses which he endowed are still 
standing at Wantage, with a stone above the entrance door, bearing the 
inscription :— " The gift of Mr. Robert Stiles, of Amsterdam, merchant, who 
died October 3rd, 1680. Deo et pauperibus." Death came to him suddenly 
in the midst of his numerous activities, and the only proper will he left was 
one drawn up when just of age [P.C.C. Bath, 155], but administration of 
his estate was granted to a nephew, Joseph Haskins Stiles,who carried out 
his uncle's final wishes. A considerable legacy thus came to the testator's 
sister, Ellinor, whose son, John, he had at one time hoped to connect with 
his business [Chanc. Proc, Reynardson's Divn. — Evans v. Styles, Bundle 
308, No. 40], but the bulk of his property went to Joseph Haskins Stiles, 
who, as a capable business man, had been of great assistance to his uncle. 
He married a daughter of Sir John Eyles, of Southbroom, Wilts, Lord 
Mayor of London, 1688. A son, Benjamin Haskins Stiles, acquired great 

* This paper in a shorter and less complete form appeared in the Wilt- 
shire Gazette, April 3rd, 1924. 

The Society is indebted to Canon Manley for the gift of the illustration 
accompanying this paper, and to Mr. A. D. Passmore for kindly taking the 
photograph of Moredon House. 








'•* w^ 


.»4f Vf^^A- 

i ■ 

*v jk- ,v v^ "? si • - ^ ' 'p\^' , ■fi^ 4« • ; 

The Evans Family of North Wilts. 169 

wealth through successful speculations at the time of the South Sea Bubble, 
and had a good deal of property in Wilts, including Bowden Park, where 
he commenced building a mansion on a very extravagant scale, and the 
"Manor House and Parke of Corsham." Dying without issue in 1739 his 
estates passed to the only son of his sister Mary, the wife of Sir John Eyles, 
Bart., Lord Mayor of London, 1726, a Sir Francis Eyles, who assumed the 
name of Stiles. This Sir Francis Haskins Eyles Stiles died at Naples 26th 
Jan., 1762, and his only son, John, died unmarried in 1768, when the 
baronetcy became extinct. The family vault of the Eyles family was at 
St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, and there many of the Stiles were buried. {W. 
N. (t Q., vol. vii., p. 145, &c.) 

Arthur Evans was presumably in business in London, and was there in 
1681, when his only daughter, Ellinor, was married 23rd Sept. at St. Mary le 
Bow to John Launce, of the Middle Temple, but retired later to Wantage, 
where he was buried 19th November,1691,his will^being proved 26th Novem- 
ber, 1692. [Peculiar Court of Deans and Canons of Windsor.] His property 
included the Manor of Scottys in Canewdon, Essex, which was settled on 
his daughter, Ellinor Launce [Morant's Hist, of Essex, vol. i., p. 315.] 
Several of his sons were attached to Wiltshire — one,Gabriel, who predeceased 
his father, to Ogbourne St. George, and another, Henry, to Haydon, in the 
parish of Rodbourne Cheney ; while another, the eldest, John, owned in 
1685 land in Haydon, but seems to have resided at Wantage, where he was 
buried 26th December, 1703, leaving by his will, proved 17th May, 1704 
[Peculiar Court of the Dean of Sarum], his estate in Hayden to his brother, 

Mr. Henry Evans' name first appears in the registers at Rodbourne 

Cheney in connection with a collection for French Protestants on a Brief 

read 29th April, 1688, so that no doubt it was about this time he took 

up his residence in the parish. He was churchwarden in 1692 and 1702, 

His first wife, Mary, was buried at Wantage, 12th December, 1683. Some 

years after, he married Mary, the daughter of Thomas Pearce, of Compton, 

Co. Bucks, gent. The house in which he lived at Haydon was pulled down 

many years ago, and the estate cannot now be identified. Henry Evans 

was buried at Rodbourne Cheney 30th July, 1712, and his wife 31st May, 

1730. Their family consisted of four sons, one daughter, Mary, who 

married, about 1717, Anthony Goddard, of Purton, and another who died 

unmarried in 1751. 

The eldest son, Arthur Evans, married (marr. sett. 27th Oct., 1731,) 

i Catherine Coker, daughter of Thomas Coker, Rector of Little Hinton 

\ (1684 — 1741), and a Prebendary of Salisbury Cathedral, and Mary, daughter 

j of William Hearst (married at Salisbury Cathedral, 17th Dec, 1696), she 

being a sister of John Coker, of Bicester, Co. Oxon, where the family still 

reside. He inherited the family estate at Haydon, but seems to have spent 

much of his time at Salisbury, occupying a house in the Close. One child, 

Mary, was buried in Salisbury Cathedral, 29th September, 1737, where there 

is a memorial to her. He was the guardian of the children of Anthony 

j Goddard, who died in 1725, buried at Purton, 31st August, and whose wife 

seems also to have died about the same time. 

170 The Evans Family of North Wilts, 

Anthony Goddard was the son of Francis Goddard, of the Clyflfe Pypard 
family, who, together with his wife, Elizabeth [Thorner], was buried at 
Jjittle Somerford, their memorial tablet, as well as those of other relatives, 
being still visible in the Church. Anthony Goddard inherited from his father 
Purton Mouse, an interesting estate, lying near the Church and formerly 
part of the Malmesbury Abbey possessions in Purton. This property, 
consisting of a messuage called " Chamberlyns " and a water mill called 
*' Chesthill Mill," together with lands and another water mill called " Ayle- 
ford Mill," had been purchased by Henry Maslinge, {sic) ' of Pirton, gent., 
the tenant, in 1608, from Lord Chandos. " Aylsford Mill " was sold some 
years afterwards to Wm. Holcroft, 1619 {Wilts Inq., p.m. Ghas. /., p. 134), 
but the rest of the estate was inherited by the son, Wm. Maskelyn, from 
whom it passed to a son and heir, Henry, on whose death, without issue, 
in 1667, under the terms of his will the estate was sold, and Francis Goddard, 
of Standen Hussey, gent., became the purchaser of " Chamberlyns " and 
the mill house called " Chester {sic) Mill." Francis Goddard resided on his 
estate in Purton, and on his death, in 1701, it passed to his eldest son, 
Edward, on whose death, by will dated 12th Jan., 1710, Anthony Goddard 
became owner of all his real estate. Anthony Goddard lived and died in 
Purton, and was buried there 31st Aug., 1725, although one of his sisters, 
Elizabeth Langdon, was buried at Little Somerford, a tablet in the Church 
recording that "she dyed in London of the small pox 25th January, 170 1." Of 
the children of Anthony Goddard and his wife, Mary, the date of whose death 
has not been ascertained, one (a), Sarah Goddard, died in Arthur Evans* 
house in the Close of Salisbury and was buried in the Cathedral 16th Sept., 
1737, where there is a tablet to her memory. A little piece of the handiwork 
of this child still remains in the form of a coloured sampler, with a rhyming 
version of the Ten Commandments, initials A. E., K. E., S. G., M. G., E. G., 
11. G., of her uncle and aunt, herself, sisters and brother, and note, "Sarah 
Goddard, her work, March 11, 1733." Another daughter (6), Elizabeth 
Goddard, was buried at Purton, 14th Nov., 1737, and the youngest (c), Mary 
Goddard, married, about 1738, Timothy Dewell,^ a grandson of Timothy 
Dewell, Rector of Lydiard Tregoze, during the Commonwealth and for many 
years after,whose prowess as a preacher is recorded on a large fiat stone within 
the altar rails of the Church there. Timothy Dewell is said to have died 
in the West Indies, and his widow, with. her son, another Timothy Dewell, 
became resident in Malmesbury, where he practised for many years as a 
doctor. Several memorials to the Dewell family are to be seen in the Abbey 
Church, various members of the family holding a good deal of property in 
the town at different times, including Burton Hill House, and mixing 
themselves up very much in the affairs of the borough. All their property 
ultimately came into the hands of a great grandson of Mrs. Mary Dewell, 
Charles Goddard Dewell, the only son of Capt. Thomas Dewell, of Monks 

' Visitation of Wilts, 1623. 
2 Lydiard Tregoze Regs. Baptisms. 6th February, 1675/6, Charles, son of 
Dr. Timothy Dewell ; 6th January, 1715/16, Timothy, son of Charles Dewell 
and Ann his wife. 

By Canon F, H. Manley. 171 

Park, Corsham, and Henrietta Susan, daughter of Lieut.-Col. Tuffnell, of 
Bath. Charles Goddard Dewell was a lieutenant in the 91st Regt., serving 
in Greece in 1856, but resigned his commission and was received into the 
Roman Church in 1859. Soon afterwards he became a member of the 
Jesuit Society and remained a lay brother until his death in 1889. In 1861 
he endowed a Roman Catholic Chapel in Devizes, and aided the establish- 
ment of another at Malmesbury, besides showing himself a very generous 
benefactor of the society of which he was a member. All the Dewell estates 
in Malmesbury were sold by him in 1865, and he seems to have been the 
last representative of the family in the district. The only surviving son of 
Anthony and Mary Goddard was {d) Richard Goddard, M.D., who, at one 
time practised in ]\Iarl borough. He married^ Sarah, daughter of Sir John 
Wilde, and after his marriage he went to live in his ancestral home. He 
added much to the amenities of Purton House while he resided there, laying 
out the grounds round the mansion and utilising the stream running through 
the premises to form an ornamental lake. He died in 1776, and his only 
daughter, Margaret, married, in 1792, Robert Wilsonn, R.N., of Handly, 
Co. Dorset, who was buried at Purton, 1st Feb., 1 819, leaving four daughters. 
Purton House was purchased from his widow^ by her son-in-law, Mr. Richard 
M iles, who re-built and enlarged the old house but died ^ almost immediately 
afterwards, without issue. The other daughters of Robert Wilsonn leav- 
ing no issue the Purton branch of the Goddard family became extinct and 
their property^ passed into other hands. 

Arthur Evans himself acquired a considerable amount of property, and 
in 1755 was High Sheriff of Wilts. His will, proved (P.C.C.) 11th April, 
1765, mentions his estates at Haydon and elsewhere, Co. Wilts, and at Long 
Hanney and Milton, Co. Bucks. He may have benefitted, like his cousin, 
Benjamin Haskin Stiles, by successful speculation in South Sea Company 
shares. A memorial tablet,on which is a shield bearing the arms oiEvans and 
Coker impaled, surmounted by the Evans crest, in Rodbourne Cheney 
Church, states that he died, aged 75, on 15th February, 1762, and his wife, 
Catherine, aged 84, on 12th December, 1780. He left two children, a 
daughter, Catherine, who married Simon Wayte, of Groundwell, in Little 
Blunsdon, and a son, Arthur Evans. 

Simon Wayte belonged to a family at one time resident in Dauntsey 
where there is a memorial tablet in the Church erected by him to his mother, 
j but it was later connected with Calne, various members of the family being 
in business there. William Wayte, of Highlands, Calne, was a great nephew, 
as also Samuel Simon Wayte, who was a solicitor in Bristol, and whose son, 
Samuel Wayte, was for many years the well-known President of Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford. Besides his property at Groundwell, Simon Waite was the 
owner of a small family estate at Bushton, in Clyffe Fypard. He died, aged 
78, on 21st November, 1807, and his widow, whose later years were spent in 

* 1st August, 1753, at Purton. 
2 Buried at Purton 22nd March, 1843, set 85. 
3 Buried at Purton 20th June, 1839, set. 51. 
** Mrs. Sarah Miles sold Purton House to Horatio Nelson Goddard in 1810. 


172 The Evans Family of North Wilts. 

Bath, aged 85, on 15th September, 1816. They were both buried at Rodborne 
Cheney, and their memorial monument, bearing the arms of Evans and 
Wayte impaled, is in the Church. Mrs. Catherine Wayte seems to have 
been a person of some force of character, and and of a charitable turn of 
mind. She endowed a school at Haydon Wick for the education of twenty 
poor children of the parishes of Rodborne Cheney and Blunsdon St. Andrew, 
but this endowment is now merged in the general educational funds of the 
Wilts County Council. (Will dated 15th July, 1816.) 

Her brother, Arthur Evans, who succeeded to the family estates on 
the death of his father, was a B.CL. of New College, Oxford, and for a 
short time Vicar of Rodborne Cheney, 1778-9. He bought, in 1767, from 
Peregrine Bertie, Esq., the Moredon House estate, which had been formed 
by the wealthy London banker, John Morse, who went from Rodborne 
Cheney to make his fortune in London with the Childs, and whose niece, 
Elizabeth Payne, by her marriage with Peregrine Bertie became the mother 
of the ninth Earl of Lindsey. {W. N. Sr Q., vol. vi., p. 361, &c.) 

Arthur Evans made considerable additions to Moredon House, and ap- 
parently took up his residence there for a time. On several of the out- 
buildings are still to be seen sundials with the initials A. E. and date 1767. 
He died in Bath, where he had a house in Brock Street, in 1789, leaving no 
family, but survived by his wife, Catharine, the daughter of Cadwallader 
Coker, of Tottenham, who died 29th August, 1810. They were both buried 
at Rodborne Cheney, where their memorial tablets are'in the Church. The 
properties mentioned in his will [P.C.C, pr. 18th Nov., 1789] included estates 
in Rodborne Cheney, Stratton St. Margaret, Wroughton and Milton, Co. 
Berks, also the advowson of the Church of Rodborne Cheney. Subject to the 
life interest of his wife and sister, Mrs. Catharine Wayte, the bulk of his 
property was left to the children of his first cousin, Henry Evans, only son 
of his uncle Thomas, who, in 1724, had married, at St- Lawrence, Reading, 
Mary Pike, gentlewoman, of Rodborne Cheney, and resided there. 

Henry Evans left a large family,' the various members of which were 
engaged in business in Wroughton, Upper Stratton, Highworth, and else- 
where, ail of whom were buried at Rodborne Cheney, but the settlement of 
affairs after the death of Mrs. Wayte led in 1826 to the sale of the P>ans 
estates in that parish and elsewhere. Moredon House and two farms were 
purchased by the representatives of the late Ilev. Arthur Evans, Vicar 
of Rodborne Cheney (1792 — 1820), one of the sons of Henry Evans, and 
later these came into the possesson of his only son, the Rev. Arthur Evans, 
Rector of Little Somerford (1847 — 93), who also inherited other Evans 
property through the early death, 26th Sept., 1852. of his first cousin, 
Charles, son of Charles Edward Rendall, of Brigmanstone, who had married 
Maria, the daughter of Thomas Evans, of Burghclere, Southampton, another 
son of Henry Evans. There is a memorial window to Charles Arthur Rendall 

^ Mary married Robert Tucker and had issue ; Jane, Elizabeth, and John 
died unmarried ; Thomas married Susanna Warman and had issue ; 
Henry; Arthur married, at St. Saviour's, South wark, 1st January, 1811, 
Ann Pyke and had issue ; Richard married Susannah Vivashand had issue. 

By Canon F. H. Manley. I73 

!il^f t°T ^"^r o' n ^<^"^f '"I, *' Marlborough College, he went into resi- 
dence at Innity College, Cambridge, in October, 1851, and unfortunately 
fell into the water from a boat. This accident developed the consumptive 
tendencies that were latent in him, and he died the following September 

Moredon House, with its old-world garden, had some interesting features 
about It, and was surrounded by well-timbered fields. It was for many 
years occupied as a gentleman's residence, being in the tenancy, during the 
earlier part of the last century, of the Eev. Kichard Miles, who was for 

sIn^;°,'«^a^T . T' "^ ^'^'^'"^ '^■^"^°"«' ^y'°g ■*' "=« ag« of 92, on 4th 
X^A^^lTn ^i" 7 v"' """/.'? ^^"-'^ ^^'^ ^"°'''* Susan Goddard, widow of 
Jidward Goddard, Vicar of Clyffe Pypard (1791-1839), made it her home, 
and was succeeded by Mrs. Eliza Large, who keptja school there. Afte 
farmhouse' ^""'^''t'^e as a private residence, and was occupied as a 

The Key. Arthur Evans married, as his first wife, Susan Wightwick,' of 
the ancient Staffordshire family, one of whom was a co-founder of Pembroke 
Co lege, Oxford. The first member of the Wightwick family to settle in 
Wi tshire was Henry Wightwick, a fellow of Pembroke College, who early 
in the eighteenth century, came to Dauntsey. He was married, in Broad 
Somerford Church, 9th December, 1715, to Elizabeth Wayte, youngest 
daughter of the late Hector of Broad Somerford. He was afterwards mat e 

Rrn d^ '' f'^T ^^^"t' ^''^ ^^"'"^ °f ^''''^y- and was buriedMn 
Broad Somerford Church. His widow survived him until 1787.= She left 

nsed for her spiritual edification, still in the possession of the family and 
issued in print some years ago. H er grandson, Henry Wightwick * also a 
fellow of Pembroke College, became iiector of Little Somerford n n94 
::trr ' f.^"S'''-«f Abraham Young, of that parish, own r of an 
estate there, which his father had purchased in 1787, at the sale of the 
Estcourt property in Malmesbury. Henry Wightwick and his w feLed 
for many years in the Rectory of Brinkworth,' of which parish he was also 
in charge, the Rector being non-resident. He built while there the present 
drawing room of the Itectory. His brother, Charles Wightwick, vice^e en 
of Pembroke College, induced the College authorities to purchase the ad 
vowson of Brinkworth, and during the latter part of his life became Rector 

property in Little Somerford, and his brother became owner of the a dvowson 

Jd^stltTv''"^ '*'''• o'"^ Wightwick, Rector of Little Somer^ 

and sister of his only son Henry, Rector of Codford St. Peter (1840-1884). 

= 27th November, 1763. 

* Buried at Broad Somerford, 2nd October. 

■of I°lln SeS-sir'^'' ''''"'' °^ '-'"'^ «°™^^f"'' <^^^^-«0), Vicar 

wl^^r'"?°?-'*"^'T'"^'"'y^"''^'<'°f *« P«"«h Church of Brink- 
worth at yearly stipend of £84 and gratuitous use of the Parsonage House 
in which you are to reside 10 Feb., 1814 " Buried at r \huZ T a 
17th Oct., 1846. ' ^'"'® Somerford, 

174 The Evans Family of North Wilts. 

and the lordship of the manor there, this latter having been sold by Giles Earle, 
of Estcourt House, Crudwell, in 1807 to Jonas Ady, of Brinkworth, who 
disposed of it to Mr. Henry Wightwick. 

Through his wife, Susan Wightwick, the Rev. Arthur Evans became pos- 
sessed of landed property in Little Somerford in addition to his estates which 
he inherited at Moredonand Haydon. He was the last of the clergy in this 
immediate neighbourhood to follow the hounds, and was for many years an 
active member of the Malmesbury Board of Guardians, being vice-chairman 
under Lord Suffolk as chairman. In his own parish he promoted various 
schemes for the benefit of his poorer parishioners, and devoted himself 
assiduously to his school, in which he taught regularly He died in 1893, 
and was buried at Little Somerford, where in the Church are stained glass 
windows to the memory of his first wife, who died 23rd February, 1858, 
and his second, Susan (Brock), who died 15th December, 1888 ; also of his 
mother, Anne Evans, who died at the great age of 91 on the 11th January, 
1866, and was buried at Rodborne Cheney. The old Rectory House at 
Little Somerford was of modest dimensions, surrounded by a moat and 
often not occupied by the incumbent. Mr. Evans, when he first came to 
the parish, went to live in the old house of the Youngs, adjoining the church- 
yard on the north, but on the death of his mother, who, during the latter 
years of her life lived there, he very much enlarged the Rectory house, filled 
up the moat, laid out the gardens as they are now and spent the last years 
of his life in this more spacious abode. 

On the death of the Hev. Arthur Evans, 15th April, 1893, the real pro- 
perty passed to his eldest son, the Rev. Arthur Evans, Hector of 
Snelston, Derbyshire, who had married, 30th October, 1886, Margaret 
Shafto, belonging to a well-known north country family, her father being 
the Rev. Arthur Duncombe Shafto, Rector of Brancepeth, Co. Durham. 
Later, however, the property came into the possession of Mrs. Manley, his 
younger daughter, by whom it was sold in 1918. The little Somerford 
property, together with that belonging to the V\ ightwick family, sold at 
the same time passed into various hands, but the titular lordship of the M anor 
remained with iVl rs. Manley to the end. Moredon House, with some 200 acres 
of land was purchased by Mr. William Loder, who had for many years been a 
tenant, as also his father before him, on the estate, and had of late years 
occupied these premises. 

The present representatives of the Evans family are (1) the Rev. Arthur 
Evans, of Bath, who has a surviving family of three sons. Arthur, a Lieut.- 
Commander in the Navy ; Walter, in the Diplomatic Service ; and Thomas ; 
also a daughter married to the Rev. William Atkinson ; one son, Richard, of 
the Staffordshire Regiment losing his life in the war and (2) the Rev. 
Walter Evans, of Bath, unmarried. 




MONUMENTS ACT, 1913 (up to March, 1925). 

It seems desirable to print in the Magazine a complete list of the monu- 
ments scheduled up to the present time under the Act, especially as in some 
cases recently, where land has changed hands, the purchaser has not 
been notified by the Vendor that monuments on the property are under the 
protection of the Act. 

The numbers preceding the name of the monument in this list are the 
official registered numbers, those following the Barrows are the numbers 
assigned to them in the "List of Prehistoric Roman and Pagan Saxon 
Antiquities in the County of Wilts." W.A.M., xxxviii., 155—414. These 
numbers are also entered on the Ordnance maps at Devizes and Salisbury 

No ancient monuments on land in the occupation of the War Department 
or in Crown ownership can be scheduled. 
The provisions of Section 1 2 of the Act are as follows : — 

" 12. (1) The Commissioners of Works shall from time to time cause 
to be prepared and published a list containing : — ■ 

{a) such monuments as are reported by the Ancient Monuments 
Board as being monuments the preservation of which is of 
national importance ; and 
(6) such other monuments as the Commissioners think ought to be 
included in the list ; 
and the Commissioners shall, when they propose to include a monument 
in the list, inform the owner of the monument of their intention, and 
of the penalties which may be incurred by a person guilty of an offence 
under the next succeeding sub-section. 

(2) Where the owner of any ancient monument which is included 
in any such list of monuments as aforesaid proposes to demolish or 
remove in whole or in part, structurally alter, or make additions to, the 
monument, he shall forthwith give notice of his intention to the Com- 
missioners of Works,and shall not, except in the case of urgent necessity, 
commence any work of demolition, removal, alteration, or addition for 
a period of one month after having given such notice ; and any person 
guilty of a contravention of or non-compliance with this provision shall 
be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred 
pounds, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months, or 
to both. 

(3) This section shall not apply to any structure which is occupied as 
a dwelling house by any person other than a person employed as the 
caretaker thereof or his family." 


176 A Complete List of the Ancient Monuments in Wiltshire 
Camps, Earthworks. 


1 Old Sarum 

4 Barbury Castle, Ogbourne St. Andrew and Wroughton 

11 Castle Ditches, Wardour 

13 Winklebury Camp-, Berwick St. John 

17 Knap Hill Camp, Alton Priors 

20 Enclosures north of Wansdyke, Stanton St. Bernard 

21 Four Enclosures on All Cannings Down 

22 Enclosures on AUington Down 

32 Rybury Camp, All Cannings 

33 Giant's Graves, Care 
37 Bratton Camp 

41 Knook Castle, Upton Lovel 

44 Scratchbury Camp, Norton Bavant 

45 Battlesbury Camp, Warminster 

55 Castle Rings, Donhead St. iMary 

56 Chiselbury Camp, Fovant 

61 Earthwork on Wilsford Down, Wilsford, 60 N.W. 

62 Avenue at Stonehenge 

74 Earthwork Enclosure of East Group of Barrows, Winterbourne 


76 Clearbury Rings, Standlynch 

98 Enclosure east of Kennet Road, north-west of Barrow 30, Avebury 

101 Entrenchment on Windmill Hill, Avebury and Winterbourne 


106 Oldbury Camp, Cherhill 

115 Codford Circle 

116 Yarnbury Camp, Steeple Langford, and Berwick St. James 
118 White Sheet Castle, Mere, and Stourton 

125 Chisbury Camp, Little Bedwyn 

127 Liddington Castle 

129 BinknoU Camp, Broad Hinton 

130 Bury Woods Camp, Col erne 
132 Ringsbury Camp, Purton 

141 Stapleford Castle (medieval), Stapleford 

143 Castle Hill, Blunsdon St. Andrew 

Long Barrows. 


3 West Kennet 

5 Devil's Den, Preshute 

10 Manton Down, Preshute 

12 Whitesheet Hill, Ansty 

15 Lugbury, Nettleton 

Scheduled under the Ancient Monuments Act, 1913. 177 

16 Adam's Grave, Alton Priors ^ 

18 Winterbourne Stoke, No. I 

23 East Kennet 

28 King's Play Down, Heddington 

34 Barrow Copse, West Overton 

36 Tinhead, Edington 

37 Bratton, No. 1 

38 Kill Barrow, Tilshead 
40 Sutton Veny, No. 2 

42 Oxendean, Warminster, No. 6 

43 Kingbarrow, Warminster 

46 Norton Bavant, No. 13 

47 Middleton Down, Norton Bavant, No. 14 

48 Knook 

49 Bowl's Barrow, Heytesbury 

50 Knook Down, Knook, No. 5 

52 Corton, Boyton, No. 1 

53 Sherrington, No. 1 

54 Sherrington, No. 4 

57 Lake, Wilsford, No. 41 

58 Wilsford, No. 34 
€3 Amesbury, No. 14 

67 Wilsford, Nos, 30 and 13 (two barrows) 

74 Ashmore Down, Donhead St. Mary 

77 Giant's Grave, Downton 

78 Stockton No. 1 

79 Brixton Deverill No. 2 

SO Pertwood Down, Brixton Deverill 

82 Winterbourne Stoke, No. 53 

83 Tilshead Lodge, Tilshead, No. 5 

84 Old Ditch, Tilshead 

85 Colloway Clump, Warminster 
«6 Tidcombe 

87 Wexcombe Down, Grafton 

88 Great Botley Copse, Shalbourne 

69 Fairmile Down, Collingbourne Kingston 
92 Giant's Grave, Milton Lilbourne 
96 Longstone Barrow, Avebury, No. 17 

Monkton Down, Winterbourne Monkton, No. 8 

Bishops Cannings, No. 76 

Lanhill, Chippenham 

Coombe Bissett Down 

Handbarrow, Laverstock 


" Giant's Caves," Luckington 

Smay Down, No. 5a, Shalbourne 

Woodford, No. 2 

N 2 

178 A Complete List of the Ancient Monuments in Wiltshire 

Round Barrows and Mounds, Dolmens. 

2 SilburyHiU 

5 Devil's Den, Preshute 

18 Winterbourne Stoke Group 

28 King's Play Down, Heddington, Nos. 1— -3 

35 Draycot Hill, Wilcot, Nos. 1—5 

54 Sherrington, Nos. 4 and 5 

57 Lake Group, Wilsford, Nos. 37—41 

58 Wilsford, Barrows 34 — 36 (one long, two round) 

59 Wilsford, Barrows 55—6 (Starveall) 

60 Wilsford Group, Barrows 58—65, 74 

60a Westfield Group, Wilsford, Nos. 75a — 82, and parallel ditches 

61 Wilsford, Nos. 51—54, and adjoining earthwork 

63 Amesbury, Nos. 1,2, 14, 15 

64 Amesbury, Nos. 10 and 11 

65 Amesbury, 43—56 

67 Normanton Group, Wilsford, Nos. 2—32 

70 Rollestone, Nos. 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 30 

71 Wilsford, Nos. 1, 33, 33a 

72 Winterbourne Stoke, Nos. 23, 25, 26 

73 Winterbourne Stoke, Nos. 30, 35—40, 42 

74 East Group, and earthwork, Winterbourne Stoke 

90 On Easton Hill, Easton Royal, No. 1 

91 Milton Lilbourne Nos. I — 5 

94 West Overton, Nos. 1— 6a, 8 

95 Bishops Cannings, Nos. 88 and 89 
97 Avebury, Nos. 30a, 31, 32 

99 Avebury, Nos. 10—13 (Fox Covert) 

100 Avebury, Nos. 26—30 

101 Winterbourne Monkton, Nos. 1 — 4a, Avebury, 45 (Windmill Hill) 

102 Winterbourne Monkton, Nos. 7 — 10 and sarsens 

103 Avebury, No. 8a 

104 Cherhill, Nos. 4 and 6 

109 Bishops Cannings, No. 26 

110 Bishops Cannings, Nos. 74—78, 80 

117 Collingbourne Kingston, Nos. 4—20 ; Nos. 2—6, Collingbourne Ducis 

119 Collingbourne Ducis, Nos. 9 — 17 

120 Collingbourne Ducis, Nos. 7, 8 
121a Everley, Old Hat Barrow 
121b Everley, No. 8 

121c Milton Lilbourne, No. 8 

122 Collingbourne Kingston, Nos. 1 and 2 

123 Pewsey, Nos. 3, 5, 10 

124 Everley, Nos. I — 4 (Everley Barrows) 
133a Aldbourne, Nos. 1 — 4 (Four Barrows) 
133b Aldbourne, Nos. 7 and 8 (Sugar Hill) 
134 Aldbourne, No. 14 (Warren Farm) 

Scheduled under the Ancient Monuments Act, 1913. 179 

135 Aldbourne, Nos. 9, 11, 12, 13, 15 

137 Winterbourne Stoke, Conigar Group and earthwork 

138 Amesbury, Nos. 26—37 (Seven Barrows) 

139a Amesbury, Nos. 18, 19 ( Luxemburg Plantation) 
139b Amesbury, Nos. 20—22 (Round Plantation) 
140 Amesbury, No. 23 (Coneybury Hill) 

Stone Circles. 

6 Avebury 

7 Pennings, Avebury 

8 Langdean, East Kennett 

24 Winterbourne Bassett 

25 Allington Down, south of Silbury, Avebury 

Roman Roads. 

26 On Beckhampton Down, Avebury 
81 Pertwood Down, Brixton Deverill 
93 Overton Hill, West Overton 





By R. de C. Nan Kivell. 

The first mention of the site of the early settlement on Cold Kitchen Hill 
is made by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, in his " Antient Wilts, South" where 
it is classified as one of the " British Villages." 

Apparently it was an unexplored site until 1896, when the Rev. E. H- 
Goddard undertook some slight excavations in a mound there. {W.A.M.y 
xxvii., 279.) 

The present excavations have been carried out chiefly to the south and 
west of the mound. ^ 

Judging from the objects found we have more or less certain proof that 
the site is of pre-Roman occupation. For instance, the two British coins^ 
the three La Tene brooches, and some of the haematite-coated pottery, and 
many fragments of the ware similar to that found at the late Celtic settlement 
at Cannings Cross. 

As to the abandonment, the evidence seems to justify a date at about the 
end of the fourth century. Among the one hundred and six coins found 
there is not a single specimen of the debased coinage that is usually found 
on sites occupied during the fifth century and onwards. 

Also, all the pottery fragments are perfectly in accordance with well- 
recognised periods up to the end of the fourth century, and no fragments 
have been found that could with certainty be assigned to a later date. 

All the objects found will eventually be placed in the Devizes Museum,, 
to accompany those of Mr. Goddard's excavations from this site, and others 
found and deposited there since. 

Plate I. 

A. Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch, with suspension loop. Projecting 
transverse ridges on centre of bow. Length 2 3/8 inches. Excellent pre- 
servation, (cf. No. 8. PL xxiv. Catalogue Antiquities, Devizes Museum, 
Part II.) 

B. Bronze spring-pin bow brooch. The bow rises 3/8in. from spring- 
head and then is turned at 90° towards foot. At the top of the bow i& 
engraved an oblong containing two sunken triangles for the insertion of 
enamel, but no traces now remain. Length 1 3/4in. Perfect. 

C. Bronze spring-pin bow brooch. T-shaped head furnished with 
suspension loop. Running the whole length of the bow are ten oblong 

* No painted plaster, foundations, or cut-stone work of any description 
has been found on the ground excavated. A detailed map and notes on 
the diggings has been kept for reference, and will probably be published 
with the results of later excavations. 

Objects found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverill. 181 

cavities set transversely. Traces of red, blue, and green enamel and amber 
remaining. A raised circular disc terminates the enamel cavities at the head 
of the bow. Length 2 l/2in. Perfect. 

D. Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch, with long T-shaped head. Raised oblong 
at head with sunken grooves from corner to corner. Three lozenges then 
project themselves along the top of the bow, the first and last contain blue, 
and the middle one red enamel. Length 1 3/4in. Pin and catch plate 
slightly twisted, but otherwise perfect. 

E. Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch. Wide flat bow l/16in. thick, 1/2 in. 
wide, tapering towards foot. Low flat curve with two sunken grooves, 
tooled, down the centre, extending the length of the bow, the head of which 
has a sunken ring and dot ornament on each of the projecting flanges. 
Length 2 l/2in. Pin missing, otherwise perfect. 

Plate IL 

A. Bronze circular brooch, with mounting of a thin bronze repouss^ 
plate, representing apparently two armed men on horseback holding circular 
shields. Immediately in front of the first horse stand three foot soldiers in 
line, with the long slightly concave Roman shields with central bosses. An 
eagle with outstretched wings stands in the foreground, presumably the 
Roman standard. The surface plate corroded at the edges and slightly 
cracked, but otherwise complete. Diam. 1 3/8 in. 

B. Brooch identical with A., but condition not so good, also pin missing. 

C. Brooch identical with A. Good condition and complete. 

D. Bronze enamelled brooch representing man on horseback. Cut from 
thin plate of bronze l/16in. thick, and enamelled over complete surface. 
Has been subjected to heat, which has destroyed most of the enamel, but 
traces of red and blue still remain. I l/4in. X lin. Pin missing. 

E. Bronze circular enamelled brooch with traces of silver headings still 
remaining. There have been six circular mounts, probably to contain stones, 
but only two now remain. The central portion filled with red enamel and 
the outer portion with dark-green. Diam. 7/8in. Pin distorted but complete. 

F. Bronze circular enamelled brooch with traces of silver beading still 
remaining. The interstices on the outside of the star-shaped ornament 
filled with light-green enamel, on the inside dark-red. The central mounting 
has probably held a stone, but is now empty, otherwise complete. Diam. 

G. Bronze La Tene II. brooch. The bow is formed of a round piece of 
wire 3/32in. diameter. This is flattened out to form the catch-plate and 
turn-back, where it is beaten out round and then joined to the bow again 
by a band with transverse grooves cut in it, this completely encircles the 
bow. There is a mass of corroded iron at the head and the remains of an 
iron pin, but this is undoubtedly a much later mend, when the original 
bronze spring and pin were lost. Length 1 7/8in. 

H. Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch. Wide flat bow-plate ]/16in. thick, 
12in. wide tapering towards foot. Low flat curve with three sunken grooves 
running the length of the bow. Middle groove plain, the two outside ones 
stamped with punch dots and tooling. The head has two projecting flanges 

182 Ohjects found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverill. 

in the shape of a semi-circle. Length 2 l/2in. Pin missing, otherwise good 

I. Bronze buckle, in shape of letter D. Flat base, and convex top. 
Tongue formed by twisting a bronze slip loosely round straight side of 
buckle. Size 1 l/4in. X lin. Perfect. 

J. Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch. Flat bow-plate 1/16 in. thick, 5/16in. 
wide, slightly tapering to foot, with two sunken grooves, tooled, running the 
length of the bow. Two projecting flanges at head in shape of a semi-circle. 
Length 1 3/4in. Pin missing, otherwise good condition. 

Plate IIL 

A. Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch with T-shaped head with large sus- 
pension loop. The top of the bow has a deeply-scored groove 1 l/4in. long. 
The pin has been of iron, but is broken off near the head. Length 3 l/4in. 
Excellent condition. 

B. Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch with projecting head. Originally fur- 
nished with suspension loop, now broken off. The bow has a deeply-scored 
groove 1 l/4in. long. The pin has been of iron, but is broken off near the 
head. Length 3 l/8in. 

C Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch. Very high arch to bow, terminating 
in long slender catch-plate. The head-end is engraved with two small 
upright and one transverse lines. Length 2 5/8in. Pin missing. Excellent 

D. Bronze spring-pin bow brooch . The top of the bow has two transverse 
grooves close together. The whole brooch formed from one continuous strip, 
with spring of four coils. Length 2in. Perfect. 

E. Silver British dished uninscribed coin. Diam. average 5/8in. 

F. Silver and bronze British uninscribed coin. Diam. average 5/8in. 

Plate IV. 

A. Iron La Tene II. brooch. The bow is of round wire flattened out to 
form catch-plate and turn-back, which is flattened to a round and then ter- 
minates with a knob. The corrosion makes it difl&cult to discover the 
nature of the attachment band.^ Length 3 l/8in. All slightly corroded 
but complete. 

B. Fragment of iron La Tene I. brooch, part of bow, catch-plate, and 
turn-back, which is flattened to a round and terminates with a small pro- 
jection rounded at the end which does not touch the bow. The unusual 

1 Since the description of this brooch was sent to the press it has been 
discovered that there are three and not two upright coils to the spring. 
The one not shown in the drawing is flattened and squeezed in between the 
two outside coils. 


Bronze Brooches. Cold Kitchen Hill, f . 


Bronze Brooches. Cold Kitchen Hill. 


Bronze Brooches and British Coins. Cold Kitchen Hill, i 

yMg m 


Iron Brooches. Cold Kitchen Hill. f. 

TMe Y 

Bronze Bangles, Rings, &c. Cold Kitchen Hill. |. 


Bronze Objects. Cold Kitchen Hill 


TMe M. 

Bone Pins, &c. Cold Kitchen Hill. 








8 1 



Glass Beads. Cold Kitchen Hill, f . 

By R de C. Nan Kivell 183 

upturn of the bow from the foot is apparently intended and does not appear 
to be the result of an accident. Length remaining 1 3/8in. 

C Iron spring-pin bow brooch with four coils. The brooch formed 
from one continuous round piece, flattened to form catch-plate. Length 
2 9/16in. Slightly corroded and point of pin missing. 

D. Iron spring-pin bow brooch with four coils. The brooch formed 
from one continuous round piece flattened to form catch-plate. Very low 
arch to bow. Slightly corroded but complete. Length 2 3/8in. 

E. Iron hinge-pin bow brooch. Plain bow, l/8in. thick and 3/8in. wide, 
which tapers to the foot. Complete but slightly corroded and pin wide 
open. Length 2 3/8in. 

- F. Iron spring-pin bow brooch with three coils. One coil and pin miss- 
ing. Plain bow, l/8in. thick and l/4in. wide, tapering to the foot. Slightly 
corroded. Length Sin. 

G. Iron hinge-pin bow brooch. Plain bow, l/16in. thick, and l/4in. 
wide tapering to foot. Pin missing and slightly corroded. Length 2 6/8in. 

H. Iron hinge-pin bow brooch. The bow of round wire l/8in. diam. 
Catch-plate missing. Slightly corroded. Length 1 5/8in. 

I. Iron hinge-pin bow brooch. The bow, 3/16in. wide, tapering towards 
catch-plate, rises perpendicularly for l/^in and then continues at right 
angles towards foot. Pin missing and slightly corroded. Length 1 l/2in. 

Plate V. 

A. Bronze bangle of three strands of round wire, twisted. Hook and 
eye fastening. Diam. 2 l/2in. perfect. 

B. Bronze ring, circular inside, pentagonal outside. Flat circular bezel 
at top and flat tapering surfaces cut on each side. Diam. 7/8in. Perfect. 

C. Silver ring, plain, slightly broadened out at top. Diam. 3/4in. Per- 

D. Bronze ring, overlapping ends, formed from one tapering strip. 
Diam. 7/8in. Perfect. 

E. Bronze ring, ends not joined and notches cut on both sides. Diam. 

F. Small bronze ring, probably ear ring. Both ends sharpened but not 
touching. Zig-zag notches cut on both edges. Diam. 3/4in. 

G. Bronze ring of plain round wire, ends not joined. Diam. 3/4in. 

H. Bronze pin with large projecting flat-based, conical head, with 
twenty small grooves cut from apex to circumference. Length 3 5/8in. 

I. Bronze pin with small round-knobbed head. Length 3 l/2in. Per- 

J. Bronze wire chain and glass bead necklace. There are thirty beads 
remaining, fourteen of a light green and sixteen of a light china blue. The 
arrangement seems to be three green, three blue alternately. In general 
there are two bronze links between the beads. Total length IBin. Good 

K. Heavy bronze ring with bezel mounting for a stone, now missing. 
Diam. average 7/8in. Perfect. 

184 Objects found at Gold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverill, 

L. Bronze wire bangle with knotted ends. Diam. 2in. Perfect, 

M. Bronze ring with notches cut on both sides, ends not joined. Diam. 

N. Bronze wire bangle, ends not joined. Diam. 2 l/2in. 

0. Bronze ring of round wire, ends not joined. Diam. ll/16in. 

P. Bronze ring of a piece of twisted round wire, ends overlapping. 
Diam. 5/8in. 

Q. Bronze Ring, circular inside and more or less pentagonal outside. 
Flat circular bezel at top with two grooves cut cross-wise and a series of 
similar cuts on each side of mount. Diam. Tin. Perfect. 

R. Bronze ring ornamented with an oval cut from the solid and notched 
on both sides. Diam. 3/4in. 

S. Bronze ring of plain wire, ends not joined. Diam. 3/4in. 

T. Half of a wide bronze bracelet, ornamented with bands of sunken 
grooves, the two outside very closely tooled, the two inside with the tooling 
slightly wider apart. Diam. 2 3/8in. Width l/2in. Perfect. 

U. Bronze ring made from a fragment of a bangle of two strands of 
twisted wire. Diam. 3/4in. 

Plate VI. 

A. Bronze stylus pointed one end and a flattened eraser the other. 
Length 8 7/8in. Perfect. 

B. Bronze spoon with handle joined to bowl with straight instead of 
usual curved attachment. End of handle pointed. Length of handle 
4 l/2in. Bowl 1 3/8in. x 1 l/8in. End of bowl worn down, otherwise 

C. Bronze spoon, traces of thick tinning still remaining. Pointed 
handle loined to bowl with curved attachment. Length of handle 3 3/4in. 
Bowl 1 5/8in. X 1 l/8in. End of bowl worn thin and slightly broken, 
otherwise good condition. 

D. Bronze spoon with twisted handle not pointed. Attached to bowl 
with usual curve. Length of handle 3 3/4in. Bowl has lost front portion, 
length remaining 3/4in. X 1 l/8in. 

E. Bronze tweezers, plain. Length 2in. Perfect. 

F. Bronze ear-pick, with circular flattened end pierced for suspension, 
and minute hollowed bowl the other end. Length I 7/8in. Perfect. 

G. Bronze pin or spoon handle with head broken off, thickly tinned. 
Length 2 5/8in. 

H. Piece of rolled-up bronze, lin. long, l/4in. diam. 

1. Bronze mount with two pierced conical ends. Length 1 l/2in. X 

J. Bronze knife or razor 1 with half of blade missing. Handle beaten 
out at end in form of a spiral roll. Length remaining 2 3/8in. 

K. Bronze swan-neck pin. Point missing. Length 2 l/8in. 

L. Tube of bronze,^ formed from one rolled piece soldered down the 
edges. Length 5 l/4in. X 3/8in. diam. 

Forty-nine other fragments of bronze have been found, chiefly of 
brooches, bangles, and rings. 

^ Probably the casing of a spring tubular lock. (?) 

By E, de G. Nan Kivell. 185 

Plate VII. 

A. Bone pin, pointed knobbed head. Length 2 7/8in. Perfect. 

B. Bone pin, conical head with projecting collar. Length 3 l/4in. 

C. Bone pin, pointed elongated knobbed head with projecting collar. 
Length 3 5/8in. Perfect. 

D. Bone pin, with conical head and projecting collar. Length 3 3/4in. 

E. Bone pin, with flat-topped, basin-shaped head. Length 1 7/8in. 

F. Bone pin, conical head with large thin projecting collar. Length 
3 3/4in. Perfect. 

G. Bone pin, flat round top with two collars. Length 8 3/8in. Perfect. 
H. Bone pin, conical head with projecting collar. Length 3 l/4in. 


I. Bone pin, conical head with projecting collar. Length 3 7/8in. 

J. Bone pin, slightly curved top, basin-shaped head. Length 3 3/4in. 

K. Bone pin, flat round projecting head. Length 2in. Perfect. 

L. Bone pin, knobbed head. Length 3 3/8in. Perfect. 

M. Bone pin, conical projecting head with grooves cut from apex to cir- 
cumference. Length 2 7/8in. Perfect. 

N. Bone pin, large flat round projecting head. Length 3in. Perfect. 

O. Bone pin, head left in natural state, probably unfinished. Length 
3 l/2in. 

(Besides these perfect pins there are thirty-nine fragments of various 

P. Circular sawn piece of bone, slightly concave side. Width l/2in. 
Diam. 3/4in. 

Q. Bone bead or whorl. Incisions cut from the top and bottom to meet 
two grooves running round the circumference. Height l/2in. Diam. 7/8in. 

R. Bone toggle, with three parallel grooves encircling each end. Length 
1 3/8in. Largest diam. l/2in. 

S. Bone stylus, writing point missing. Remaining length, 2in. 

T. Hollowed bone, tapering from a square of 5/16in. sides, to a round 
l/4in. diameter. The square end is cut ofl" at an angle of 45° and pierced 
vertically with a round hole. When blown like an ordinary whistle it gives 
a high shrill note. Length 2 7/8in. 

U. Bone needle ? tapering to pointed ends from flat pierced centre. 
One extreme point broken off. Length 3 l/8in. 

V, Sliced bone, pointed one end and notched the other. Very highly 
polished. Length Sin. 

W. Part of round bone bangle ? with minute iron rivet one end. Length 
remaining 2 7/8in. 

Plate VIII. 

Altogether four hundred and one glass beads have been found, and in a 
great variety of colours of the following shades :— black, sea green, pea 

186 Objects found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverill. 

green, olive green, white, brown, grey, turquoise, china blue, royal blue, 
light blue, red, coral, brick. The great majority are of the notched variety, 
ranging from one segment to ten. The long tubular ones are untwisted. 
There are a number of roughly squared china blue ones of a regular length 
of 3/8in. There are a number twisted many times without becoming 

Other Fragments of Glass not illustrated. 

There are thirty-two fragments, and with the exception of three of a 
whitish colour, all are of various shades of sea green. They are chiefly 
from bottles and cups. One of the white fragments is presumably part of 
a window pane, as a mortar-like substance still adheres to the rounded out- 
side edges. 

Plate IX. 

A. Iron stylus, with reduced extending point l/2in. from one end and 
flattened eraser the other. Bent. Length 3 l/2in. 

B. Large iron stylus, reduced extended writing point broken off. Pro- 
jecting eraser. Length 4 5/8in. 

C. Iron stylus, tapering to a writing point and with a wide projecting 
eraser. Length 4 l/2in. 

D. Short iron stylus, reduced extended writing point broken off l/4in. 
from end. Projecting fan-shaped eraser. Bent. Length 2 5/8in. 

E. Iron stylus, reduced extended writing point l/2in. from one end and 
projecting eraser the other. Length 4 l/4in. Perfect. 

F. Iron awl, square tang and tapering in a round to a very sharp point 
the other end. Length 3 l/2in. 

G. Iron awl, square tang and tapering in a round to a very sharp point 
the other end. Length 3 5/8in. 

H. Iron object, flattened and slightly turned up at one end. Length Sin. 

I. Iron pin, head tapered and bent to form a round eye. Length 
3 l/4in. 

J. Ditto. Length 3in. 

K. Ditto. Length 2 7/8in. 

L. Iron pin, curved and head bent to form a large round eye. Length 
1 7/8in. 

M. Iron pin, curved and head bent to form a small round eye. Length 
1 3/8in. 

N. Iron nail, with large round mushroom-like head. Length 1 3/8in. 

O. Same as I. Length 1 3/4in. 

P. Same as I. Length 1 3/8in. 

Q. Ox goad, ferrule with pointed pin. Diam. 3/8in. l/4in. wide, Pin 
3/4in. long. 

R. Ox Goad. Diam. of circle l/2in. Total length 1 3/4in. (Four of 
these objects have been found.) 

S. Ring of iron. Diam. 1 3/8in. 

T. Iron ring, ends not joined. Diam. 3/4in. 

U. Iron awl ? squared and tapering to a point both ends. Length 3in. 

By R. de G, Nan Kivell 187 

Plate X. 

A. Square piece of iron. Ten twists one end and small conical head the 
other. Length 5 5/8in. 

B. Iron chisel, with fragments of wooden handle corroded on. Length 

C. Iron socketed spear-head, with hole for rivet. Point missing. Length 
remaining 2 5/8in. 

D. Curved strip of iron with widened perforated ends. Length 2in. 

E. Iron object, with flattened end, having a raised oval mounting. Length 
3 3/8in. 

F. Iron needle, pointed both ends and large oval eye. Length 2 l/4in. 

G. Iron knife, with handle flattened at end, and turned back to form a 
loop. Length 7 3/8in. 

H. Perforated round iron object, probably an ornamental boss. Diam. 
1 3/8in. 

I. Iron shoe cleats. (Altogether forty-three of these have been found 
in various sizes.) 

J. Iron leaf-shaped knife-dagger, or razor ? Length 3 3/8in. 

K. Iron knife-like object, blade broken off". Twisted handle with a loop 
at one end. Length 4 5/8in. 

Plate XL 

A. Iron object with knife-edge. Length 2 1/4 in. 

B. Iron hook, with loop at the top. Length 2 3/4in. 

C. Large iron tool. A sort of deep gouge at one end and a blunted 
chisel the other. The shaft bevelled on the four corners. Length 12 3/4in. 

D. Large iron pin of brooch, length 3 3/8in. 

E. Large iron nail. Triangular-shaped head. Length 4 3/4in. (Fourteen 
pounds of iron nails of various sizes have been found.) 

F. Flat iron object, with tapering crook-shaped head. Length 4 l/2in. 

G. Ring of thick round iron. Diam. 1 1/2in. 

H. Iron object of three strips, welded together at one end and splayed 
out at the other, the ends of all three have apparently been broken ofl". 
Spring of tubular padlock ? Length 2 3/4in. 

I. Iron object, with twisted handle and projecting crook. Part of a 
flesh-hook or a key ? Length 4 5/8in. 

Plate XII. 

A. Pottery spindle-whorl. Diam. 1 l/2in, 

B. A io&&\\ Echinus from the oolite. Probably used as a charm or button* 
Diam. 7/8in. {Vide Douglas' Nenia, No. 14. Plate 15.) 

C. Pottery spindle-whorl. Diam. 1 7/8in. (Altogether seven pottery 
whorls were found.) 

D. Lathe-turned spindle-whorl. Eimmeridge shale. Excellent con- 
dition. Diam. 1 3/8in. 

E. Chalk spindle-whorl. Diam. 1 l/2in. 

F. Sling-bullet of baked clay. Length 2 l/4in. (Four of these have 
been found, of different sizes.) 

188 Ohjects found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverill. 

G. Piece of round lead perforated at one end and broken off at the 
other. Length 3 3/8in. 

H. Fragment of Kimmeridge shale bangle. Length 2 l/2in. 

L Fragment of Kimmeridge shale bangle. Length 3 l/4in. 

J. Small ring of Kimmeridge shale, with sunken ring and dot ornament. 
Diam. 1 3/8in. Broken. 

K. Bone implement, worked to a point, unworked at the butt. Length 
4 7/8in. 

L. Ditto. Length 4 3/4in. 

M. Ditto. Length 4 ]/2in. 

N. Bone gouge ? Made by slicing off to a point a metatarsal bone of a 
sheep. The knuckle-end pierced. Length 4 l/4in. 

O. Ditto. Length 4 l/4in. 

P. Ditto. But unsliced. Length 4 l/2in. 

Q. Fragment of Kimmeridge shale bangle, ornamented with grooves cut 
diagonally. Size 1 3/4in. (Also fourteen other fragments of plain shale 
bangles have been found.) 

R. Same as N., but knuckle- end broken off. (Altogether fourteen worked 
and pierced bones have been found.) 

Plate XIII. 

A. Mortarium of light brown ware, with wide overhanging rim. Coated 
originally with a bright red and then a black substance. Studded internally 
with very fine broken flint and stones. Diam. at top 6 7/8in. With rim 
7 5/8in. Height 3in. (Pieced together.) 

B. Bowl of light grey ware, with heavy overhanging rim. Diam. at 
top Sin. With rim 8 3/4in. Height 2 7/8in. (Pieced together.) 

0. Oval saucer, with two handles, of a coarse black ware. Length 9in. 
Width 6in. Height 1 3/4in. (Pieced together.) 

D. Round shallow pot of coarse black ware, with one handle. A scored 
trellis pattern completely encircles the pot. Diam. 6in. Height 2in. 
(Pieced together.) 

E. Bowl or porringer, with straight sides obliquely out-set, and a thick 
rounded flange just below the small upright lip. Of coarse brownish, nearly 
black ware. Outside diam., including flange, 5 l/2in. Height 3in. (Pieced 

F. Same as E, but with lighter flange. Diam., including flange, 4in. 
Height 2 l/2in. (Pieced together.) 

G. Same as E. Diam., including flange, 4in. Height 2 l/2in. (Pieced 

H. Same as E, but with a greater protruding angular flange. Diam., 
including flange, 7in. Height 3in. 

1. Shallow bowl of Samian ware, with bead lip, and obliquely expanded 
moulded foot ring. (The form lies between the 31 and the 37 of the sigillata 
bowls.) Unstamped and incomplete. 

.J. Small hand-made beaker, with thickened and slightly expanded lip. 
Of coarse brownish-black ware. Diam. at top 3in. Height 3 l/2in. (Pieced 

By B. de C. Nan Kivell, 189 

K. Small hand-made beaker, with thickened and slightly expanded lip. 
Of very coarse brownish-black ware. Diam. at top 4in. Height 5in. (Pieced 

L. Fragments of globular narrow-necked vase of New Forest ware, with 
four series of four lines painted in white slip running vertically from two 
sunken grooves encircling the bottom of the neck, to two grooves encircling 
the base of the vessel. Of hard light-grey ware, with a pinkish coating. 
Probable height 6in. Diam. 5in. 

M. Part of a perforated bowl with wide horizontally-set rim. Of a soft 
grey paste. Diam. Gin. Height Sin. 

N. Fragment of a bowl of grey ware, ornamented with five ribs or cordons, 
and coated inside and out with haematite. Height 2in. 

O. Fragment of a bowl with bead rim. Of light-brown ware, coated 
inside and out with a red substance in imitation of true Samian. Decorated 
with complete rosettes above a slight shoulder, and with demi-rosettes on a 
larger scale beneath. (Apparently the standard form 37.) Height of 
fragment 2in. 

P. Another fragment from same bowl as O. 

Q. Fragment of rosette-stamped ware, with the addition of a row of 
sunken squares set obliquely to the rim. Not from the same bowl as O and 
P., but apparently also of the standard form 37. 

R. Base of a thin cup of Samian ware, with part of maker's stamp, 
GELS . . . Apparently the potter Celsiani. 

S. Fragment of base of Samian bowl, with maker's stamp, SAMILVS. 

T. Fragment of base of Samian bowl, Form No. 9, with end of maker's 
stamp, .... APIII. 

(The other part of the base has since been found, and the name reads 

U. Fragment of base of Samian bowl, with part of maker's stamp, 
DIA .... 

(Altogether one hundred and sixty-two fragments of Samian ware have 
been found. Of these seventeen only have any decoration.) 

Plate XIV. 

A. Four fragments of New Forest ware, coated with black varnish and 
painted in white slip in various designs. (Altogether only 14 fragments of 
this ware have been found). 

B, C, D, E. Fragments of pottery of a soft, light-brown paste, with 
incised designs bearing a close resemblance to those on the pottery found 
on the late Celtic site at All Cannings Cross, (cf. W.A.M.^ vol. xxxvii., 

' F, G. Fragments of hard blue pottery with incised combed patterns. 

H. Four fragments of the sixty-nine found, (thirty-eight pieces with 
design,) of a pot of light brown, rather coarse ware. The pot was originally 
covered with an incised pattern of various sized squares, triangles, oblongs, 
etc., and the incisions filled with a white substance, traces of which 
remained. (The pot was evidently a waster, as part of it is distorted). 

I. Fragment of tiling or broken hypocaust flue, with deep incisions, 
brick-red in colour. (Sixty-two of these fragments have been found). 

190 Oljects found kt Gold Kitchen HilU Brixton Deverill. 

J, K. Fragments of strainers of coarse dark brownish-black ware. (Ten 
fragments altogether found, of various sizes of holes). 

L. Fragment of coarse black pottery with incised trellis pattern. (This 
ware is found in profusion on the site). 

M. Large fragment of roofing tile, brick-red in colour. (Fourteen 
such fragments have been found). 

N. Chipped circular ball of flint. Diam. 2 3/4in. 

O. Ditto. Diam. 2 l/4in. 

P. Chipped semi-circular ball of flint. Flat base. Diam. 2 l/8in. 

Q. Circular piece of pottery, slightly curved. Counter ? Diam. lin. 

R. Stone of fine grain, grey-brown in colour, worn by use. Whetstone ? 
Length 4in. 

S. Ditto. But with grooved end. Length 2 l/2in. 

T. Ditto. Length! 3/4in. 

U. Ditto. Length 5in. (Altogether nine rubbing stones of this des- 
cription have been found). 

V. Flat oval rubbing stone of hard light-grey stone. Size 1 3/4in. X 

1 l/2in. 

W. Rubbing-stone, very hard, dark red in colour. 3 in. X 3/4in. 
X. Flat piece of chalk, chipped round, counter ? Diam. 3/4in. 
Y. Circular ball of chipped chalk. Diam. lin. 

Plate XV. 
Iron socketed and looped celt. Length 5 5/8in. Width at cutting edge 

2 13/16in. Outside diameters of oval socket 2 ll/16in. X 1 7/8in. Perfect. 

List of Coins Found. 

1. Small silver, uninscribed, dished. 
I. Small silver and bronze, uninscribed. 


1. Small silver Vespasian. A.D. 69—79. 

2. Small silver Antoninus Pius. „ 138—161. 
1. Small silver Julia Mamsea. „ 222—235. 

1. Large brass M. Aurel. Antoninus. „ 211—217. 

3. Middle brass Antoninus Pius. „ 138—161. 
1. „ Faustina L „ 138—141. 
1. „ Julia Msesa. „ 218—223. 

1. Small brass (plated). Diocletianus. „ 284—313. 

1. „ „ Carausius. „ 287—289. 

5. „ „ Constantinus I. „ 306—337. 

1. „ ,, Licinius „ 317—823. 

rUe H 

Iron Objects. Cold Kitchen Hill. |. 

YMg I . 

Iron Objects. Cold Kitchen Hill, f . 

YMe ir 

Iron Objects. Cold Kitchen Hill. Mostly |, 

jLte HI 



?T.^ -'-.v.^'/-'?=^=^^^^p 

Objects of Pottery, Bone, Shale, &c. Cold Kitchen Hill. 



iiii ' 1 ' i 

Pottery. Cold Kitchen Hill. 

Objects of Pottery, Stone, Shale, &c. Cold Kitchen Hill. 

Plate XV. Iron Socketed Looped Celt. 
Cold Kitchen Hill. i. 


By R. de C. Nan Kivell, 191 


Small brass 








Claudius II. 









Oonstantius I. 












Constantinus II. 



Type Urbs Roma. 















By The Earl of Kerry. 

Several specimens of the " Customs " of Wiltshire Manors have already- 
appeared in the pages of the Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine.^ In this 
article I am giving, from documents at Bowood, two further examples, 
which, though in many respects similar to those which have preceded them, 
may not be without interest to Wiltshire readers. 

The affairs of a mediaeval manor were entirely regulated by its Customs, 
and there is every reason to suppose that in many cases these date back to 
the days before the Norman Conquest. 

The " copy-holders," or " customary tenants," held their land by virtue 
of a " copy," or agreement, entered into between them and the lord of the 
manor. In legal parlance they were tenants " at the will of the lord and 
according to the Customs of the Manor." Thus the Customs in effect con- 
stituted the local land law, and it was of importance that they should 
neither be forgotten by the tenants nor infringed by the lord. From time 
to time, therefore, the " Homage," or jury of twelve manorial copyholders, 
were called together for the purpose of making a formal " presentment " of 
their Customs, and this was duly registered in the Court-Rolls of the Manor 
concerned. Two such presentments are recorded in the documents below. 

An important, if not an integral, part of the manorial system, was the 
"Open Field," which, as Mr. O. G. S. Crawford has shown in his paper 
Air Survey and Archseology,^ can be clearly traced back to a Saxon origin. 

There were usually three Open Fields in a Manor, used in rotation for 
wheat, barley, and fallow, and parcelled out into strips, only divided one 
from another by a narrow " balk " of turf. The strips were normally a furlong 
in length, and one, two, or four poles in breadth. They were thus supposed 
to be quarter acres, half acres, or acres, though in practice they varied 
considerably in size and shape, according to the configuration of the ground. 

^ The Society is indebted to Lord Kerry for the cost of the blocks of the 
two maps illustrating this paper. 

2 Vol. xxxii., 311. The Customs of the Four Manors of the Abbey ofLacock, 
by the Rev. W. G. Clark-Maxwell, F.S.A. Customs of the Manor of 
Winterbourne Stoke, 1574, by the Rev. C. V. Goddard, xxxiv., 208. Customs 
belonging to the Manor and the Rectory Manor of Christian Malford^ by 
G. A. h! White, xli.,. 174—177. 

^ Read before the Royal Geographical Society, 1923, and printed (H.M. 
Stationery Office), 1924. 

The Customs of the Manors of Calstone and BremhilL 193 

Both the lord of the Manor and his tenants held strips scattered over the 
open field, and since these were cultivated in common, elaborate rules were 
necessary in order to ensure that the sowing and reaping of the crops should 
be simultaneously carried out, and to regulate the use of the ground after 
harvest. The open field strips were variously named in diflferent parts of 
the country. Sometimes, as in the case of Calstone, they were known as 
^* furlongs," and in the map from which our illustration is taken we find 
these "furlongs" grouped together under distinctive names, such as Oake 
Furlong, Peas Furlong, Shady Furlong, Slot Furlong, Devizes-way Furlong, 
&c. Another term employed was "yard land," with the variants "lands," 
*' lawns," " land-shares," " launchers," " lanchetts," and " lynchets." ^ 

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the Manorial system with 
its concomitant Open Fields gradually fell into abeyance. Copyholders 
were fast becoming leaseholders, and thus no longer depended for their 
tenure on the Customs of the Manor, but on the Common Law of the land. 
During this period also there took place a succession of Enclosure Acts, 
under which the Open Fields were sub-divided into permanent enclosures, 
which, taking the place of the strips, were then allotted between the lord 
of the manor and his tenants. 

But though the " lynchets " ceased to be separately cultivated, they have 
not disappeared. It had been usual, in the heavier soils which required 
most drainage, for the strip holder to plough always inwards, that is to say 
to turn the sods towards the centre of the lynchet. The strips were thus 
built up in the centre, and the ridges so formed became so pronounced that, 
though long since turned down to grass, they still retain their shape, and 
are constantly found in the 'ridge and furrow' of our permanent pastures. 
On sloping ground, again, it was the custom to turn the sod always down 
iill, and thus in course of time the strip became not a ridge, but a terrace 
which time could not destroy. These terraces are specially noticeable in 
the Manor with which I am about to deal. 

Calstone Wellington. 

The early history of Calstone is somewhat confusing, for there were at 
the time of the Domesday survey no less than three Manors so called,^ 
comprising between them a much larger area than that now associated with 
the name of Calstone. 

We are here more particularly concerned with the land immediately 
contiguous to the present village, which received the name of Calstone 
Wellington, or Wylie, from the fact that it was, at an early period, granted 
to the Willington family. It appears to have subsequently passed, with 
other property in the neighbourhood of Calne, to the Zouches, by whom it 

^ The English Peasancry and the Enclosure of Common Fields, Gilbert 
Slater, p. 21. 

^ Marsh, History of Calne, p. 262 et seq. 


194 The Customs of the Manors of Calstone and Eremhill. 

was sold in 1579, to Sir Lionel Duckett, Lord Mayor of London. The 
Manors of Calstone and Calstone Wyley with the hundred of Calne, re- 
mained in the hands of Sir Lionel Ducketjt's descendants for nearly two 
centuries.' At the time when the Calstone customs were " presented," the 
owner of the Manor was John Duckett, who became a few years later (1628) 
Sheriff of Wilts, but had his mansion house at Calstone beseiged and de- 
stroyed by the Parliamentary army during the Civil War. It was on this 
occasion that he is said to have made his escape, by the ingenious ruse of 
concealing himself in a coffin, in which he was carried through the belea- 
guering force with all solemnity as if for burial. The Duckett family thence- 
forward made Hartham their headquarters, and in 1765 Thomas Duckett, 
who was at the time Member of Parliament for Calne, sold Calne and 
Calstone to William Earl of Shelburne (afterwards first Marquis of Lans- 
downe), whose father had, not many years before, become through the 
purchase of Bowood a resident in the county. 

There are at Bowood two maps of Calstone, showing respectively the 
"North Field" and the "South Field" of the old Manor. They have 
recently been photographed by the Ordnance Survey authorities, to whom 
I am indebted for the copies from which the illustration which accompanies 
this article (Map A) is taken. In the process of combining the two maps 
into one, and in reducing them to a scale compatible with reproduction, 
the names on the original maps have unfortunately disappeared. A few of 
them have been reinserted ; it should, however, be noted that the East and 
South Farms, the Rectory, and the Mill do not figure in the original, and 
have merely been added in order to indicate the position of these Open Fields 
on the Ordnance Map. It may be added that their southern boundary was 
formed by the " drift way " which now marks the northern limit of the 
Devizes Golf course. 

The second map (Map B) shows part of the same ground (viz., the western 
portion of the South Field) as photographed from the air by Mr. Keiller in 
1824. This has also been reduced in order to to bring it within the scope of 
the W.A.M., but the lines of some of the former " lynchets," though not so 
clear as they are in the original photograph, can be clearly perceived. They 
are no longer visible on the ground, and the value of air photography in 
detecting these ancient divisions thus becomes once more apparent.^ 

Incidentally the maps tell us something of the later history of this Manor. 
The originals have a marginal key to the various owners, and show their 
respective properties in different colours. They were at the time six in 
number: — (1) George Duckett, whose property (the major portion of the 
fields in question) appears under three headings : " Farm Land " {i.e., land 
appertaining to the Calstone Manor Farm), which is shaded in a dark 
colour ; " Tenants Land," a large part of which appears to have been an 
appurtenance of Spray's Farm ; and " Waste Land " — (2) Sir Edmond 
Desbovery. (3) Wat. Hungerford, Esq. (4) Mrs. Wich, alias Hungerford ; 
(5) Parsonage Land, and (6) Ant. Brooks. 

^ Duchetiana, by Sir G. F. Duckett, Q6—Q7n ; & Marsh, History of Calne, 
II., 263—272. 

' See Mr. Crawford's paper, already mentioned. 

Map A.— The Open Fields of Calstoue Manor, showing the Strips or Lynchets into which they were divided c. 1725. (Scale about 6 inches to the mile.) 


Map. B.— The Cooinbea of Calstone Down. From air photographs taken by Alex. Keiller, F.S.A. Scot. Scale about 12 inches to the mile. 
(Compare the old " Lynchets " of Calstone " North Field," as shown in Map A). 

W^ WfUft/i- 

By the Earl of Kerry. 195 

George Duckett, of Hartham, Wilts, and Dewlish, Dorsetshire, was 
member for Calne from 1707 to 1722 and from 1722 till his death in 1732 a 
Commissioner of Excise. It was his son and successor who sold the property 
to Lord Shelburne. The key, however, proves that the Ducketts had by 
this time already alienated a considerable portion of the Manor. The fact 
of George Duckett's ownership enables us to date the map as made in the 
first quarter of the eighteenth century, but we can place it even more closely 
through Sir Edmund Desbovery (or de Bouverie). This" was the second 
baronet of that name, and he succeeded his father, Sir William, in 1717. 
The map must, therefore, have been made between 1717 and 1732. Sir 
Edmond de Bouverie's brother and suceessor. Sir Jacob, was later created 
Viscount Folkestone, and was father of the first Lord Radnor, from whom 
Lord Shelburne bought that portion of Oalstone somewhere about the year 

The customs of Calstone Manor are taken from a modern copy, amongst 
the Bowood papers. I have assumed that this was accurately transcribed 
(from an original no longer extant), and have therefore left it as far as possible 
unaltered. Calstone at the time would appear to have boasted of only 
nineteen copyholders, twelve of whom constituted its Homage. As an old 
Wiltshire woman was recently heard to say of her children, they may have 
been " good schollards " but they were certainly " bad spellards," nor, as 
will be seen, was the Homage of Bremhill much superior to them in that 
accomplishment. The presentments were, however their own, and are here 
given as they made them. 

Calstone Wellington, together with Calne, Cherhiil, and Compton Bassett, 
was enclosed by an Act of Parliament in 1820. 

Customs of the Manor of Calstone {1621). 

The fourth day of April in the 18th year of King James, &c. 

The homage there (that is to say) : John Weston, John Feates als. 
Hewes, William Goddard, John Hiscockes, Lawrence Seager, Thomas 
Brown, John Forman, Thomas Webb, Walter Seager, Stephen Gray, 
Robert Page and John Hannam, being charged upon their oathes to 
present the Customs of the said manor, doe present the same in forme 
following, that is to say : 

That the Custom of the said manor is, and tim out of the mind of 
man hath beene, that if any Coppyholder or Customary tenants of this 
Manor dye, or shall at any time upon or after Michelmas day, and befor 
our Lady day then following, dye tenant in possession of any Coppyhold 
lands or tenemente parcel of this manor ; then the Executor or Adminis- 
terator of every such tenant may and ought to have, hold, and enjoy 
the said Coppyhold tenement and all the sevrell grounds belonging 
thereunto, for and dureing one whole year next after the death of such 
tenant soe dying, and then to leave the same in all respectts in such 
and the lik state as he entred thereunto. And he ought to hould and 
enjoy the wheate which at the death of such tenant is or shall be sowne, 
and the wheate land and barley land which for that yeare is, or shall 

196 I'he Customs of the Manors of Calstone and Bremhill. 

be appoynted to bee sowne, untill Michelmas next after the death of 
every such tenant. And the Reversioner^ att our Lady day, next after 
the death of any such tenant, may and ought to enter into all the 
steand meade,^ and may fallow for wheat and barley in the sumer 
f eelds,^ and may then alsoe enter into the Comon belonging to the said 
Coppy-hold tenement. 

And further they present that if such Coppy-holder or Customary 
tenant doe dye upon or after our Lady day, and befor Michelmas then 
next following, then the executor or adminestrator of evry such tenant 
ought to have, hold, and enjoy the said Coppy-hold tenement, and the 
sevrell grounds thereunto belonging, for one whole year after the death 
of the said tenant^ and then to leave the same as abovesaid. And the 
said executor or administerator, yomediately after the death of every 
such tenant, may and ought to enter to the arrable land, which then 
shall be unfallowed, in the sumer feld, and may fallow and sowe 
the same for that yeare following, and to take the profit thereof for 
that yeare, and in the mean season the Reversioner ought not ta 
enterrmedle therewith. 

And further the said Homage doe present that all rents, dutyes, 
services and customes wich shall or may grow due and bee payeable to 
the Lord & others out of and for the same Coppy-hold tenement for 
the space that such executors shall hould the same, shall be paid, done, 
and performed by the same executors or his assignes ; and further that 
the Reversioner entringe after the Execut yeare ^ ended, shall make 
such Custom-fallow in the sumer felds as for the Lord of the same 
Manor, if fit to be done. 

And further they present that the Custom of the same Manor is, and 
tim out of mind hath been, that the Lord of the same Manor for the 
tim being hath and may grant esteats of the Coppyhold tenements 
within the same Manor, by Coppy of Court Roll, for one, two, or three 
lives in possession, and for one or two lives in reversion of one life 
in possession, and for one, two, or three lives in revertion of a widdow'& 
esteat. And they alsoe present that upon and after the death of every 
Coppyhold tenant and widdow, deying tenant in possession of any 
Coppyhold parcell of this Mannor, • whose herriott is not certaine,. 
shall pay to the Lord for an heriott, for every such Coppyhold tenement 

^ In original '* Revisdioner," and elsewhere "Rendioner " and "Revdsoner." 
The word evidently presented peculiar difficulties to the Calstone Homage. 

2 Stoned mead, ^.e., the meadow marked out into plots by stone landmarks* 

^ It seems that by " summer field " the common arable field before it had 
been ploughed is intended. 

* This custom of the holding of the estate of a deceased tenant by executora 
for a twelvemonth was generally known as the " dead-year." It seems to 
have been peculiar to Wiltshire and Gloucestersire (Elton. Custom and 
Tenant Right.) 

^ The " Executor year," ^.e., the " dead's year," already mentioned. 

By the Earl of Kerry. 197 

heriotable, his or theire best beast, and for default of such heriott, 
his or their best gives.^ 

Item : They present that every Coppyhold tenement of this Mannor 
ought to have timber for the repairing of their Coppy-hold tenemts 
from tim to time, as often as need shall require, to be allowed and 
dellevred unto them by the Lord, or his ofRcer for the time being, epon 
request ; to bee taken epon their own tenements, if any there bee, if 
not, then elsewhere at the Lords pleasure. And alsoe stone and sand 
for repairation of the same tenements, if any be epon the same tenemt; 
if not epon the Lords weast by assignment as aforesaid. 

And the Custome of the said Mannor is, and tim out of mind hath 
been, that at the breach of the fields after harvest, the farmer may putt 
into the said feilds all such cattell as he usuelly keepeth epon the said 
farme, there to depasture untell such tim as he putt his flock of sheepe 
into the same feilds, and then he is to take out his cattell. And that 
the said flocke of sheepe are then to be keept in the farmer's peeces by 
the space of nin dayes then next after theire first cominge into the 
feelds, and not any longer or elsewhere to feed, or to be kept in the 
sam felds. During wich nin dayes, or at any time before, the tenants 
sheepe may not feed in the farmer's peeces without his consent. ^ 

Item : the said homage doe present that Lawrence Seager 

payeth for his Coppy-hold half-yearly vij^ iiij*^. 

Item : Walter Meager payeth for his Coppy-hold half- 
yearly X*. 

One Custome-fallowe dayes worke and too Custem 
reapers at harvist yearly ^ 
Thomas Webb payeth rent for his severell Coppy-houlds 

vizt for Chubbs hold half-yearly ij^ 

For his other Coppy-hold half-yearly xij*. 

And one Custome-reaper for Chubbs to the farm at 
Thomas Sumers payeth rent for his Coppy-hold half- 
yearly v^ 

One Custome-fallow dayes worke and one reaper 
and one griper at harvist to ye farm yearly 

^ A give=something given, or in this case taken, for in default of the best 
beast, it was usual for the lord to take as a heriot the best piece of house- 
hold stuff belonging to his tenant. 
; ^ It seems that after the joint harvesting operations of the open field had 
I been completed " the farmer " {i.e., the tenant of the manor farm) had for 
1 a time the exclusive use of the field for his cattle, and that the cattle were 
I, followed by sheep. The sheep, however, had to be penned for the first nine 
! days by the farmer in his own pieces or strips, after which the field was 
I presumably used in common by " the farmer " and copyholders. 

^ i,e., as explained below, work for the manor farm at Calstone. 

198 The Customs of the Manors of Calstone and BremhilL 

Richard Whithord payeth for his Coppy-hold half-yearly iij^ iiij-i. 

Noe Custom works 
Nicholas Long payeth for his Coppy-hold half-yearly xij*^. 

Noe Custome works 
John Hannam payeth for his Sheepards Close, his Coppy- 
hold half-yearly xij*^. 
Noo Custom works 
Thomas Browne payeth for his Coppy-hold half-yearly v^ 
One Custom-fallow day's worke to the farme and 
one reaper & griper at harvist yearly 
William Goddard payeth rent for his Coppy-hold half- 
yearly x^ iiij^. 

One Custome-fallow dayes worke to the farme, too 
reapers the one yeare, and the next yeare one reaper 
and one griper 
John Feates, als Hewse, payeth for the Coppy-hold 

wherein he dwelleth half-yearly xij^ vi*^. 

One Custome Fallowes days work to the farme of 
Calstone, three reapers and one griper the one yeare, 
and the next year too reapers and one griper 

For Maskalls ' at Michas xiij^.^ 

Item : John Feates, als Mewes, payeth rent for one 
Custom-Reaper and one griper to the farm at harvist 
For Maskalls for the same at Michas iiij^ ob. 

Item : John Hiscoks payeth rent for his copy-hold half- 
yearly viij^ iiijd. 

^ Maskalls. It will be observed that five of the Calstone Copyholders 
paid small sums "for Maskall at Michaelmas," in addition to their rents 
and custom services. Mascall (said to = Marscall, the hard form of the 
word Marshal, a farrier), was a common name in Wiltshire, and it is 
possible that the copy -holders in question held a share in some land 
known by that name, in addition to their strips in the Calstone fields. It 
may, however, be remarked that the "Maskall" due seems to bear some 
relation to the principal rent paid, being generally about one-twelfth of 
this rent. An " extent " of Calstone, made in the year 1274, after reciting 
all the rents and works (totalling some ^619) due by the tenants to the lord of 
the manor, goes on to say "And besides this the customars and cottars 
ought to be tallaged every year at the feast of St. Michael, and that tallage 
is worth 26s. 8c?. by the year. {Inquisitions P.M. 2 Edward /.) Here, again 
we find the same sort of proportion to the rent, and one is tempted to look 
for a survival of the " Michaelmas tax " of 1274 in the " Maskall " of 1621. 

Other suggested derivations have been " Marescalcia," the right of taking 
fodder for horses — "Malt-scot," which might, perhaps, be equated with 
"Michaelmas ale" — or some form of " church-scot," or Midsummer Tithe 
(c.f. W.A.M., xxxiv., 213, note). 

^ ob (obolus) was the term often used at this time to denote a halfpenny. 

By the Earl of Kerry, 199 

One Custome -fallow days worke to the farm afore- 
said ; one reaper one griper the one yeare and the 
next yeare one griper 

For Maskall Miches ' ix"^. 

Steephen Gray payeth for his Coppy-hold half-yearely xij^ vj*. 

For Maskall at Michs xij*^. 

For Broad Lands at Michs xij^. 

One Custom-fallow days work to the farme, three 
reapers and one griper, and six bushels of Custom- 
Kent Barley,^ to be delevrd at the Coppy-hold epon 
damang between New Years day and Our Lady Day 
Thomasin Chener payeth rent for her Coppy-hold half- 
yearly xvi». 

For Maskall at Miches viij^. 

One Custom-fallow days worke, fouer reapers and 
two gripers to the farm at harvist, Twelve bushells of 
Custom-Kent barley to be dellerd as abovesaid 
Lyonell Orrell payeth rent for his Coppy-hold half-yearly v^ 

One Custom-reaper one griper 

For Maskall at Michs. iiij"^. 

Robart Page payeth rent for his Coppy-hold half-yearly iij\ iiiii^ 

Six bushells of Custom-rent barly, one reaper and 
one griper for one day in harvest 
John Forman payeth for his Coppy-hold half-yearly iiij'. iiij*^. ob. 

Noe Custom workes 
John Westone payeth for his Coppy-hold half-yearly xiiij^ 

One Custom-fallow days worke k one reaper and 
one griper to Calstone farme 
John Woodrof for his Coppy-hold half-yearly xij'. 

One Custom-fallow days work and two reapers 
William Phelpes payeth for his rent xv'^. 

Noe Customs workes 

Item : Our Custom is, and tim out of mind hath bin, that the 
farmer of Calstone farm for the tim being (to whom these Customes- 
workes for plowes are to be don) ought to give three dayes warning to 
the tenants of the sevrell Coppy-holds who are to provid such works, 
that they be redy to perform the same, and the same be don betwen 
the third of May and Midsumer yearly : 

And that the farmer hath used and ought to provid and pay to any 
for such labourers, the dyett and wages hereafter following : that is to 
say, for the plow folkes, bread, cheese, and beere, to be brought them 
in to the fields ; and for the driver of the plow too pence a day ; and 
for the reappers and gripers alsoe to have three dayes warning ; and 
the farmer is to allow and provid the labourers sufficient hott meat for 
thair breakfast and diners, and sufficiant bread and beare at evry 

One bushel of barley was usually payable to the lord for every ridge or 
yard land sown. 

200 The Customs of the Manors of Galstone and Bremhill. 

throughes,^ and (if the labourers please) an evenin at home to his 
house to supper.^ 


Bremhill Manor, which a seventeenth century map at Bowood shows as 
co-terminous with the parish of that name, was in the middle ages an 
ecclesiastical possession. It had been given in the year 935 by King 
Athelstan to Malmesbury Abbey, to which it continued to belong until the 
Dissolution.^ In the Domesday Survey the place figures as Breme, a cor- 
ruption of the Anglo-Saxon hremel (a bramble), and " Brimble" it was still 
called within the memory of many people now living. King Henry VIII. 
made it a practice to reward those who had been most zealous in abetting 
the destruction of the monasteries by granting to them portions of the 
plunder obtained. It was thus that about the beginning of the sixteenth 
century Sir Edward Baynton, one of the King's Vice-Chamberlains, secured, 
for a sum of £1200, all the lands which had previously belonged to Malmes- 
bury and Stanley Abbeys. 

Two centuries later the same lands were sold for £57,500, by persons to 
whom they had been mortgaged by the Baynton family, to John, Earl of 
Shelburne, the father of the first Marquis of Lansdowne. 

The customs of the Manor of Bremhill are dated January 11th, 1657. 
The map already mentioned has no date, but can be placed by means of a 
Survey, or 'terrier,' of the manor, which is also at Bowood. This was 
made in 1629 and gives the names of all the tenants at that date and a 
distinguishing mark for each of their holdings. Corresponding marks ap- 
pear on the holdings on the map in question, which is thus proved to be of 
the same date as the Survey. The terrier shows that the Manor was then 
divided into three Ty things :— Bremble with 26 tenants, Charlcuttt with 
22, and Foxham with 31 and 13 freeholders. There would seem to have 
been no great increase in the population since the Domesday survey, when 
the persons living at Bremhill were given as 34 villeins, 22 bordars, 7 
cottagers, and 16 serfs. 

The Demesne was a large one, consisting of thirty-five separate pieces of 
land, situated for the most part round the site of the present village of 

* Could this mean at the end of the day when the labourers were 
" through " their work ? 

2 This was a privilege which in other cases would appear to have been 
afforded by the Lord of the Manor, but in this case was deputed to " the 
farmer " as his representative. " One night's entertainment " could in 
feudal days be claimed by the sovereign from any of his vassals. 

3 Bowles, " History of Bremhill, and Marsh, History ofCalne, p. 219. It 
may, however, be noted that in Wiltshire Inquisitions Post-Mortem 
Charles I. (p. 158) part of the parish of " Bremhill alias Bremble " is said to 
have been "formerly parcel of the possessions of the late chantry of 

By the Earl of Kerry. 201 

Bremhil], on Bencroft Hill, and near Bremhill Grove. The Manor House 
appears to have been where the modern Manor Farm stands. According to 
Bowles this had been in times past occasionally used as a residence by the 
Abbot of Malmesbury, but the old building was pulled down in the early 
part of the last century. 

There are no Open Fields shown in the 1629 map. Nor do the Bremhill 
Customs contain, like those of Calstone, any regulations relating to such. 
The Demesne land, the holdings of the various tenants and of the free- 
holders in Foxham Tithing consisted, not (as in the case of Calstone,) of 
strips, but of numerous small enclosures, scattered about the Manor, and 
not always contiguous to each other. The survey, however, shows that 
there were certain " Field Lands" or " Meadow Lands " in which the Fox- 
ham tenants (only) had shares or strips. These went by the names of 
" Avon Field," " Middle Field," " Tytherton Field," " Dolemeade," and 
" The Moore," and though they are not shown on the map, it is clear that 
they were all in the low ground to the south of Foxham village. 

To the questions : Were there ever any open arable fields in Bremhill 1 
and if so how and when were they enclosed ? no certain answers can be 
given. Though the Open Field was certainly a normal condition in the 
English Manors, there may have been cases where for one reason or another, 
none such existed, even in the earliest times. On the other hand, as is well 
shown in Slater's work' already mentioned, the Enclosure Acts of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries dealt with only a portion of England, 
and the inference is that the rest had been enclosed in earlier times by 
private arrangement, and without the necessity of invoking the law. There 
seems also to be some evidence to show that ecclesiastical land was more 
frequently so dealt with than that of lay owners. 

We are told that when the Church lands were first transferred to their 
lay grantees, the new proprietors often succeeded in abolishing the 
customary rights of the tenants thereon. The document which follows 
shows that the Bremble folk had succeeded in maintaining their privileges 

The Custums of the Coppyholders of the Manner 
of Bremhill in Wiltshire. 

I. Impri[mi]s : Our Custom is att the Lords will and pleasure [he] 
may choose whether he will grant by Coppy of Court I Joule any more 
names than one. So likwise, at his will and pleasure, [he] may grant 
so many names by Coppy as he shall think good, be it more or less. 

II. Item : If [? that] the father (being the first purchaser to him and 
his children to hold successively), may at his pleasure surrender his 
estate into the Lord's hands, to the use of himself or others, and cut 
off his own children ; unless the children do give any money to the 

^ The English Feasantry and the enclosicre of commo7i fields. (Map facing 
p. 73). 

202 The Customs of the Manors of Calstone and Bremhill, 

purchase with the father, if in, and openly known in, the Court. Like- 
wise the last wife of every sonn (being tenants or any other named in the 
Coppy to hold successively) shall have the widow's estate according to 
our Customs.^ 

III. Item : If [? that] the wife named in the Coppy (her husband 
being deceased) may marry without licence and keep her estate during 
her life ; though she hath never so many husbands and though her 
husband do surrender in his life-time, that doth not take away his 
wife's estate, except she comes into the Court and consent unto the 
same alsoe. 

IV. Item : If the first taker do purchase to him and certain 
strangers to hold successively, he may as well cut off the strangers as 
the father may his children, except the strangers do lay their money 
towards the purchase of the same and [it is] openly known in the 

V. Item: If the father do purchase any estate to him and his 
children and the father decease, the next taker cannot surrender for 
term of his life : if he so do, the next taker (being in the same Coppy) 
then living immediately shall enter into that by our Custom. 

VI. Item : If a grant be made to a man and his daughter and she 
after the death of her father entereth to the Coppy-hold, she may take 
a husband without licence (for) breaking custom, nor cause of for- 
feiture, nor loss of Herriot to the Lord ; for she is steedholder^ and not 
her husband. 

VII. Item : If the tenant dies before our Lady-day in Lent, his 
executors shall have the profit of the same till Michael the Archangel 
next following, paying all duties to the Lord, the Stone mead and 
valine excepted to the next taker; and if he died before Michaelmas 
the executors shall have the profits of the same till our Lady-day the 
25th of March, paying all duties before excepted, the Stone mead and 
valine excepted to the next taker again.^ 

VIII. Item : If [? that] the Widow upon the determination of her 
estate by death shall leave the Lord an Herriott ; but upon forfeiture 
none at all, for that her estate is thereby fallen into the Lord's hands 
or the next taker in reversion when it shall happen. 

IX. Item : Our Custom is that grants in reversion be good of any 
customary tenants ; not reversion upon reversion which is contrary to 
our Custom. 

X. Item : That where an infant cannot receive his Coppy-hold, the 
mother or next kin ought to have the use of his Coppy-hold to the 
profit of the infant, and also the custody of his body (except his father 
in his last will and testament do appoint it to any other to the profit 

^ The customary succession by the widow was known as the " free-bench." 
2 Probably sted (house) holder is intended. 

^ Compare Calstone customs (supra p. 196) where the executor under the 
same circumstances held the land, for a full year. 


By the Earl of Kerry. 203 

of the infant) and also the custody of his body till he doth come to 
age, if they will take it on them. 

XI. Item : To have such meadows, pastures, lands, arable commons, 
feedings, with that part and parcel of our Coppyholds which has [been] 
or [is] belonging, or now is accostomably occupied, as well in Brayden ^ 
or elsewhere, to be ours by our Custom. 

XII. Item : To have all manner of timber for our reparations of 
customary tenants, as often as need shall require, as well for doors, 
windows, or other great timber, appointed by the Lord's officers ; 
and also that we should have sand for the same reparations in the 
Common ; and also stone, if we have any within our arable ground, 
every man upon his own ground. 

XIII. Item : If that we do lack timber for our reparations of bridges, 
we should have it delivered by the Lord or the officers, as often as need 
do require. 

XIV. Item : That all tops, sturred ^ trees and windfalls and shrouds,^ 
all underwoods, as thorns, maple, hazel, and willow, as others, to be ours 
by our Custom. 

XV. Item : If that a Man do purchase a Coppyhold for himself and 
his wife, naming his wife, her christian name in the Coppy, that then 
she shall enjoy it during her life, if she do bury her husband ; and if it 
fortune that the man do bury his wife and marry another, and then he 
decease, the last wife shall enjoy her widow's estate by our Custom. 

XVI. Item : That upon the death of a Coppy-holder the I^ord ought 
to have an Herriot or the best quick cattle that he hath of his own, at 
the day of the death of the Tenant ; and for lack, the best of his other 

XVII. Item : That a Coppyholder may keep the occupation of his 
Coppyhold in his own hands, not dwelling upon the same himself (but 
his servants), without licence. 

XVIII. Item : That he that holdeth by Coppy of licence may make 
tenants and under tenants, as he shall think good, by virtue of the 
the same Coppy. 

XIX. Item : That there can be no surrender made for it at Court, 
but in the Court where it ought to be kept. 

XX. Item : That if the Lord or his steward do grant any Coppy or 
Coppies, they cannot be good before they are published before the 
Homage in the Lord's Court, where they ought to be taken. 

XXL Item : If any tenant do lose his Coppy by misfortune yet shall 
he keep his living,"* and if there be any other joined with him in the 
same Coppy in reversion with him, he shall as well enjoy it after the 
death, forfeiture, or surrender by our Custom. 

^ ? Bradenstoke, but the word is indistinct in the original. 
2 Probably " stooled " trees, i.e., pollards. ^ Lopped branches. 

* i.e., his holding— a " living," when applied to strips in the common fields 
lormally consisted of eight to ten acres, with grazing rights for cows and 
iheep (Slater, p. 21). 

204 The Customs of the Manors of Oalstone and BremhilL 

XXII. Item : If any Coppye by revercion be granted by the Lord 
and lawfully taken (to) the Homage in the Court, and the Copy 
[happen] to be lost by misfortune (before this reversion do fall after 
the death, forfeiture, or surrender of the customary tenant), the re- 
versioner or reversioners shall enjoy it by our Custom, if any such 
reversioners do come into the Court and claim it within twelve months 
and a day, or any man for them. 

XXIII. Item : Any Copyholder having any rowlessehold ^ may put 
out any part of his Coppyhold for one year, having it once a year in 
his own hands. 

XXIV. Item : That when any tenant decease, whoever is next taker 
ought to come into the Court to make his claim, and there be admitted 
tenant according to the custom. When he is admitted tenant, he ought 
to give 2s. to the Homage, to witness that in Court he was admitted 
tenant. And if it happens that the steward (for the absence of the 
Lord) will not admit him tenant upon his claime, and the party that so 
hath claimed dieth, the Lord ought to have an Herriott or Herriotts, 
and his wife ought to have her widows estate. 

XXV. Item : That no other man than what is sworn shall have with 
us to do with any [thing] that appertaineth to our custom, but those 
that are customary tenants. 

XXVI. Item : That all amercemall pains and all orders which apper- 
taineth to the Lord's Court, ought to be offered by the customary tenants. 

XX VII. Item: That the Reeve and Tithingman do go when the 
Holy Loaf do go,'^ and the Reeve is bound to gather our customary rents 

1 " Rowlessehold." I am tempted, in view of the context, and of the 
uncertain orthography of this document, to make this " Roll-lease-hold," or 
a lease held by virtue of the Court Roll of the manor. Mr. Goddard, how- 
ever, informs me that the word occurs (as " Rowlessthing)" in the Diary of 
the Parliamentary Committee sitting at Falstone House (1646-7) and that 
he and Mr. Dartnell, when compiling Wiltshire If orc?s came to the conclusion 
that it signified waste or unprofitable land (see Wiltshire Words, (1893), 
p. 135). It is possible that both constructions may be correct, for the Waste 
of the manor was usually in the lord's hands, and he could, therefore, have 
leased it (as opposed to the granting it by" way of copyhold) without contra- 
vening the manorial customs. 

'^ Two explanations of this phrase may be suggested : — 

(1) There was an ancient custom (which appears to have continued in 
places after the Reformation) for the priest to bless a loaf of bread, which 
was afterwards distributed among the congregation. Those who received 
a share were expected in return to subscribe a small sum — generally a half- 
penny — towards Church expenses {The Parish Clerk, Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, 
p. 38 ff). The custom still survives in the Roman Catholic Church, the 
" Holy Loaf " being known as " pain beni," and its distribution usually 
taking place on the Thursday before Easter. 

(2) Under a similar, but apparently quite distinct usage, prevalent in 
the middle ages, each worshipper used to present in Church to the parish 

By the Earl of Kerry. 205 

and which he has ben charged with herebefore by virtue of his oflSce. 

XXVIII. Item : If that any tenant being a Coppy-holder maketh 
default at the Lord's Court, having a lawful business, (he) may be 
assigned by a penny and so to save his amercement. 

XXIX. Item : That all strayers that shall be taken within the Manor 
being under the price of three shillings and four pence, to remain in 
the Tithing among the customary tenants, and the Lord to have the 
price as they be priced at, when they be fully yeaned. 

XXX. Item : If any tenant shall happen to be arrested of high 
treason or felony, the wife shall have and enjoy her Widows estate 
after the death of her husband, because he was tenant therein. 

XXXI. Item : That if any tenant holdeth one, two, or three tene- 
ments or messuages at his death, he ought to pay unto the Lord for 
every messuage or tenement one Herriot, except it doeth otherwise 
appear of his Coppy. 

XXXII. Item : If that the Lord grant by Coppy of Court Roule to 
any tenant three lives, every tenant living in possession ought to pay a 
Herriot or Herriots after their death according to our custom. 

XXXIII. Item : That it shall not be lawful for any customary tenant 
to give or sell any manner of wood, shrouds, or timber, growing in or 
upon his customary tenement, without the Lord's license. 

XXXIV. Item : That it is not lawful for any Coppy-holder to fell 
any great timber growing in and upon his coppy-hold without the 
Lord's license.' 

XXXV. Item : That if the father do make any forfeiture upon his 
Coppy-hold, that it shall remain to the right and interest of the next 
reversioner or reversioners, but they shall have and enjoy the same 
according to our Custom. 

XXXVI. Item : That no tenant that holdeth by Coppy of Court 
Eoule, make any under tenant or tenants upon his Coppy-hold above a 
year and a day, without a Coppy of licence granted by the Lord of the 

priest a loaf made of new wheat as a sort of " first fruits " ofi"ering. This 
ceremony was known as " Loaf-mass," or " Lammas," and it took place on 
the 1st of August (O.S.). Lammas Day thus became one of the recognised 
quarter days of the year— the others being Michaelmas, Candlemas 
(Christmas), and Whitsuntide. 

I am inclined, in view of the context, towards the second hypothesis. 
Lammas Day was closely connected with the interior economy of the 
Manor, for it was at this season that the common arable fields were thrown 
open for pasturage (Lammas fields). It would, therefore, have been a likely 
moment for the manor officials (reeve, tythingman, hayward, &c.) to vacate 
their offices, though in some manors the change was made at Christmas 
time (c.f. Slater, p. 22). 

^ Hence the popular saying that " the oak grows not except on free land," 
for copy-holders seldom planted trees, the value of which would have 
accrued to the Lord of the Manor. 


206 The Customs of the Manors of Calstone and Bremhill. 

XXXVII. Item : That if two or three does come into the Court, and 
they do take of the Lord a Coppy-hold, and every one of them doth 
pay part of the fine, then they be takers all three : then none of them 
can or may deceive the others by our Custom. 

XXXVIII. Item : That if any man take of the Lord by Coppy of 
Court Roule any messuage or tenement for himself and two of his 
children, and [?or] one child, and not name the names of them, but 
leaveth a space for them it is not good. 

XXXIX. — Item : Where any widow doth deal incontinent or unchaste, 
that belongs to the Ecclesiastical Court, but our custom has not to do 
with it ; but for her living she shall enjoy it by our custom.^ 

John King George Lewis Junr. 

Walter Essington Anthony Greenaway 

George Lewis John Wilson 

John Brookes Edward Walkham 

Richard Stiles John Fry 

Richard Jefferys Richard Plummer 

[The document has the following note at the end— added, perhaps, by the 
steward or some other official of the Manor concerned :— ] 

" Jan 11, 1657 : Was a former one, but to ye above effect, and same 
n° of articles." 

' It was usual for the widow of a tenant to enjoy her husband's holding 
so long only as she remained " sole and chaste." It is interesting to see 
that by the custom of this Ecclesiastical Manor the tenants specifically re- 
nounced any claim to decide such matters. 



By H. St. George Gray. 

Much interest has in the past been shown in the isolated prostrate sarsen- 
stone in the parish of Chute, by reason of the fact that its flat face is covered 
by irregular wavy markings which had never been definitely pronounced as 
natural. It had been a puzzle to some archaeologists who noted a close 
resemblance of these markings to the carvings upon the uprights of the 
dolmens of Carnac. 

Some time ago, with the assistance of Dr. W. M. Tapp,^ an examination 
of this stone was made. The necessary permission having been obtained 
from Mr. E. A. Wigan, of Conholt Park, near Andover, we arranged to 
carry out this work on April 28th, 29th, and 30th, 1924 ; but, unfortunately, 
the weather was very stormy, and on the 30th we had to give up early owing 
to heavy rain.^ 

This stone was brought to the notice of scientists by the Rev. Canon 
J. E. Jackson, F.S.A., in 1883, when he wrote :— 

" In the open field a few yards from the causeway on the north side, 
overlooking Black Down and Hippingscombe (Hippenscombe), lies a 
large flat rude stone, with certain wavy marks upon it (which, however, 
may only be the eflfect of weathering upon the grain of the stone). It 
is traditionally called the stone of one Kinward,^ some ancient magnate 
who held his Hundred court here in the open air, whence the name of 
Kinwardstone to this Hundred^ in the county of Wilts. ^ 

^ This name would seem to have been invented by the Rev. Canon Jackson ; 
there does not appear to be any other authority for its adoption. 

2 The Society is indebted to Dr, W. M. Tapp, F.S.A., for the gift of the 
cost of the blocks illustrating this paper. 

' We arrived at Andover on April 26th (Sat.), and left there on April 30th. 
The contractors (Dunning & Manning, of Weyhill,) provided the necessary 
labour and tackle. In arranging details of organization we had the ad- 
vantage of considerable assistance rendered by Dr. J. P. Williams-Freeman, 
of Weyhill, one of the leading antiquaries in the neighbourhood. He visited 
the diggings of April 28th, and Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington came over 
from Devizes on April 29th. 

^ " Kenwardstone " is also the name of a farm, south-east of Burbage, and 
between that place and Grafton, 5| miles to the north-west of Chute 
Causeway. [The farm is on a road which was a main thoroughfare east 
and west in Saxon times. — O. G. S. C] 

" Wilts Arch. Mag.^ xix., 261. 
6 Wilts Arch. Mag., xxi. (1884), 338—339. 

208 The so-called " Kenward Stone " at Chute Causeway, Wilts, 

Then, very naturally, we turn to a longer account of the stone and its 
immediate surroundings in " Field Archa&ology as illustratedby Hampshire" 
by Dr. J. P. Williams-Freeman (pp. 108 — 110), where a photograph of the 
stone is given. After describing the stone, its size, etc., he concludes by 
recording that : — 

" I was once puzzling over these markings when a native came up 
and asked me if I knew what they were. I confessed my ignorance. 
His answer was ' If you was a doctor you'd know 'tis the entrails of a 
man.' He also told me how the holes were made when someone tried 
to fix ropes to the stone and move it, ' but the horses fell down dead,' 
a superstition which is also attached to the Rollright stones in Oxford- 
shire, and, I believe, to other stones in England." 
Probably there are other local sayings with regard to the stone. 
During the excavations a shepherd informed me that the stone was called 
the " Devil's Waistcoat." 

The site^ is at the extreme north of the parish of Chute, on Little Down, 
close to the north side of " Chute Causeway," along which the Roman Road 
ran, a detour to the west of the Roman Road from Cirencester to Winchester.' 
A little way to the south-west of the stone along the Chute Causeway is a 
turning to the south called " Dummer Lane." 

The nearest large farm, " Hippenscombe," is nearly three-quarters of a 
mile to the north-east, while the nearest part of Fosbury Camp is nearly 
nine furlongs in the same direction. The highest ground on Little Down 
is close to the stone, viz., 824ft. above CD.-'' 

Coming to closer quarters it is seen that this sarsen stone rests in a 
scooped-out hollow,* apparently artificial, at the top of the slope {see Plate II.) 
The width of this hollow from brow to brow (east and west) is 55ft. From 
the brow on the south (which is only a few yards from the northern margin 
of Chute Causeway), there is a drop of 10'5ft. to the bottom of the hollow, 
and from there, extending northwards and beyond the stone, there is a 
slight rise of about 2 5ft., and then the downland gradually falls towards 
the north. 

On the north side of this hollow the stone lies prostrate, its upper surface 
sloping slightly towards the south-east (see Plate I.). Its dimensions are : — 
Max. length, 5ft. lOin. ; max, width, 4ft. 2in. ; max. thickness, showing 
above the turf, 1ft. 3in.^ Three cuttings were marked out for excavation 

1 O. S. Wilts, No. XLIII., S.W. ; surveyed 1877-78, revised 1899, reprinted 

^ This detour was no doubt made to avoid the Hippenscombe valley and 
the considerable rise to the north of it. ( W.A.M., xxxiii., 325-326 ; xxxviii., 
226 ; also Field Archaeology^ Hampshire, by Dr. Williams-Freeman, 106» 
et seq.). 

^ The bench-mark at the junction of Chute Causeway with " Dummer 
Lane "is 819'7ft. 

^ This hollow, like others near by, appears to have been scooped out to] 
obtain material for the causeway. 

^ As Dr. Thomas' report follows, there will be no need for me to give any 
further description of the stone. 


By H. St. George Gray, 









5 10 20 





isee Plan and Plate II.), namely, Cutting I., along the length of the hollow ; 
Cutting II., to the north-east of the stone; and Cutting III., round the 
north, east, and west sides of the stone. 

Cutting I. took a N.N.E. and S.S.W. direction, and measured SV^ft. in 
length and 4ft. wide. The material was dug out down to the solid chalk, 
which was reached at a depth of barely 1ft. At 10ft. from the south end 
the vertical measurement of the material removed was : — 

Turf and turf mould ... ... ... ... 0*6 foot 

Nodules of flint (loosely packed, but in places mixed 
with a little mould and fine chalk, and in some 
patches with light brownish clay) ... ... 2'9 feet 

Total depth to solid chalk . . . 

3-5 feet 

Some of the nodules of flint were of large size, the longest measuring 18in.* 

Cutting II., marked out as 9ft. north and south by 8ft. east and west, 
was not completed owing to bad weather ; in fact it was excavated only to 
a depth of 1ft. Nodules of flint were plentiful, but no relics were found. 

Cutting III. was originally marked out to be 13|ft. east and west, by 8ft. 
north and south, but, owing to the weight of the stone, which had to be 
propped at the west end during the excavations, the east end of this area 
was left untouched, as shown in the little plan. No objects were found 
except a Victorian halfpenny (1862), uncovered at "A," about 6in. below 
the surface. The stone on the north and west was found to be approximately 
2ft. thick. The underside, where it could be examined, was very irregular 
in places and grooves were noticed in various directions. 

On the north and west margins of the cutting, level solid chalk was reached 
at a depth of l'25ft. below the surface. Within this was another "level'* 
of solid chalk at 3'5ft. below the surface. In the middle of the excavation 
under the west half of the stone we dug to a depth of 5ft. below the highest 
part of the stone, and met with much mixed rubble, flints (not very large), 

* It is probable that these nodules of flint had been thrown in casually or 
by ploughmen cultivating the hill. As Dr. Williams-Freeman reminded 
us, farmers often pick the big flints ojff their land and throw them into a 
convenient place. 

P 2 

210 The so-called " Kenward Stone" at Chute Causeway, Wilts. 

mould, and lumps of chalk. The use of a crowbar showed us that the hole 
in the chalk extended at least 3ft, deeper in the middle of the excavation, 
but we dared not extend the digging further with the tackle at our disposal^ 
lest the stone should heel over towards the west. 

The hollow in the surrounding chalk probably had no connection with 
the placing of the sarsen in this position ; but represented one of the many 
excavations made along and near the line of Chute Causeway to provide 
chalk for its formation. It might be contended that the hollow is not as 
near the causeway as it might have been, but the chalk on the actual line 
of the causeway in this part and the land to the south of it is covered by- 
clay with flints, and the chalk does not crop out on the north side until the 
hollow is reached.^ 

After the excavations — in fact in August, 1924—1 received an important 
letter from the Rev. G. H. Engleheart, F.S.A., of Little Clarendon, Dinton^ 
from which the following extracts are taken : — 

"I hear that you dug under that big stone by the side of Chute 
Causeway. If I had known in time I could have saved you the trouble. 
Some thirty-five years ago one or two of the oldest inhabitants of Chute 
village told me that the stone had been carted to where it lies from a 
field on one of the farms where there were other big stones with it, some 
of which were buried to be out of the way. I saw no reason to dis- 
believe this, but did not trouble to verify it by sounding for the buried 
stones, because at that time I was more especially interested in Romano- 
British matter of that district. I cannot find any note or remember 
the name of the farm or field where the stones possibly existed as a 
dolmen, and I do not suppose any accurate memory survives in Chute.'* 
This record seems to explain the present resting-place of this much- 
discussed stone. Its markings are undoubtedly natural, and Dr. Thomas's 
report, which follows, is quite convincing on this point. 


By Herbert H. Thomas, M.A., ScD., 

Petrographer to H.M. Geological Survey. 

The "Kenward or Kin ward Stone," first called attention to by Canon 
Jackson,^ presents the somewhat unusual character of having in relief upon 
its surface a series of undulose and sigmoidal ridges. These ridges occur 
in more or less parallel or concentric groups, and maintain a constant width 

* The land south of the road would have been covered with wood and the 
causeway constructed on the edge of it. 

^Wilts Arch. Mag., xxi. (1884), 338. 

By H. St George Gray. 211 

over a considerable portion of their course. They almost completely cover 
the surface of the stone excepting a narrow marginal portion on the southern 
and western sides, which is raised about two inches above the rest of the 

The stone itself is a normal " sarsen," similar to those commonly en- 
countered on the chalk districts of Wiltshire and Hampshire, that is to say, 
it is a silicified sandstone and a relic of a Tertiary deposit that once spread 
over the district, but of which all continuity has been destroyed. This 
Tertiary deposit was for the most part soft and easily removed, and all 
traces would have been lost had not certain portions of the loose sands and 
friable sandstones become indurated, before the period of denudation, by the 
infiltration of silica and the cementation of the component sand-grains into 
compact and relatively hard masses (sandstone and quartzite). These hard 
masses, however, were local in their distribution and unequal in their dura- 
bility, in fact the study of any block of sarsen will prove that even in small 
masses the degree to which cementation of the grains has taken place varies 
considerably, a feature that finds expression in the rapid weathering and 
disintegration of certain portions of the stone as compared with other parts. 

The "Kenward Stone" is a pale cream to white siliceous sandstone 
composed almost entirely of quartz-grains of about a third of a millimetre 
in diameter set in a purely siliceous matrix. 

It is, however, mainly with the nature and mode of origin of the curious 
superficial markings tha.t I am concerned. Canon Jackson, in the paper 
already cited, describes the Kenward Stone as " a large flat rude stone with 
■certain wavy marks upon it," which, he goes on to say, " may only be the 
effect of weathering upon the grain of the stone." Although the ridges and 
markings cannot be said to follow any definite figure they have a vague 
resemblance to certain megalithic carvings {e.g., Gavrinis, Morbihan), and 
BO very definite pronouncement as to whether they are natural or artificial 
appears to have been made. 

With the object of helping to decide this point^I visited the district on 
July 23rd, 1924, with Dr. Tapp, and made with him a careful inspection of 
the stone. There are characters presented by the markings that definitely 
preclude any ^but a natural origin, and further, it appears that the ridges 
result from the differential weathering or solution of a rock that has been 
subjected to varying degrees of silification. 

It was noticed that small circular depressions are surrounded in each case 
by a raised and certainly natural ring of more indurated material ; and, 
near the north-western margin of the stone, a natural hole some inches in 
depth, and well shown in the photograph, not only has a surround but a 
lining of the same indurated character. There can be no reason to dissociate 
such features from the other markings on the stone, and thus the whole 
must be regarded as natural. 

With reference to the formation of the ridges and the pseudo-geometrical 
pattern assumed by them, it may be well to observe that in all processes of the 
penetration of a porous or colloidal medium by a mineralizing or pigmenting 
solution the deposition of mineral matter or the segregation of pigment 
frequently takes place in roughly parallel and equidistant bands like a 

212 The so-called " Kenward Stone " at Chute Causeway, Wilts. 

succession of waves. We meet with such structures quite commonly in 
ferruginated sands and clays and in silicified sands and sandstones of all 
geological ages. In simple cases such bands are referable to single and 
isolated centres, but more often the structures are more complex. 

In the case in point, this stone may be regarded as an example of a rock 
indurated by percolating siliceous solutions that have carried out their 
mineralization in the manner indicated above. The somewhat regular 
variation in compactness and durability which resulted from this process 
has been subsequently developed by weathering, the less mineralized 
portions of the rock having been eaten into hollows and the more mineral- 
ized parts left standing out as crests and protuberances. 







August 6th, 7th, and 8th, 19^5, 

President of the Society: — 
W. Heward Bell, F.G.S., F.S.A. 


The annual business meeting, at which forty-four members were present, 
was held, the President of the Society in the chair, at the Bingham Library, 
at 1.45, when Mr. Edward C. Sewell, as High Steward of the Manor, on 
behalf of Earl Bathurst and the inhabitants of Cirencester, offered to the 
Wiltshire Society a hearty welcome to the town. After a few words of 
acknowledgment from the President, the Hon. Secretary was called on to 
to read the 

REPORT FOR 1924—25. 

Members. — In last year's report the number of members was stated to be 
13 life members, 441 annual subscribers, and one honorary member, 455 in 
all. Since then five members have died, and 34 have formally resigned, 
whilst 45 members have joined the Society, leaving on the books of the 
Society at the present moment, including those to be elected at the annual 
meeting, 14 life and 441 annual subscribers, a total, with the one honorary 
member, of 456. It is difficult, however, to say what the exact number of 
effective members at the present moment is, as there are 13 members whose 
subscriptions are one year or more in arrear. Some of these will, no doubt, 
when their attention is called to the matter, pay up their arrears, but it 
would save the officers of the Society a great amount of trouble and time 
if all members would regularly pay their subscriptions at the beginning of 
the year, or take the trouble to send the secretary a postcard saying that 
they wish to resign. All that can be said definitely as to the number at 
present time is that it is still above 435, which, in view of the raising of the 
amount of the annual subscription this year to 15s. Qd., may be considered 
very satisfactory. 

Finance. — The financial condition of the Society on the 31st December, 
1924, was fairly good. Excluding the Register of Simon of Ghent, and the 
Bradford Barn accounts, both of which are concerned with special objects 
only, the other accounts of the Society showed a balance on January 1st, 
1924, of i6398 18s. 7c?., and at the end of the year a balance of ^'310 12s. 6(i., 
which, allowing for the ^£124 paid for the new room added to the Library, 

^ The best account of the Cirencester Meeting is given in the Wilts and 
Gloucestershire Standard^ Aug. 8th and 15th, 1925. 

214 The Seventy -second General Meeting^ 

is not unsatisfactory. It has to be noted, however, that the balance on the 
General Fund sank from £75 14s. 4c?. to £36 12s. 5c?., and it is more 
especially to relieve and increase this fund that the raising of the annual 
subscription from 10s. 6c?. to 15s. Qd.^ decided on at the last annual meeting, 
became necessary. The balance on the Museum Enlargement Fund sank 
from ^90 Os. 4c?. to &b Is., having been expended on the new Library room, 
and that of the Museum Purchase Fund from ^98 6s. 6c?. to ^691 Is. bd., 
whilst the Museum Maintenance Fund balance increased from ^656 10s. 4td. 
to £89. The precise effect of the increased subscription, however, cannot 
be judged until the end of the present year. 

The Magazine. — Two numbers as usual were issued during 1924, Nos. 
140 and 141, completing Vol. 42. These two numbers contained 278 pages, 
and the last had a very full index to the contents of the volume. The 
Society has to thank Captain Cunnington for the gift of the plates 
illustrating his paper on the Blue Stone from Boles Barrow. The cost of 
the two numbers was i£256 14s. 3c?. 

The Museum. — A number of important additions have been made to the 
Society's collections since the last report. We are again indebted to Dr. 
R. 0. C. Clay for a large number of valuable objects, including the whole 
of the finds during the excavation of Early Iron Age pits on Swallowcliffe 
Down, and of a Saxon Cemetery at Broadchalke, as well as a very large 
cinerary urn from a barrow at Ebbesbourne Wake. These considerable 
additions have necessitated the provision of a large new case to contain 
them, paid for by the Museum Maintenance Fund, The Rev. H. G. O. 
Kendall handed over to the Museum the whole of the objects found during 
his partial excavation of the ditch on Windmill Hill, Avebury, and we have 
also to thank Capt. and Mrs. Cunnington for the objects found during their 
excavations at Figsbury Rings, as well as a bronze arrow head (a very rare 
find) from Enford, and a fine drinking cup from Lockeridge, and Mr. Percy 
Farrer, on behalf of the military authorities, has also given a cinerary urn 
and several other objects found on Salisbury Plain. 

The Library. — The most notable additions during the year have been a 
number of old maps of the Wilton Estate given by Lord Pembroke, through 
the kind offices of Mr- O. G. S. Crawford, and the whole of his MS. Notas 
on Wiltshire Genealogy left to the Society by the late Mr. John Sadler. 
These, written on loose sheets of foolscap, form an immense collection of 
abstracts of Wiltshire wills, pedigrees, etc., which have now been arranged 
under parishes, and are being bound up in folio volumes, so as to be readily 
available for consultation. The Society, as usual, has to thank many 
Wiltshire authors for copies of books or articles, among which may be 
mentioned Mr. Brakspear's "History of Corsham Church" and Captain 
Cunnington's " Some Annals of the Borough of Devizes." The Municipal 
Records of Devizes from 1553 onwards have been taken charge of temporarily 
by the Society and placed in the Library. 

Excavations. — Col. Hawley has carried on the excavations at Stonehenge, 
which continue to provide fresh surprises and puzzles for the archaeologist. 
Dr. R. C. C. Clay has been conducting further diggings in his neighbourhood 
in earthworks and barrows, the results of which will appear later in the 

The Seventy -second General Meeting, 215 

Magazine. At Windmill Hill, Avebury, extensive excavations, continuing 
the work which the Rev. H. G. O.Kendall began, have this year been carried 
out by Mr. Alexander Keiller, who has purchased practically the whole of 
the hill with the object of a thorough examination of this important site. 
The work is being conducted under the superintendence of Mr. H. St. G. 
Gray, and will probably take several years to complete. It seems likely to 
throw altogether new light on the hitherto little known subject of Neolithic 
settlements and defences. It is a cause of much satisfaction to archseologists 
that Mr. Keiller should have taken up this important work so thoroughly. 
In the spring of this year (1925) Lord Kerry began experimental diggings 
on the site of a Roman dwelling near the George Inn, at Sandy Lane, and 
found enough to justify further excavations, which it is understood will be 
shortly carried out. 

The report having been read and adopted, and eleven new members 
elected, the Rev. E. H. Goddard brought before the meeting the request of 
the committee that they might be authorised to dispose of certain objects 
in the Society's Museum and Library. These comprised, first, two perfor- 
ated Stone Hammers which had been bought with the Brooke collection, 
but came from Ramsgate and had no connection with Wiltshire. Secondly, 
a small collection of bronze prehistoric objects, of the provenance of which 
nothing was known, except that they came to the Society many years ago 
from Stourhead, and are apparently none of them of British, but probably 
of Scandinavian, origin. Thirdly, certain old books and periodicals which 
are neither connected with the county, or the works of Wiltshire men, or 
useful for general reference. It was explained that the committee had 
decided to dispose of all these objects and books, but by the rules nothing 
in the museum can be disposed of without the leave of the general meeting 
of the Society. Leave was accordingly given by the meeting, and it was 
stated that the two Stone Hammers would go back to their own county, 
the Maidstone Museum having offered £2 for them, whilst the continental 
bronze antiquities would be sold in London, the money in both cases going 
to the Museum Fund for the purchase of Wiltshire objects. A further 
matter of the same kind was then discussed at considerable length. The 
Museum possesses by the gift of the relatives of the Rev. Charles Lucas, of 
Devizes, a miniature of King Charles I. painted on copper in a gold locket 
case,^ which was given by James II. to the Rev. Dr. Massey. It was felt by 
the curator and the committee that this valuable Stuart relic, if it continues 
to be exhibited at Devizes, runs a certain risk of being stolen, either for 
the sake of its gold case, or owing to its value as a relic. The committee 
had come to no definite decision as to what should be done in the matter, 
1 but referred it to the decision of the general meeting. Three courses were 
possible. It might be kept in Devizes as heretofore, it might be placed on 
1 permanent loan at one of the national museums, or it might be sold, no 
\ doubt for a considerable sum. Various opinions were expressed by mem- 
I bers present, but the general feeling appeared to be that it ought not to be 
' sold, and it was decided to refer the matter back for further consideration 

' See Catalogue of Antiquities in the Museum, Fart II., M. 18, p. 122. 

216 The Seventy -second General Meeting, 

to the committee, with power to keep it in Devizes, insuring it against loss 
by theft, or to deposit it in one of the national museums. The next 
business was a proposal by the hon. curator (Gapt. B. H. Cunnington) that 
in future a fee should be charged for photographs or copies taken of any 
objects in the Museum or library. He explained that there was an in- 
creasing demand for copies, especially of views in the Buckler Collection, 
which gave much trouble and took up much of the curator's time, and that 
as this collection had cost the Society a large sum of money, it was only 
reasonable that those who wished for copies of the views should pay a fee 
to the Museum for the privilege. The following resolution was then carried 
unanimously :— " That in future any person wishing to copy or photograph 
any object in the Museum, or any portrait, drawing, print, or picture be- 
longing to the Society, shall, if a member, pay a fee of five shillings for 
each copy, or if a non-member, a fee of ten shillings. But the hon. secretary 
and the hon. curator shall have power to vary the amount of the fee in any 
case where it seems to them expedient. And further it is provided that in 
no case shall such photographs or copies be for sale, except in cases where 
the committee think fit to have picture postcards made of objects in 
the Museum." Canon Knubley then moved that the resolution of the 
committee that a cordial invitation be extended to the South- Western 
Naturalists' Union to hold their annual Whitsuntide meeting next year at 
Devizes, be confirmed. This was unanimously agreed to, and Canon Knubley 
was empowered to convey the invitation to the authorities concerned, and 
Capt. Cunnington promised to do all he could to make the meeting a success. 
The oflScers of the Society were then re-elected en bloc, and the business 
being ended, members placed themselves under the guidance of Mr. St. 
Clair Baddeley and proceeded to visit the Roman pavement at the Barton, 
and the splendid Roman capital in the Abbey grounds. Unfortunately, 
owing to the business meeting having taken longer than had been expected, 
there was no opportunity for the greater number of the members to visit 
the Cripps Mead Museum of Roman Antiquities which had been most 
kindly thrown open by Mrs. Wilfrid Cripps, and on leaving the Abbey 
grounds it was time to make for the Bingham Library, where Mrs. 
Christopher Bowly most hospitably provided tea for the members. 

After tea the Parish Church was visited, still under the guidance of Mr. 
Baddeley, and the Corinium Museum, with its remarkable collection of 
Roman objects found in Cirencester, from the two fine pavements and 
and tombstones downwards, was open until dinner time, and the Curator, 
Mr. E. C. Sewell, was present to show and explain the most interesting 
things to the visitors. One object not less interesting in its way than the 
contents of the museum, is the extraordinary Horse Chestnut tree growing 
just behind the museum, of which the branches have come down and rooted 
in the ground until a perfect forest of young trees has grown up around the 
parent trunk. After dinner, at the King's Head Hotel, which was the head- 
quarters of the meeting, members adjourned again to the Bingham library, 
where Mr. W. St. Clair Baddeley gave an address^ on "Episodes of 

^ See Wilts and Gloucester Standard, Aug. 8th, 1925. 

The Seventy -second General Meeting. 217 

Cirencester History" to a large audience. Mr. Baddeley is well known as 
a " born lecturer," and in the Cotswold country he is peculiarly on his own 
ground. He dwelt first of all on the way in which the history of the place 
had been ati'ected by the River Churn, which originally flowed through the 
centre of the space enclosed within the vallum and ditch of the Dobuni and 
from time to time flooded the lower portion of that enclosed space, known 
in medieval and later days as " Watermoor." When the Romans settled 
there and made Corinium one of the most important towns in the whole of 
Britain, they diverted the greater portion of the River Churn into the old 
fosse of pre-Roman times, outside the enclosure of the defences, and made 
it flow round the town, instead of through it, thus at once adding to the 
strength of its defences and preventing the flooding of Watermoor, which 
was built over in Roman times, as is proved by the fact that the most 
sumptuous pavements have been found in this district. With the departure 
of the Romans, the water system became neglected, the Churn resumed its 
old course, Watermoor was again flooded, and ceased to be inhabited right 
through the medieval period down to recent days. ' Cirencester (Churn 
Chester) shrunk to half its Roman size and in Saxon days was outstripped 
by the lesser towns of Bath and Gloucester, and being ruled by the Abbot, 
never even got as far as incorporation as a borough. Mr. Baddeley next 
dealt with the episodes of the beheading of the Earls of Kent and Salisbury 
and Sir Ralph de Lumley by the townspeople in the Market Place, and the 
division of their goods amongst the men of Cirencester under Henry IV., 
and finished by some account of the recent discovery of the foundations of 
a Roman building near Chedworth Villa, which the members were to see 
next day. 


Two motor coaches and a long string of some twenty-eight private cars 
left the Market Place punctually at 9.15 for the day's excursion, and by the 
kindness of the Hon. Mrs. Vestey, of Stowell Park, were allowed to reach 
the Roman Villa at Chedworth by way of the private drive, which not only 
cuts off a long detour and an awkward hill, but leads by a most delightful 
way at the foot of the beautifully-wooded slope, covered with luxuriant 
bracken, and in the opener parts with great masses of rosebay and ragwort 
in full flower,with the infant stream of theColne flowing through the meadow 
on the other side of the road. Before reaching the villa the party stopped 
and were led by Mr. Baddeley through bracken as high as their heads to a 
spot at a little distance from the road, where the Roman foundations, of 
large squared stones, of what was evidently a considerable building, have 
recently been uncovered. Mr. Baddeley believes that it was a temple 
dedicated to the river god of the upper reaches of the Colne. A short 
distance further brought the party to the well-known Chedworth Villa, one 
of the best-preserved and most complete examples of a house of its kind in 
England. It had quite recently been purchased by subscription and handed 
over to the National Trust, so that its future is safely provided for. It was 
announced, too, that the whole of the purchase money had just been com- 
pleted. The assembly was too large for everyone to get into the various 

218 The Seventy -second General Meeting, 

rooms at the same time, but by dividing up into different sections most of 
the members were able to hear Mr. Baddeley's masterly exposition of the 
details of the building. His view is that the villa was more probably the 
dwelling and business premises not of a great landed proprietor, but of a 
prosperous tradesman who here carried on the manufacture and dyeing of 
cloth, a conclusion to which certain features of the long north wing, as well 
as the fact that a stratum of excellent Fullers'-earth crops out close by, seem to 
point. Although an hour and a half had been allotted to Ched worth, the time 
proved none too long and the members were torn away from this delightful 
spot only with diflSculty. But for all that they were walking up the church- 
yard path at Northleach as the Church clock was striking 12,the time specified 
by the programme for their arrival. Here they were met by the Bishop of 
Kensington, who was in temporary charge, and by the Rev. Canon R. C. S. 
Jones, Vicar of Fairford, who had kindly come over specially to act as guide 
to the Church, an office which he filled most admirably. To those who had 
not seen Northleach Church before, it came almost as a revelation, at least as 
far as the exterior is concerned, of what a wholly 15th century Church can be 
at its best. For intrinsic beauty, indeed, and the extraordinary state of 
preservation of its stonework, it is probably surpassed by few, if any, of 
the parish Churches of the same period in England. After lunch at the 
Wheatsheaf Hotel, members left for Burford at 2 o'clock, arriving at the 
Church at 2.45. Here the Vicar, the Rev. W. C. Emeris, spoke on the 
history of the Church and its most complicated and unusual ground-plan, 
and then dividing the company into two sections, took one section round 
the building himself, whilst Mr. Gretton, author of a work on Burford, 
most kindly led the rest of the party round the opposite way, so that every- 
body was able to see for themselves and hear the explanation of the many 
points of interest in this grand and most unusual Church. Leaving Burford 
at 3.45 the Swan Hotel, at Bibury, was reached rather before the scheduled 
hour, which allowed a pleasant interval for loitering, on a beautiful evening, 
by the side of the delightful River Coin, before tea was ready. After tea 
a short walk took members back to the Church, where the Rev. E. H. 
Goddard pointed out the chief features of the building, the Saxon strip 
pilasters, and the curious circular double splayed window exactly resembling 
the circular clerestory Saxon windows at Avebury. From this point half 
an hour's drive brought members back to Cirencester at 6.0 p.m. At 8.15 
Mr. W. Iveson Croome gave an address at the Bingham Library on " Cotswold 
Churches."^ He interpreted this title liberally and gave an extremely 
suggestive sketch of the general history and gradual changes in Church 
architecture from Saxon times to the Reformation, pointing out that the 
successive styles were not merely marks of changing fashions, but that 
they really reflected the changing circumstances and ideals of the times, 
and so were correlated with the economic and social as well as with the eccles- 
iastical history of the country. He ended by impressing upon his audience 
that it was a part of the duty of members of societies such as our own to do 
what they can towards popularising a knowledge and appreciation of Church 

^ Printed in full in Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard, Aug. 15th, 1925. 

The Seventy -second General Meeting. 219 

architecture and of the value of the buildings as records of the past history 
of their country. He also took occasion to explain the need for, and the 
working of, the recently instituted Advisory Church Committees, and urged 
that they should be recognised as a help by all those concerned in any way 
with the upkeep or the adornment of our parish Churches. It was an 
address couched in the simplest language, that nobody could help listening 
to, but for all that contained much that was well worth thinking about, 
and the applause that greeted its conclusion showed how the audience had 
appreciated it. Mr. Goddard, while expressing his appreciation, ventured 
to suggest that the writer might some day give us a book somewhat on the 
lines of his address, dealing with the causes and the real meaning of the 
gradual evolution of the architectural styles. 


At 9.30 the motor coaches and cars left for Daglingworth Church, where 
Mr. Baddeley acted as guide, dwelling especially on the Saxon sundial over 
the south door, and the Saxon sculptures found in the jambs of the chancel 
arch. Leaving at 10.15 (it was not easy to get the members away from the 
Saxon work here) the next stop was at Duntesbourne Rous Church, a tiny 
little building in a secluded valley ofif the high road, remarkable for its 
quaint interior and the curious crypt chapel at the east end, of Norman 
date, rendered necessary by the steep slope of the site. Here, too, Mr. 
Baddeley again acted as guide. Leaving at 11.15, the long string of motors 
having turned in a field opposite the Church, made their way to Elkstone 
Church, where they were received by the Rector, the Rev. T. S. Tonkinson, 
who told the history of the building, and pointed out the features of this 
most interesting Church, which claims to possess the finest 12th century 
Norman work in all the Cotswolds. The south porch and door, the chancel 
arch, and the east window with the rebate for a shutter in its splayed jamb, 
are samples of the richest work of the period, and the chamber over the 
vaulted chancel, fitted up as a pigeon loft, is a curious and very unusual 
feature. Leaving Elkstone at 12.15, half-an-hour's drive brought the party 
to the George Hotel, at Birdlip, and to an excellent lunch, at the end of 
which Canon Knubley,in the absence of the President, took the opportunity 
of thanking first, Mr. W. St. Clair Baddeley for his most illuminating 
addresses, both at the first evening meeting, and at Cirencester, Chedworth, 
and the two Churches that morning, and secondly, Capt, B. H. Cunnington, 
the meeting secretary, to whose power of organization, and the infinite 
trouble he had taken to provide for every detail beforehand, was due the 
success of the arrangements, and the smoothness with which everything 
had been carried out according to the scheduled plan. After lunch 
sufficient time was allowed for members to enjoy the unique view from the 
hotel garden, from which the escarpment falls away precipitously to the 
plain of Gloucester lying spread out like a map below, with the Roman 
road running across it to the city as straight as if it had been marked out 
with a ruler. Not many views in the south of England can equal this, 
either in extent or in beauty, and to those who did not know Birdlip before, 
it came as a revelation of what the Cotswolds have to offer. Leaving at 2 

220 Tke Seventy -second General Meeting. 

o'clock, the party reached Rendcombe Church at 2.45, where for the last 
time Mr. Baddeley spoke on the history of the place and the Church. This 
has features of interest of its own though it can hardly compare with the 
other Churches seen during the meeting. Mr. Baddeley having to leave to 
catch the train the Rev. E. H. Goddard took his place and said what more 
required to be said as to the points of interest in the building. Leaving 
Rendcombe at 3.30 a twenty minutes' pleasant run brought members to 
N orth Cerney, where tea was laid out in the spacious and well-appointed 
Parish Hall, after which the Church was visited under the guidance of the 
Rector, the Rev. E. W. M. O. de la Hey, Mr. W. Iveson Croome also being 
present to help in showing the visitors round. Here the Church itself 
possesses several points of great interest, notably the Norman doorway, the 
beautiful 15th century stone pulpit, the original 15th century glass of the 
two windows in the north transept, the passage from the chancel to the 
south transept, and the two very curious figures of the "Manticore"^ 
engraved on the outside walls of the Church, but even without these the 
sumptuous and beautiful furnishings of the Church would make it notable 
amongst country parish Churches. The great brass candelabra in the nave 
(which is said to have come " from a Wiltshire Church," but from what 
particular one is not known), the 14th century French processional cross, of 
brass, the fine brass eagle lectern of medieval Flemish work, with its 
iron base which is said to be Spanish, old candlesticks, wooden statues, &c., 
&c., are all of them of quite unusual character, and all of them are used 
with admirable effect in the adornment of the Church. 

This was the last item on the programme ; the cars proceeded back to 
Cirencester, members picked up their luggage and departed to their homes, 
highly pleased (so everyone said) with the excellent fare set before them at 
the Cirencester meeting. It is true there was nothing prehistoric in the 
programme, but the Roman remains were of the first class, and so was the 
Church architecture. There can, indeed, be few districts in England that 
could supply the equivalent of the Churches of Cirencester, Northleach, 
Burford, Daglingworth, Elkstone, and North Cerney, set in such charming 
scenery as the valleys of the Cotswolds offer. Altogether the meeting was 
a great success ; 126 members and friends took some part in the proceedings. 
The weather was very kind, and the only shower was a short one on the 
first afternoon, the programme went without a hitch, time was excellently 
kept, and after paying all the expenses a balance of £22 8s. Id. remained. 

^ The Manticore was a fabulous beast of Ethiopia., having the head of a 
man and the body of a lion, and living principally on human flesh. 



Charles Edward Hungerford Atholl Colston, 1st 
Baron Roundway of Devizes, died June i7th, 1925, aged 7i. 

Buried in Devizes Cemetery. Born May 16th, 1854, s. of Edward Colston, of 
Roundway Park. Educated at Eton and Christchurch, Oxford. B.A. 1876. 
Conservative M.P.for the Thornbury Division of Gloucestershire 1892—1906. 
Raised to the Peerage 1 916. Entered the Volunteers as a cadet at Eton, which 
school he represented at Wimbledon, became Captain in 5th Wilts Volunteer 
Corps 1873, and Hon. Col. of the 2nd Volunteer Battalion Wilts Regt., 1882, 
until it was transformed into the Territorial force. This, as the 4th Battalion 
Wilts Regt. he continued to command until 1909. He was Vice-Chairman of 
the Territorial Force County Association, and was instrumental in raising the 
National Reserve Force in East Wilts. During the War he was Remount 
Officer for the district and Colonel of the Wiltshire Volunteer Battalion. 
J. P. for Wilts, 1877 ; D.L., and High Sheriff in 1885. Chairman of the 2nd 
Court of Quarter Sessions for many years, and elected Chairman of the 1st 
Court, 1923. A member of the County Council from its beginning in 1888 
until 1925, he was Chairman of the Roads and Bridges Committee, a position 
entailing a great amount of work. Until his illness three years ago he was 
one of the foremost men in the public affairs of Wiltshire. Since then he 
has been an invalid. At the meets of the Four-in-Hand and Coaching Clubs 
his team of black-browns was famous, and in thelnternational Horse Shows 
at Olympia he won the cup in the Park Teams " Appointments " class in 
the whole of the series of eight shows, until the War put an end to coaching, 
and as Remount Officer he bought his own horses, worth perhaps thousands 
of pounds for their own special purpose, at £60 apiece for the Government- 
At one time he kept a pack of harriers at Roundway. He was for twenty 
years churchwarden of Southbroom. He married, 1879, Rosalind Emma, 
d. of Col. Gostling Murray, of Whitton Park, Hounslow. He leaves one 
son, Col. the Hon. Edward Murray Colston, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.V.O., 
Grenadier Guards, who succeeds to the title. 

Long and appreciative obit, notice, with some account of the descent of 
the family from Mary, sister of Edward Colston, the Bristol philanthropist, 
and wife (1670) of Sir William Hayman, Wiltshire Gazette, June 18th and 
25th, 1925. Shorter notice, Wiltshire Times, June 20th. 

Canon Dougrlas Macleane, died Aug., 1925. Buried at 
Codford St. Peter. Son of Rev. Arthur Macleane, first Principal of Brighton 
College. Educated at Christ's Hospital and Pembroke Coll., Oxford. B.A. 
1879, M.A. 1882. Deacon 1879, Priest 1880 (Worcester). Curate of Gt. 
Witley, 1879—82 ; Domestic Chaplain to Earl of Craven and Chaplain and 
Lecturer of Pembroke College, 1882—84 ; Fellow of Pembroke College, 
1882—92; Rector of Codford St. Peter, 1884—1915; Vicar of Branksome, 
1915 — 22, when he resigned and came to live in Salisbury Close. Examining 
Chaplain to the Bp. of Moray, 1904; Proctor in Convocation for Diocese 
of Salisbury, 1906 until his death ; Warden of the Society of Sacred Study 

222 Wilts Obituary. 

in Salisbury Diocese, 1907. Canon and Preb. of Salisbury, 1910 until his 
death. He took a prominent part in the discussions of the Diocesan 
Synod, as well as in Convocation, and was well known as an accomplished 
scholar and an authority on theological, historical, and liturgical matters. 
The Church Times, quoted by the Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 10th, 1925, says 
of him:— "In particular his knowledge of the history of the late sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries was profound. He had an unstinted admiration 
for Lancelot Andrewes, of whom he wrote a masterly little Life, and for the 
work of the great Caroline divines in maintaining against fierce opposition 
the Catholic character of the English Church. That admiration was, per- 
haps, aroused in the first place, it was certainly coloured, by his touching 
fidelity to the memory of the Stuarts." 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 3rd, 1925. 

An appreciation in the Morning Post is also quoted in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, Sept. 10th, 1925. 

He was the author of the following works : — 
The Coat without Seam torn. 1889. 
The Heavenly Citizenship of Infants. 1891. 
A History of Pembroke College. Oxford, anciently Broad Gates 

Hall, iu which are incorporated Short Historical Notices of 

the more eminent members of this House. Printed for the 

Oxford Historical Society at the Clarendon Press, 1897. 8vo, 

pp xvi. + 544. Four plates. Price l/l/O. [Reviewed Wilts N. <^ Q., 

IL, 441—446. Guardian, Aug. 18th, 1897.] 
Imago Regia. The Churchman's religious remembrance of the 

two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the Decollation of 

King Charles the First, January the Thirtieth, 1649—1899. 

Pamphlet, 7in. X 4iin., pp. 35. 
Pembroke College, Oxford. P. C. Robinson & Co., 1900. One of 

the series of " College Histories," an abridgment of the larger " History." 

Price 5s. [Reviewed Spectator, Feb. 24th, 1900.] 
Via Salutis. 1902. 
The Great Solemnity of the Coronation. P. C. Robinson & Co., 

London, 1902. 
The Bishop of Salisbury and his See, with some Sketches of 

Wordsworth Pamily. The Treasury, Oct., 1905, Vol. VI., pp. 1—7. 
The Excavation of Shaftesbury Abbey. The Guardian, Oct. 11th, 

Clarendon the Historian. Article in Memorials of Old Wiltshire. 

1906, pp. 167—179. 
Reason, Thought, and Language, or the Many and the One. 

A Revised System of Logical Doctrine in relation to the 

Forms of Idiomatic Discourse. London. Hen. Prowde. 1906. 

8vo, pp. xvi. + 583. 15s. 
Our Island Church. Sketches from the History of English 

Church and State. London. Geo. Allen & Sons. 1909, pp. 

250. Price 2s. Qd. 
Lancelot Andrews and the Reaction. A Biography of the 

Wilts Obituary. 223 

Greatest English Divine of the Seventeenth Century. 1910. 

Cr. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 
The Great Solemnity of the Coronation of a King and Queen, 

according to the use of the Church of England, with Notes, 

&c. London. Geo. Allen & Co, 1911. Cr. 8vo., cloth. 5s. 
Famous Sermons by English Preachers, with Introductory 

Notes. Iiondon. Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons. 1911. 6s. [Sermons 

by twenty preachers.] 
New Stones of Venice. Article in Guardian^ May 3rd, 1912. [The 

inauguration of the new Campanile.] 
The Athanasian Creed. London. Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons. 

1914. 2s. Qd. 
The Character of Bishop Burnet. Sermon preached in Salisbury 

Cathedral at the Commemoration Service, Nov. 2nd, 1915. Salisbury 

Journal, Nov. 6th, 1915. 
Oliver Cromwell's Wild Oats. Nineteenth Century^ Oct., 1919, pp. 688 

Literary Form. Is it now Possible? Nineteenth Century, May, 

1920, pp. 826—836. 
Equality and Fraternity. Oxford. Geo. Allen & Unwin. 1924, 

pp. 352. 7s. 6a?. 
For a long period he wrote leading articles in the Church I'imes, and for 

years supplied " an admirable descriptive summary " of the discussions 

on Prayer Book Revision and other subjects in Convocation. He was 

the Co-Editor of The Statutes of Sarum Cathedral, 1915. 

William Francis Smith, died April 7th, 1925, aged 55. Buried 
at St. .Mary's, Slough. Born April 13th, 1869, educated at Southport and 
St. Mark's Training College, Chelsea. B.A. London University. After 
teaching in London Schools he became assistant master at Alleyn's School, 
Dulwich College, and later Headmaster of Calne Secondary School for 
eleven years. He took a prominent part in the life of the town, was 
President of the Chamber of Commerce and twice Mayor, played chess for 
Wilts in the county championship, and was History Lecturer to the Wilts 
County Council. In 1912, on the opening of the Slough Secondary School, 
he became the first Headmaster, and during his period of office the numbers 
rose from fifty-three to three hundred and twenty pupils, and the size of the 
buildings was doubled. During the War he carried on the work with a much 
depleted stafi", was Inspector in the Slough Special Constabulary, Captain in 
the Volunteers, and officer commanding the school cadet corps. In 1920 his 
health broke down under the strain, and though he partially recovered, his 
death was due largely to this. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, April 11th, 1925. 

He was the author of : — 
Short Stories in The Argosy, over the signature W. Francis. 
A School History of Wiltshire. Calne. B. S. Heath, 1907. 

Cloth, 7^in. X 4|in., pp. xii. + 160. Two maps and 55 illustrations. 
The Place of Wiltshire in the National History, [Four Lectures 


224 Wilts OhUiiary. 

at the Bishop's School, Salisbury, printed in Salisbury Journal^ Feb. 22nd 
to April 18th, 1908. 
Romans and Saxons in Wiltshire. [Lecture printed in Wiltshire 
Titnes, Oct. 7th, 1911.] 

Major-Gen. John Baillie Ballantyne Dickson, C.B., 

C.M.G-., died Aug. 15th, 1925, aged 82. Buried at Keevil. Born 1842, 
s. of S. Dickson, M.D. Joined the Bengal Cavalry 1860, and was afterwards 
Adjutant in the Lahore Light Horse and 18th Bengal Lancers. He ex- 
changed to the Royal Dragoons, served in the Zulu War, and was mentioned 
in despatches. Served in Nile Expedition, 1884—5, was wounded at Abu 
Klea, promoted Lt.-Col. 5th Dragoon Guards, and commanded that regiment 
until 1893. Commanded 49th Regimental District 1895 — 97, and afterwards 
the 4th Cavalry Brigade 1897—99, the Troops in the Straits Settlements 
1899—1900, and the 4th Cavalry Brigade in S. Africa 1900, being again 
mentioned in despatches. He bought Keevil Manor some years ago, and 
lived there until his death. J. P. for Wilts. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, Aug. 22nd, 1925. 

Charles William Darbishire, died at Singapore, on June 
5th, 1925, whilst on a tour in the East. Born June l7th, 1875, s. of Col. 
C. H. Darbishire. of Plas Mawr, Penmaenmawr. Educated at Giggleswick 
School. Joined the firm of Paterson, Simons, & Co., East India Merchants, 
of which he became Managing Director, living many years at Singapore, 
where he was an unoJBQcial member of the Legislative Council of the Straits 
Settlements, Chairman of the Singapore Chamber of Commerce, and a 
member of the Harbour Board and Municipal Commission. He served 
in the Artists' Rifles and Royal Welch Fusiliers (T.R.), commanded the 
Singapore Volunteer Rifles 1914 to 1919, and took part in the suppression 
of the mutiny Feb. and March, 1915. He was President of the Association 
of British Malaya 1921 — 2. He was elected M.P. for the Westbury Division 
in 1922 and 1923, but was defeated in 1924. He married, 1905, Frances 
Middleton, d. of Sheriff Davidson, of Fort William. He bought Elms 
Cross, Westwood, the house burnt out by suffragettes, and restored it as 
his residence. 

Obit, notices, Times] Wiltshire Times, with portraits of Mr. and Mrs. 
Darbishire, June 13th ; Wiltshire Gazette^ June 11th, 1925. 

Thomas William Ferris, died Aug. 2ist, 1925, aged 60. 

Buried at Crudwell. B. at Compton Bassett, June 12th, 1865, s. of Thomas 
Messiter Ferris. For twenty-one years he occupied West Park Farm, 
Market Lavington, until the sale of the East Lavington Manor Estate, when 
he bought Crudwell Manor Farm from the trustees of the late Lord Lucas 
and lived there until his death. He took a prominent part in local affairs 
at Market Lavington, served on the County Council, and was Chairman of 
the District Council, a Governor of Dauntsey Agricultural School, and was 
on the Committee of the Wiltshire Agricultural Association, and National 
Farmers' Union. He was widely known in Agricultural circles, and was a 
prominent Freemason. He married Sarah, d. of Richard Spackman, of 

Wilts Obituary. 225 

Eroughton Gifford. He leaves five sons and one daughter, of whom the 
eldest, Thomas Randolph Ferris, M.Sc, is Director of Agriculture for the 
County of Dorset. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 27th, 1925. 

Canon John Otter Stephens, died Aug., 1925, aged 93. 

Educated at Winchester and Brasenose College, Oxon. B.A. 1854, M.A. 
1857. Deacon 1856. Priest 1858 (Oxford). Vicar of Savernake 1861 — 
1879. Vicar of Blankney (Lines.) 1879—1903; Chaplain at Beaulieu 1901 
—04; Vicar of All Saints, Tooting Graveney, 1903—12. The Times, Aug. 
13th, 1925, in an obituary notice, says, "Canon Stephens was a remark- 
-able personality of the Victorian era. He possessed an unusual capacity 
for organization, and has left a wonderful record of beneficent creative 
work behind him. . . . He established and endowed the beautiful 
Cottage Hospital on Marlborough Hill. . . . He again found scope 
for his remarkable aptitude for philanthropic work (at Blankney). Recog- 
nizing the wonderful curative qualities of the water of the Spa at Woodhall, 
then neglected and practically unknown, he succeeded, with the help of 
influential support, in founding the Alexandra Hospital, which has now 
become a national institution and affords relief to thousands of patients 
from all parts of England. Upwards of £40,000 was raised by Canon 
Stephens for the establishment and endowment of these two hospitals. 
But still greater work awaited him. In 1900, when he was nearly 70 years 
of age, he founded the parish of Tooting Graveney, then an almost un- 
developed area, with the bequest under the will of Lady Charles Brudenell- 
Bruce. Probably the secret of Canon Stephens's success in his undertakings 
was, next to his indomitable energy, the fact that he was in the best sense 
of the word a polished man of the world, at ease with every class with which 
he came in contact. The late King Edward honoured him with his acquaint- 
ance, and on more than one occasion he was commanded to stay and preach 
at Sandringham. ... a scholar and a broad-minded clergyman of 
the old-fashioned High Church school, endowed with a fine natural courtesy 
and a keen sense of humour ... he had travelled widely, and was 
possessed of the most artistic temperament, as is proved by the interior of 
Tooting Graveney Church, to beautify which he had scoured Europe." 

He was the author of From Savernake to Syria, via Palestine, 
Sketches, Sacred, Social, and Secular, taken on the Spot. 
Marlborough. 1877. Pamphlet, 8 Jin. x 5iin., pp. 50. Is. 

James Edward Rawleuce, died August 2nd, 1925, aged 80. 
Buried at Wilton. Born at Wilton, July, 1845. Thrice Mayor of Wilton, 
he held other public offices in the town. He was a partner in the firm of 
Waters & Rawlence, of Salisbury, but retired 25 years ago. He was all his 
life intimately connected with agriculture, and as a judge of stock, arbitra- 
tor, and land valuer, was widely known. He will be chiefly remembered 
as having, in conjunction with Mr. Elias P. Squarey, founded the Hamp- 
shire Down Sheep Society, of which he was for many years secretary and 
treasurer, and president in 1917. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 6th, 1925. 

Q 2 

226 Wilts Obituary. 

G. A. R. Fitzgerald, K.C., died Aug. 1st, 1925, aged 81. Buried 
at Christchurch, Bradford-on-Avon. Born 1844, eldest s. of Kev. A. O. 
Fitzgerald, Archdeacon of Wells. Educated at Sherborne and Corpus 
Christi Coll., Oxford. Fellow of St. John's Coll. Called to Bar 1871. 
Practised before Parliamentary Committees, was a Light Railway Com- 
missioner 1876 to 1900. J.P. for Wilts. He resided for many years at 
Bearfield House, Bradford-on-Avon, was a member of the Urban District 
Council and Chairman of it 1913 to 1916 when he retired. He was for some 
years churchwarden of Christchurch, Bradford. A member of the Wilts 
General Education Committee, and of the Wilts Standing Joint Committee. 
He had lived at Oxford since he left Bradford about 9 years ago. He 
married a daughter of H. D. Skrine, of Warleigh and Claverton Manors 
(Som.) who died some years ago. Of his sons the Rev. Maurice Fitzgerald 
is Rector of Little Somerford, and Geoffrey holds a Government appoint- 
ment in Egypt. 

Obit, notice Wiltshire Times, Aug. 8th, 1925. 

He was the author or editor of many Legal Treatises, amongst which 
were : — 

Thrings' Company Acts (2 Editions). 

The Manual of the Ballot Act, 1872. 

The Public Health Act, 1875. 

Rev. G-eorge Edward IiOng, died Aug. 24th, 1925, aged 73. 
Buried at Edington. Salisbury Theolog. Coll., 1881. Deacon, 1883. Priest, 
1884 (Salisbury). Curate of Whiteparish, 1883—87 ; Melksham, 1887 
—90; Vicar of Edington, 1890—1910 ; Vicar of Bremhill, 1910—17 ; iiector 
of Chettle (Dors.) 1917 until his death. His incumbency at Edington in- 
cluded the years of the completion of the restoration of the Parish Church. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 3rd, 1925. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 227 


[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive, The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their works, and to 
editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
of articles, views, or portraits, appearing in the newspapers.] 

The Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, a Description 
of laong Barrows, Stone Circles, and other Mega- 
lithic Remains in the area covered by Sheet 8 of 
the Quarter-inch Ordnance Survey, comprising the 
Cotswolds and the Welsh Marches. By O. G. S. 

Crawford, F.S.A. Pub. by J. Bellows, Gloucester. 1925. 4to, 
Price 25s. This excellent book, which gives a full description of every 
Long Barrow within the area concerned, includes five in Wiltshire, as well 
«is the Shire Stones. Green Barrow in Leigh Delamere (O.S. Wiltshire, 
19 N,E.), is mentioned by Scrope, Hist, of Castle Combe, who says it had 
been levelled not long before 1852. Mr. Passmore reports, 1924, "At the 
spot marked by a cross on the O.S. Map there is a long oval rise, very slight 
but obvious. It is now under grass with a permanent fowl shed upon it, also 
a hedge and road across it." Soldier's Grave, in Hullavington, Mr. Passmore 
reports, 1924, that at B.M. 3465, on Sheet 12 S.E. (Wiltshire), is a gate with 
a new cottage ; " 40 yards west of that is a large slab standing up, but deeply 
buried in the ground, 7ft. long and about 3jft, high and Ijft. thick." It is 
mentioned by Jackson in Aubrey's Top. Coll., p. fl5, as the remains of a 
dolmen. Mr. Passmore believes that it is so. It is known locally as The 
*' Soldier's Grave." Surrendell Farm Barrow, in Hullavington, is reported 
by Mr. Passmore as a long low mound, 117ft. x 30ft. and about 3ft. high, 
regularly shaped and with side ditches. " The road south of and touching 
Surrendell Farm comes out in a field to the west ; on the left is a hedge ; 
measure from the end of the hedge 90 yards in a direction slightly south of 
west." The Three Shire Stones at the junction of Somerset, Gloucestershire, 
and Wilts, and of the parishes of Batheaston, Marshfield, and Colerne, 
These stones consist of three uprights supporting a capstone, all megalithic, 
standing in an alcove in the wall on the east side of the Foss Way two 
miles north of Batheaston. Within the cove are three smaller stones. The 
Ordnance Survey of 1813—14 marks them as "Dated 1736," but Stukeley 
mentions them in 1723. "The present structure is evidently a modern 
imitation of a dolmen." Lanhill Long Barrow, in Chippenham parish, is 
described, with four illustrations, taken from W.A.M., xxxvi., 300 — 310. 
Lugbury, in Nettleton parish, is described from the accounts of Aubrey, 
Hoare, and Thurnam, with a good photograph. The Giant's Cave, in 
Luckington (O.S. 12 N.W., Wiltshire), is also described from Aubrey, 
Britton, and Mrs. Cunnington. 

228 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Saxon Churches in Wilts. In the new edition, entirely re- 
cast and enlarged, of the second volume of The Arts in Early England. 
Anglo-Saxon Architecture^ by Professor G. Baldwin Brown, recently issued 
(1925), the Potterne font is spoken of as of Saxon date, the double splayed 
circular clerestory windows at Avebury are described and illustrated, the 
north doorway of Somerford Keynes is also illustrated and compared with 
the similar door of Heysham Chapel (Lanes), and is conjecturally assigned to 
the latter part of the 8th century. As to Britf ord Church, in the vine scrolls 
on the jambs of the arch Prof. Baldwin Brown finds marks of Danish in- 
fluence, and concludes that " the early part of the 10th century would be a 
reasonable date whereto to ascribe it. The architecture of the buildings 
where it exhibits details, agrees with this, and Britf ord may fairly be 
claimed as a monument of the intermediate or Danish period." He gives a 
plan of the Saxon portion of the Church, the nave, and drawings of the 
face of the jamb and springing of the south arch, and the soflSt of the north 
arch. Of this Church he writes : — " On entering the nave we pass under a 
Saxon arch over the south door, and find ourselves in a substantially Saxon, 
nave to which a later east portion has been added. This nave measures 44ft. 
4in. in length by a width of 20ft. 2in., and at the extreme east end of it there 
were found some years ago the very remarkable arched openings in the north 
and south walls . . . The north archway is 5ft. 9in. wide by a height of 7ft. 
lOin., that on the south 5ft. Tin. wide and 7ft. 8|in. high. The present south 
doorway into the nave further west than these openings is in a third Saxon 
archway 8ft. 9in. high X 5ft. 9in. wide, but it is probable that this third 
opening has no special connection with the two others. These last correspond 
pretty closely in position and in size, but are curiously different in technical 
treatment. The arch of the S. opening is turned in large Roman bricksj, 
evidently re-used. Some of them are voussoir shape, about 13in. long by 
a thickness of Sin. at one end, tapering to 2in. They were not, however, 
all set voussoir fashion, so as to fit the form of the arch, but as often as not 
they are reversed, so that the thin edge, instead of the thick, is on the 
extrados of the arch. The necessary wedge-like forms without which the 
arch could not be constructed are given by the mortar joints, which are 
thicker on the extrados than below. The jambs are lined by tall and narrow 
upright stones, about 4ft. 6in. high X 9in. wide, standing on plinths, and 
set at the outer thirds of the jamb with a recess in the interval between 
them, the whole thickness of the wall being 2ft. 5in. They are crowned by 
imposts which show the remarkable peculiarity already observed in Roman 
work and at Escomb, that they are cut away to receive the head of the 
jamb stones, which are mortised into them. This feature is of course of 
pronounced early character. On the exterior face of the wall, now made 
conveniently accessible from the inside, there was a square-sectioned strip 
of stone, 25in. face X a projection of If in. that ascended the jamb and theri 
followed the curve of the arch, after the manner of a hood mould. The 
imposts were probably returned along the outer face of the wall to meet 
this strip. The same feature occurs on the exterior face of the N. opening, 
and there are pretty clear indications on the inner side of the S. opening 
that a similar strip had appeared on this face also. . . . The vertical 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 229 

pilaster strip, like the impost, has been hacked away flush with the wall 
and then covered with plaster, now removed. The traces of this strip work 
are of great chronological significance. The soffit of the N. opening, is 
treated quite differently. It is panelled, so to say, with flat square slabs that 
are cut on their faces to the curve of the arch, and that leave between them 
recesses, like cassettes. The work is very careful, for the curved soflSt slabs 
are framed as it were, by bricks set edgeways,and bricks form the floor of the 
recesses or cassettes. The jambs have the plinth, imposts, and upright 
stones like the other archway, but these are not let into the imposts. In the 
space between the uprights there are square slabs with recesses above and 
below them. The most remarkable feature of the whole work is the orna- 
mentation on the upright jamb stones and intermediate squares on the E. 
jamb of this N. opening. . . . The purpose for which they (the open- 
ings) were intended is a matter for conjecture. There are practically three 
alternatives. They may have been (I) doorways to the exterior, (2) 
arcade openings, the survivors of a series giving access to side aisles, 
(3) archways admitting to side chapels, (l) is excluded, not because 
there is no rebate for doors, for Saxon doorways in most cases appear 
not to have had rebates, but because the ornamentation on the 
jambs is quite out of character with mere doorways. (2) The S. opening 
would work into the scheme of an arcade with the more westerly opening 
on the same side where is now the doorway of entrance, but the piers be- 
tween the openings of such an arcade would have to be about 6ft. wide. 
The arches, however, are too small in scale, especially too low, in proportion 
to the width of the nave, for us to suppose them arcade openings. (3) 
There remains the supposition that they gave access at one time to side 
chapels, in which connection their ornate appearance would be quite in 
character, and their dimensions would be proportioned rather to the pre- 
sumably small size of the chapels than to that of the nave out of which 
they led. Assuming this to have been their destination the eastward 
position of the chapels is significant, for an arrangement similar to that 
indicated on the plan of Deerhurst is obviously suggested. . . . Brit- 
ford forms a transition to Period III. (latter part of 10th cent, to Norman 
conquest) because these apertures. are framed with what has been termed 
" strip-work round openings," that is to say, a square sectioned narrow 
pilaster of plain stonework runs up the N. and S. faces of the jambs a few 
inches from their soffit-edge and is then carried on without a break round 
the curve of the arch. This becomes in Period III. one of the commonest 
and most enduring features of Saxon buildings." 

Bradford-on-Avon is fully described on pp. 296 to 305 with plan and view 
of the exterior from north-east ; diagram of exterior arcading and courses of 
stone,and an excellent photograph of one of the carved angels over the chancel 
arch. As regards the arcading, the writer says " a careful examination of the 
work, especially in regard to the planes of its various surfaces, shows that the 
enrichment was planned when the stones of the walling were laid, and is 
necessarily contemporary with the fabric. . . . The string . . . 
dividing the wall horizontally at about two-thirds of its height, is formed 
all along in a single course of stones 6^in. in height, and always projected 
i about lin. from the main face of the wall. The trapezoidal bases of the 

230 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

pilasters of the arcade above the string course,with the parts between them, 
are also formed in a single course of stones, and the same is the case with 
the capitals above the pilasters and the parts between them . . . and 
whereas the wall stones vary in size in the most irregular manner, these 
particular courses run practically without a break all round the building 
. . . in almost every case the height of them (the pilasters) about 2ft. 
is in a single stone, thus showing that the pilasters, like the caps and bases, 
were prepared for in the structure of the wall. . . . The Bradford ar- 
cading, Rivoira insists, is in itself a late feature, and if so it would be 
against the date of about 973 that Irvine assigned to the Bradford Chapel. 
There is so much about it on the other hand that suggests a period of 
vigorous work and originality that it may be placed early in Period III. 
and not near the Norman Conquest." Of the chancel arch, only 3ft. 6in. 
wide, he writes, " It is the narrowest chancel arch in any Church under 
notice, and can in this respect only be paralleled in certain oratories of 
primitive type though of uncertain date in Orkney and Caithness. It is 
worth suggesting that the narrow doorway may be a local peculiarity. It 
occurs at Somerford Keynes . . . but the most striking instance is 
close at hand, at Limpley Stoke, where has survived a remarkable S. door- 
way, 8ft. 9in. high, and only 2ft. 5in. wide." Of the figures of angels the 
author writes, " very notable is the occurrence high up in the E. wall of the 
nave above the chancel arch of two figures of angels sculptured in low 
relief. They are hovering horizontally in the air each holding over the two 
arms a napkin. They are amongst the most important, or at any rate the 
best preserved examples of Saxon sculpture in its connection with architec- 
ture, and form no doubt a portion of a lost group or rood, a figure of the 
Crucified originally forming the centre. . . . They were found im. 
bedded in the wall above the chancel arch . . . (they) are not now in 
situ but were placed where they are at the restoration of the building and 
are obviously at far too great an elevation . . . the position and aspect 
(of the figure) suggest that it once occupied the space on the side of the 
head of a cross above the arm with which it agrees approximately in length. 
Figures of angels occur quite commonly in this position above the transom of 
a cross. . . . The veiling of the hands in a portion of the garment or in 
a cloth is derived from the ceremonial of the later Imperial court, where it 
became etiquette so to cover the hands when receiving something adorable, 
even a letter from the Emperor. . . . Angels are shown (in the mosaics 
of Ravenna) with hands so veiled even when there is nothing visible to give 
or to receive, and these furnish a precedent for the same detail at Brad- 
ford, which is to be regarded as inspired by eastern Christian ivories or 
MSS. Though this be the source from which the position of the angels and 
their veiled hands have been derived, there may be noted resemblances in 
the drapery to that of figures in the MSS. of the so-called " Winchester 
School " recently treated by Mr. H. P. Mitchell in the Burlington Magazine 
for 1923. It does not follow that the Bradford sculptor copied the English 
MSS., for the works may all represent a common tradition, but the flutter- 
ing scarf, originally it would seem a pallium, of the MSS. figures appears 
above the angels' shoulders, and the band of drapery round the waist is a 
feature specially prominent in these same MSS. figures. Hence the 

Wiltshire BookSy Pamphlets, and Articles. 231 

Bradford angels have a certain chronological significance and would be quite 
at home at the end of the 10th or early part of the llth century." 

Of Netheravon the author says " There is a W. tower, late Saxon in 
general style but with Norman features (and probably of post-Conquest 
workmanship) that has distinct indications of the existence on the W., N., 
and S. faces of former adjuncts, the purpose of which is problematical 
. . . these lateral walls are now broken away. On the northern face, 
about 17ft. above the ground, there is an opening cut like a doorway, but 
only 4ft. 9in. high, that may have given on to the roof of one of these sub- 
sidary buildings." He thinks that Saxon west towers of this character may 
be compared with the atrium of the early Christian Basilicas which gave 
access to various subsidiary structures, as well as to the Church itself. Of 
the double-splayed circular " clerestory " windows at Avebury, it is doubt- 
fully suggested that they may possibly have lighted a Saxon upper chamber 
over the nave. The Church is assigned to Period C or III., i.e., the 10th 
century, as are also the " long and short " quoins at Bremhill and Burcombe. 

Of Limpley Stoke, which he assigns doubtfully to the beginning of the 
10th century, he says, " This little Church has a Saxon nave 32ft. Gin. by 
13ft. 6in., with walls of good stonework, 2ft. 3in. thick, a later chancel, 
and a W. tower with walls 2ft. Sin. thick, that is probably later than 
the nave, but has like it very well-cut ashlar quoins of large stones 
set Stow fashion, one at the N.W. quoin of the tower measuring 5ft. 
by 1ft. 3in. Internally there is preserved, in the south wall cut through by 
later arches of two periods, a wonderful S. doorway. Its narrowness is its 
most marked quality. . . . The jambs are almost monolithic, for one 
stone on the W. jamb is 4ft. Sin. high by a width of 2ft. 5in., the same as 
the substance of the wall, and a thickness of lOin. The voussoirs are all 
through stones, and the opening was cut straight through the wall, though 
later a rebate 4^in. deep was cut on the N. side for the door. The imposts 
are hollow chamfered, but there is the curious feature that a roll is worked 
on each arris, as in the W. doorway of the early porch at Monkwearmouth, 
though the work at Limpley Stoke is more accentuated. Finally there is 
the remarkable feature that the arch is most distinctly horseshoed, and as a 
quite assuredly Saxon example of this feature it must be almost unique. 
It does not look here like a kind of stilting, as is sometimes its appearance, 
but is deliberate, as the stones are carefully shaped." 

Report of the Marlborough College Nat. Hist. 
Soc. for the Year ending Christmas, 1924. No. 73. 

This is a much stouter report than most of those issued since the War, 
and the lists of insects are again printed in the report as of old. Of the 
rarer birds, a Bittern is reported in February, a Spotted Crake killed by 
telegraph wires at Marlborough, Black Redstart at Barbury, a Shoveller 
duck and two drakes at Coate Reservoir. Pochard, Green Sandpiper. 
Grasshopper Warbler, Long-eared Owl, Stone Curlew, Great Crested Grebe, 
and Redshank are also reported. The Botanical Section reports Caltha 
palustris var. Guerangii at Ramsbury, Fumaria Vaillantii, Fumaria 
parvifbra, Erophila praecox, and Mentha rubra, all from Aldbourne, and 

232 Wiltshire Books^ Pamphlets, and Articles, 

Gagea lutea, from Wexcombe. All these are new records for the Marl- 
borough neighbourhood. In the Entomological Section, a single Clouded 
Yellow from Broad Town and Commas from Marlborough and Alton are 
noticed. Three Beetles and quite a number of Flies are reported for the 
first time for the district. The Diptera and Hymenoptera seem to have 
had special attention paid to them during the year, and in the latter order 
thirty-one species new to the district are reported. A most readable article 
on Martinsell, by Mr. H. S. Brentnall, with a map, and a reproduction of 
Stukeley's view, is the chief paper printed. With regard to the pits on the 
spur cut off by the " Giant's Grave," the writer mentions that this side of 
the hill has many pockets of Tertiary sand, and that some, at all events, of 
these pits are certainly pits from which sand has been dug for building 
purposes. Mr. Brentnall concludes that Martinsell and presumably other 
large earthworks like it were cattle pens, and not camps. On the western 
side, where the rampart is pierced with several openings, are certain circular 
pits, some of which Mr. Brentnall says were open as chalk pits within the 
memory of man. They are described as being very deep, and the chalk, which 
was extracted from underground galleries, was sent to the surface in buckets. 
As to the name Martinsell, Mr. Brentnall notes that an Inquisition of 1370 
speaks of the " great hill called ' Matteleshore,' " and the same name occurs 
in documents of 1330, whilst a charter, of the reputed date of 940 speaks of 
the east side of Maethelmesburg as the boundary of Pewsey, and another, of 
933, gives "Aet Motenes oran," i.e., at Motens hill slope. Mr. Brentnall 
records further work on " Wansdyke : Savernake Section," begun Aug. 5th, 
1924, by himself and Mr. Albany Major, in continuation of the work done 
in 1923, and described in W.A.M., xlii., 497—500, at New Buildings, where 
the visible remains of the dyke end. " The spot selected was a patch of 
broken ground between the Salisbury Road on Snail Hill, Cadley, and the 
Forest paling, in line with the " Old Bank " described in the account of the 
previous year's (1923) work. Twenty feet inside the boundary of the Forest 
we found evidence of a buried bank with a ditch on either side of it, very 
similar in character to the sections exposed at the other end of the Old 
Bank in 1923." At this spot tradition places the site of buildings, probably 
those of the " Great Lodge," and the bank may have been a trackway con- 
nected with that lodge, but it is suggested that, even if this were so, the 
bank may have ibeen that of an earlier dyke adopted for that purpose. 
From this point the digging was transferred to the spot near New Buildings 
where the last vestige of Wansdyke terminates on that side.^ Eighteen feet 
beyond this, and across its axis, a trench was dug to a depth of 7ft. 6in. in 
what appeared to be silted up material, the bottom of which was not reached. 
" It is regrettable that the investigation was incomplete, but it seems clear 
that Wansdyke did not always end where it ends to-day." A paper by 
J. G. D. Clark follows, " Surface Flint Implements from Marlborough and 
Seaford compared," with a plate. The list of Diptera observed in the 
neighbourhood gives 663 species, a very incomplete list still, but an advance 
of 243 species in the last twenty-two years, and a very valuable record of 
an order which has been hardly touched elsewhere in Wiltshire. Of the 

1 See plan in W.A.M., xlii., 497. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 233 

more familiar hymenoptera 79 Bees, 42 Wasps, and 6 Ants are now recorded. 
A paper by A. G. Lowndes, with three plates, describes and illustrates very 
fully the curious freshwater Shrimp, Chirocephalus diaphanus, first found 
in the neighbourhood by the Rev. A J. Watson. Mr. 0. P. Hurst's paper 
on Additional Fungi from Savernake Forest (printed in W.A.M., xliii., I) 
and shorter notes on Pond Life, &c.j complete this very good number. 

Some Annals of the Borough of Devizes. Being a 
series of extracts from the Corporation Records, 
1555 to 1791. By B. Howard Cunnington, F.S.A. 
(Scot), F.Cr.S. Devizes: G, Simpson & Co, 1925. 

Royal 8vo., pp. xx. + 247. Price £1 Is. 

This handsome well-printed volume begins with an introduction in which 
the origin of the town of Devizes is shortly discussed. It is not mentioned 
in Domesday, but in 1141 the Empress Matilda grants a charter to " My 
Burgesses of Devizes." Meanwhile Bishop Roger had built his castle about 
1120, and Capt. Cunnington reasonably argues that the town, of which 
nothing is heard before that date, sprung into being around that Castle, as 
Salisbury did around the Cathedral, and in another twenty years had grown 
sufiSciently important to have a charter granted to it. A short account of 
the various Borough Charters, and a list of the existing municipal records 
is given. These comprise Municipal Records, 1555 to 1826, in seven series ; 
Book of Pleas in the Court of Record of Devizes, Sept. 30th, 1653, to Jan. 
20th, 1658 ; Translations of Charters ; Assize of Bread, 1777 — 1797 ; Oaths 
taken by Officials, 1681 ; Sessions Book, 1790— 1817 ; Constitutions of the 
Drapers' Company, 1685 ; Constitutions, &c., of the Merchants' Guild, 
and Drapers' Guild, 2 vols., 1614 and 1685 ; Chamberlains' Accounts, 
1725 to 1815 (9 series) ; Devizes Wharf, 1808—1837 ; Leases of 
Property ; Constitutions of the Borough of Devizes, by J. Kent, 
1628 (there is an illuminated copy of this in the Society's Museum, and a 
third in the British Museum). There are illustrations of the Borough Arms, 
the old and the newer (1608) seals ; the lately discovered " Skippet," and 
a grant of a stall in the market. A more complete list of the Mayors from 
1554 to 1791 than has appeared before is also given. The remainder of the 
volume is taken up with extracts from the records mentioned above, trans- 
cribed for the most part verbatim et literatim. Throughout the 16th and 
17th centuries the Cucking Stool was apparently in constant use. It was 
mended in 1596, and again in 1606, and frequently afterwards, and new 
ones were required in 1617, 1646, and 1664. A fire engine was first bought 
in 1641, and one of " Newsham's Engines " in 1731. Tobacco first appears 
in the accounts in 1645, and coffee in 1689. In 1649 a public clock is 
ordered to be placed on the Guildhall, the Guildhall itself being pulled 
down in 1751 and a Public Hall " to be set on Piazas" erected in its place. 
The Yarn Cross and the Butter Cross were repaired in 1599, whilst the 
stones of the Cheese Cross are ordered to be removed in 1687. 
I There are many mentions of the maces. In 1608 " Payed for the new 
jmakinge & cutting of the Comon Scale of the Corporacon 207- ^"^^ for the 
{new great mases conteyning in waight 60 ounces wantinge one quarter of 

234 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

an ounce defaltinge thereof, twenty ounces for the waight of the olde mases 
after the rate of five shillings the ounce £18 18^ 0^.," and in 1609 " Paied 
for the Sergeants Maces £4 3^ 4'*., Paied for two cases for the great maces 
12V->" and " Paied for 2 little iron rods that goe throughe the said little 
maces 8^-." In 1625 " Paied the Gouldsmith for newe making the Crownes 
of the Maces and for 8 ozs. of silver bestowed in the workmanshippe and 
for newe guilting the same £5." They required " newe gilting " again in 
1631, and mending in 1632 and 1634, and in 1660 £33 6s. 2d. was " paid for 
altering of one of the maces and for the new making of it afterwards, and 
thother mace and for the carriage of them up and down." In 1678 " The 
Keparacons of the Church and casting of the Bells of St. Johns " are men- 
tioned—was this after the failure of the western side of the Norman tower 
of the Church 1 In 1702 a water supply by pipes is for the first time 
undertaken. In the lYth century there appears to have been trees growing 
in most of the streets as frequent mention is made of sums received for the 
" Shroud " (i.e., lop and top) of them. Ordinances as to the gowns and caps 
of the Chief Burgesses, and the cloaks of the inferior Burgesses, and as to 
their attendance at Church, are made, repealed, or altered from time to 
time. In 1655 all thatched houses belonging to the Corporation are 
ordered to be tiled. " Tanhill ffaire " is twice mentioned in 1636. The 
tools of the " Waymen " in 1626 included " Two Scoopes whereof the one is 
shod with iron," from which it may be inferred that the other was of wood 
and was not shod with iron. If so this is interesting evidence of the late 
use of wholly wooden shovels. In 1652 2s. are paid for Simnels. In 1560 
and in 1584 two couples " were for their lewd behaviours together adjudged 
to be led about the towne with basons." Does this mean that they were 
accompanied by a " Bough band " or " Skimmenton " 1 In 1596 Dorothy 
Withers for stealing " one old caldron of the price of 13c?." was adjudged 
to be whipped about the towne. The Bishop on the other hand whenever he 
visited the town appears to have received a gift of wine, or more commonly 
a Sugar Loaf, which appears to have been regarded as a present peculiarly 
suitable for distinguished persons. These are but a sample of the many 
interesting entries with which this volume is filled. Loyal addresses, 
elections of Mayors and M.P.'s, and all sorts of local matters are also to be 
found in its pages. Devizes should be grateful to Capt. Cunnington for 
this very notable addition to its literature. ■ 
Noticed Wiltshire Gazette^ July 2nd, 1925. 

Devizes CongregfatiOUal Chapel. An article on the history 
of the building appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette, June 18th, 1925. '*It 
dates from 1777, though the Church fellowship was constituted in 1772." 
It has gone by various names, "St. Mary's Chapel," "The Independent 
Chapel," and the Congregational Chapel." It was greatly enlarged during 
the ministry of the Rev. Richard Elliot, and in the centenary year, 1877, it 
was re-seated and a new organ was installed. The most flourishing period 
of its history was in the time of the Rev. Richard Elliot, 1803—53, who at 
one time had two " curates," the Rev. J. Guard and the Rev. J. Neave. A 
list of the pastors since the founding of the Chapel is given. 

Wiltshire BookSy Pamphlets, and Articles. 235 

Some Old Houses of Devizes. No. la The houses Nos. 

31-32, St. John street. Home of a great collector. By Ed. Kite. Wiltshire 
Gazette, Dec. Uth, 1924. These two modern houses occupy the site of the 
residence of Joseph Collins. His great grandfather, Henry Collins, was 
cited in the Bishop's Court, " on account of his religious principles," and 
excommunicated, and buried in the " unconsecrated ground " in St. John's 
Churchyard. His father was Richard Collins, woolstapler, living in the 
same house as himself. Joseph Collins himself died 1818, and his effects 
were sold at Devizes. " The sale commenced on the 2nd February, extending 
over nine days — the first five of which were entirely occupied in the disposal 
of Mr. Collins' unique collection of fifteen thousand prints, including line 
engravings, mezzotints, and etchings, with drawings in Indian ink and 
crayons, and some miniatures and oil paintings— the whole arranged in 
some 900 lots." Incidentally it is mentioned that two brass cannon, about 
2ft. in length, said to have been taken at the Battle of Sedgmoor, are still 
preserved at Eastwell House, Potterne. On both, cast in relief, are the 
arms of Scot— on a bend, a mullet of six points between two crescents — 
surmounted by a ducal coronet. (The Duke of Monmouth, after his marriage 
with Lady Ann Scot, daughter and heiress of Francis, 2nd Earl of Buccleugh, 
in 1663 assumed the name and arms of Scot). These cannon must have 
been part of the spoils taken at Sedgmoor and brought to Devizes by the 
Wilts Militia, who under command of the Earl of Pembroke were stationed 
in the rear at Sedgmoor and took no actual part in the battle, but were put 
in charge of the King's artillery and carriages, with which they marched to 
Devizes. The cannon were probably presented to Walter Grubbe, the then 
owner of Eastwell, and M.P. for Devizes, a staunch Royalist. 

Some Old Houses of Devizes. No. 20. The 
'^ Castle Hotel" and its earlier owners. By Edw. 

Kite. Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 5th, 1925. William Grubbe, a London 
merchant, a member of the Potterne family and brother of Walter Grubbe, 
M.P. for Devizes, was born in 1664 and died 1729. He ceiled Potterne 
Church, gave a carved oak altarpiece, and left ^6100 to the poor of Potterne. 
He owned the site on which the Castle Hotel was afterwards built, and left 
it, after the death of his wife, Phoebe, to his nephew, William Hunt, of West 
Lavington, who took the name of Grubbe. He, William Hunt Grubbe, 
married (first), 1729, Margaret, d. of Thomas Smith, of Shaw House, 
Melksham, and (secondly), Ann, d. of Roger Dorchester, of Etchilhampton, 
and left an only son. In 1768 Charles Rose and John Tylee, Devizes 
brewers, obtained a lease for 99 years of the site, pulled down the existing 
buildings, and erected new buildings in their place. Thomas Grubbe Hunt 
Grubbe, dying 1772, left his property to his son, William Hunt Grubbe, 
who, in 1812, sold the freehold of the Castle Inn to James Gent and John 
and Thomas Tylee, brewers. An account of the firms of brewers connected 
with the Castle Inn, Charles Rose, John Tylee, James Gent, &c., and of the 
successive landlords is given; 

Devizes. No. 2, High Street. The Wiltshire Gazette 
of June 4th, 1925, in recording the destruction of this old house, now 

236 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

Walker's Temperance Hotel, by fire, reprints Mr. E. Kite's article on its 
history published in the Gazette in 1920, as No. 3 of "Old Houses of 

An Old Devizes Family. The Wiltshire Gazette, April 16th, 
1925. Miss Jane Reynolds, of Rowde, states the Shoulder of Mutton Inn 
is represented now by Nos. 11, 12, and 13, Maryport Street, Devizes. 
Robert Reynolds came to Devizes in 1797 from Oorsham and carried on the 
trade of currier in Maryport Street, dying at No. 11 in November, 1849. 
He held important oiSSces in St. Mary's parish for thirty years and in 1847 
was presented with a silver vase and cover and an address as a mark of 
respect by sixty-six of the principal inhabitants of the town. His sons, 
William, at Devizes, Robert, in Swindon, and Edmund, at Andover, were 
all curriers. Miss Reynolds, granddaughter of Robert, gives various stories 
of her uncles' pranks as boys. 

The Bear Hotel, Devizes. Some Notes on its 
History, by Edward Kite [1924]. Pamphlet, oblong, 7Jin. x 

4fin., pp. 23 with 6 plates. The illustrations are :— The Front of the Bear, 
1924 ; The Market Place with the old sign of the Chained Bear gon two 
columns in front of the Inn (taken from a water colour of 1804) ; The Mar- 
ket Place, Cross, &c., from a lithograph of cir. 1860 ; The Assembly Room 
of the Hotel in its original position overlooking the Market Place, cir. 1835 
(it was removed to make way for the Corn Exchange) ; Part of the Hotel 
overlooking the yard, showing columns ; and a drawing by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence of Thomas Lawrence, his father, the landlord of the Bear. 

The earliest known mention of the Inn is the application of the landlord 
John Sawter, for his license in 1599, though it was probably in existence 
years before this. It stands on the line of the outer defences of the Castle, 
and in 1856, when the foundations of the Corn Exchange were dug, " at 
least two ditches twenty feet or more in depth " were found. Of the ex- 
isting building the colonnade on the north side facing the yard may date 
from the time of Inigo Jones. When the Corn Exchange was built the old 
Assembly Room with two shops underneath it was surrendered. The 
blocked-up doors by which it was entered from the staircase still remain. 
Mr. Kite gives some account of the descent of the property. John Watts, 
John Child, Edward Nicholas, Edward Richmond Nicholas, John Turner, 
were successive owners. The gardens and walks of the Bear, formerly a 
notable feature, were added to the Castle grounds when the property was 
bought by Mr. Robert Valentine Leach. The Bear Club, originating in 
1756, became of conspicuous use for more than a century in apprenticing 
and educating poor Wiltshire boys. The club no longer exists but it is 
still represented by the Bear Club Scholarships at the Secondary School. 
Some account of the various landlords, and of distinguished visitors, is 
given, and it is noted that Thomas Lawrence, at his own expense, set up 
posts 12ft. high half-a-mile apart the whole way across the Plain from 
Salisbury, marked S. on one side and D. on the other, to direct travellers to 
Devizes. He had 16 children, of whom only three sons and a daughter sur- 
vived their infancy. A very useful little booklet. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 237 

The Purpose of Stonehenge. By E H. Stone, FS A. 

An article in Man, May, 1925, pp. 69—72, in which the author recapitulates 
in a short space the arguments contained in his work The Stones of Stone- 
henge for the benefit of those who have not read the book. His main con- 
clusion is that the Barrows around it have no connection with Stonehenge, 
and that the latter was not erected for any sepulchral purpose, and has no 
connection with the ruder stone circles. 

The same writer has a note in Nature^ May 23rd, 1925, on the date of 
erection of Stonehenge, reasserting the substantial accuracy of Sir Norman 
Lockyer's calculations as corrected in the light of recent research and of the 
consequent probability of the date lying between 2040 and 1640 B.C. 

^hQ Proceedings of the Somerset Arch. Soc.^ 1924, vol. x., p. 125, con- 
tains a review of The Stones of Stonehenge, by the Rev. S. E. Percival, 
who says that he has worked out the problem of the obliquity of the ecliptic 
himself and got a result within a fraction of that reached by Lockyer, and 
concludes " that the argument for a date somewhere within the limits sug- 
gested is not to be lightly disregarded. Of course very much depends upon 
the accuracy of the ' bearings ' obtained for the axis." 

Stonehenge and Karnak. By Arthur H. Hinks, 

C.B.B., P.R.S. Nineteenth Century, July, 1925, pp. 119—127. Mr. 

Hinks, who criticised Sir Norman Lockyer's theories in the same review in 
June, 1903, returns to the charge in this article with a counterblast to Mr. 
Stone's appreciation of Sir Norman Lockyer's work in January, 1922. Mr. 
Stone had complained that people had criticised Sir Norman Lockyer's 
work without taking the trouble to understand it. Mr. Hinks rejoins that 
this is quite true, and that as regards his calculations of the date of the Great 
Temple at Karnak from the time when the setting sun at the summer solstice 
shone down the central axis to the inmost shrine, if people had understood 
his premisses they would never have paid any attention at all to his con- 
clusions. It was largely the supposed fact that the setting sun did shine 
down the axis of Karnak at midsummer, that made people the more ready 
to accept Lockyer's ideas as to the analogous case of the rising sun at Stone- 
henge. Mr. Hinks, however, points out that when Sir N. Lockyer visited 
the temple in 1891 the axis was blocked with debris and that it was not 
entirely cleared when Mr. Howard Page made further observations on his 
behalf 20 years later. In 1913 the axis was completely cleared and in that 
year and the following an accurate survey not only of the axis but of the 
whole temple was made by order of the Surveyor General. The result of 
this survey establishes without a doubt that " at no time within the last 
15,000 years . . . has the setting sun shone centrally down the axis of 
the temple of Karnak. At any time within the last 7,000 years Pylon II. if 
I standing (it dates from about 1225 B.C.) would have cut oflf all trace of the 
setting sun for an observer in the centre of the east end of the sanctuary." 
" The sun never shone down the present axis ; and now this has been es- 
j tablished, all possibility of dating the temple by the Lockyer method 
vanishes completely," He then proceeds to explain how and why Lockyer's 
calculations were so seriously wrong, and he ends his article with these 

238 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

words " we have now the true facts, and their study, leading us back to the 
original argument, has made it not only possible, but necessary, to warn 
archaeologists that the late Sir Norman Lockyer's work on the temple of 
Amen- K a at Karnak is a hollow pretension. His treatment of the Stone- 
henge problem we have criticised upon other, and less certain, grounds. 
But it is time to say quite definitely, and with all emphasis, that neither 
Karnak nor Stonehenge can be dated astronomically." 

The Orientation of Stonehenge. By "B. H. Stone, 

F.S.A, Article in The Nineteenth Century, Sept., 1925, pp. 41*7—421. 
This is Mr. Stone's answer to Mr. Hinks's attack (in the July, 1925, number) 
on his appreciation of Sir Norman Lockyer's work in the January number 
of 1922. Mr. Stone in this article says nothing about Karnak and its 
orientation, about which, indeed, there seems nothing further to be said, 
but confines himself to a vindication of the accuracy of Sir Norman's work 
so far as measurements and calculations at Stonehenge are concerned,stating 
that these measurements very closely coincide with those that Mr. Stone 
himself has ascertained. Mr. Stone repeats his belief that Stonehenge has 
no connection with the Bronze Age, or with the round barrows that surround 
it, and that its purpose was in no sense sepulchral, as Mr. Engleheart has 
argued. The writer of this notice has never been able to see why the 
upholders of the " Temple " and the " Sepulchre " theories should be so 
angry with one another. Surely the whole analogy of existing religions 
shows that the same building is more often than not both a temple for 
worship and a place of interment of the illustrious dead. Westminster 
Abbey is at once the national sepulchre of the Anglo-Saxon race, and one of 
the chief temples of Christian worship in England, and in a lesser degree 
the same may be said of every Cathedral and Parish Church in the land, 
and they were undoubtedly built to be so. 

Folk-Iiore of the Warminster District collected 
by V. S. Manley. A Supplement to the History of 
Warminster and the Official Cruide. Printed and 
Published by Coates & Parker, Warminster. 1924. 

Price 8c?. Pamphlet, 6in. x 4in., pp. 39. • One illustration of Cottages. 

This most unpretending little book contains a collection of Folk-Lore items, 
stories, legends, customs, &c., of the Warminster neighbourhood, all worth 
preserving, and many quite curious and valuable. They are set down in 
the shortest possible way, without " trimmings " of any kind, and it would 
be well if Mr. Manley's example could be followed by others in the different 
districts of Wiltshire. One of the most curious items is " The Spirit of 
Cley Hill," a legend which would apparently have died with its narrator, an 
old woman of 80. The legend records that the guardian spirit of the Bugley 
folk lived inside the barrow on the top of the hill, and one day hearing 
water running beneath him he directed its course underground until it came 
out at Hogs Well. He told the people not to drink it but to use it 
only for curing weak eyes, and an old woman who disregarded his 
order and drank the water died that night, and a cow that polluted the water 

Wiltshire Books, Famphlets, and Ay^ticles. 239 

was drowned in the mud. It is in any case a fact that until recently this 
water has been in great request for bad eyes, Qd. a bottle being paid for it, 
provided some Ground Ivy was included to be brewed with it. The 
appearance of the Well Fiend is recorded of Bicker's Well, in Prince Croft 
Lane, at Bugley, and under a large oak tree which formerly stood where 
North Lane meets the Half, below Blue Ball, Bugley, elves lived and might 
sometimes be seen gambolling by children. Above the churchyard at 
Longbridge Deverill is a portion of the wall of an old house, now kept 
together with an iron stay. This is spoken of as the " Jews' Wall," and 
when it falls the Marquisate of Bath will cease. A yew tree near the 
Norton — Bishopstrow boundary post on the Salisbury Road claims to be the 
tree under which Cromwell rested after his defeat at Koundway. Ghost 
stories include one of Longleat and of the laying of a ghost there by twelve 
parsons, who recited the Lord's Prayer backwards. At Norton, the Vicar's 
Walk, and at Crockerton, Church Lane are haunted by a headless galloping 
horse, and Bugley is haunted by a spectral funeral in the lane at Blue Ball. 
" Shrof Tuesday " customs included " Thread the needle " by the factory lads 
and girls along the road at Crockerton, and the subsequent " Clipping of 
the Church" at Warminster, as also at Hill Deverill, i.e-, the building was 
surrounded by about 200 people holding hands, followed by Panshard, or 
Lent-Crock Night on the Common, when unpopular people's houses were 
stoned. There were Good Friday games of " Best Ball" on Arn Hill, and 
on Palm Sunday at Longbridge Deverill men went into the fields to " tread 
the wheat." The fault of this little book is that it is not long enough. 

Warminster. Official Guide and Souvenir, Issued 
by authority of the Warminster Urban District 
Council and Warminster Development Association. 

Designed, printed, and published by the British Publishing Company, 
Limited. Crypt House Press. Gloucester, No. 361. 1924. 

Stifif cover, 7^in. X 4|in., pp. 112 (many advertisements). Compiled by 
V. S. Manley. There are process illustrations of Warminster from the 
Downs ; Sketch Plan of Warminster Downland ; The Downs ; Battlesbury 
Hill Town ; Shepherds' Steps, Battlesbury ; Cley Hill ; Parish Church and 
Cold Harbour; Norman Window in Parish Church; Heaven's Gate and 
Longleat ; Horningsham Chapel ; Street Plan of Warminster ; Town Hall ; 
Boreham Road ; Market Place ; Shearwater; Longbridge Deverill ; Dolmen 
at Kingston Deverill ; Wylye Valley Hunt ; St. Leonard's Church, Sutton 
Veney ; Heytesbury Lock-up ; White Horse at Bratton ; Park and Lake ; 
War Memorial ; Cop Head Lane ; Cottage with Bakery, Horningsham. The 
book contains a considerable amount of information as to the neighbourhood, 
arranged in Itineraries in different directions,Cop Heap and Arn Hill, Battles- 
bury, Cley Hill, Longleat, Shearwater and Crockerton, Cannimore, Corsley, 
The Deverills, Upton Scudamore, the Wylye Valley, Imber and Bratton, 
Edington and the White Horse, all coming within its scope, as well as 
Warminster itself. Barrows, camps, and lynchets are described,and historical 
incidents connected with the neighbourhood are recalled. The large sarsen 
stones just on the east side of the churchyard at Kingston Deverill are 


240 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

figured as a dolmen, but in their present position it is unlikely that they 
have any prehistoric origin. Mr. V. F. Manley has put together a guide 
book well above the average of such books in the value of its contents. 

Notes on the Cathedral Church of St. Mary the 

Slessed Virgin, Salisbury (founded April 28th, 1220). Pre- 
pared at the request of the Cathedral Chapter, June, 1920. Revi.sed Feb., 
1924. Salisbury. To be obtained from Mr. G. Freemantle (First Verger of 
the Cathedral) and from all the local booksellers. Cloth, 6|in. X 4jin., pp. 
142. Thirteen iJlusts., including a folding plan of the tvsro Cathedrals of 
Old Sarum. 

The first and second editions of this account of, and guide to, the Cath- 
edral appeared in 1920, and were noticed in W.A.M., xli., 210. This third 
and revised edition contains 16 more pages. It is well that the work of 
Canon Fletcher and Chancellor Wordsworth should be appreciated at its 
true value, as the call for a new edition of this charming and handy little 
book seems to show that it is. 

Salisbury Cathedral Old Glass Dr. Stanley Baker, in a 

letter to the Salisbury papers, reprinted in Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 4th, 
1924, states that there are three traditions as to the place where the old 
glass was thrown when it was cast out of the Cathedral in 1 790. 

(1). " The Town Ditch." If this means the ditch just outside the town 
rampart, the only part of the rampart still existing at that date was the 
portion between its north-east corner still existing in St. Edmund's College 
garden and the edge of Bugmore meadow just at the foot of the garden be- 
hind 82, St. Anne Street, but drainage operations have taken place on the 
line of Rampart Road, along which the ditch ran and there is no record of 
any glass having been found, and it is not likely that the glass would have 
been hauled all the way to the Green Croft to the more distant parts of 
this ditch. 

(2). Another tradition says the glass was thrown " Round the Chapter 
House," and here Dr. Baker has " put down about thirty boreholes without 
discovering more than a few fragments of glass and leadwork, such as might 
have been shaken out of the windows while being taken down." 

(3). A third tradition says that the glass was thrown into " a pit at 
Harnham," and Dr. Baker has learned from an old inhabitant that the 
town rubbish 60 years ago was shot into a ditch behind the " Swan " at 
Harnham, in a field called " The Roundabouts," and he suggests that this 
may really be " The Town Ditch " into which the glass was shot. This spot 
he intends shortly to investigate, and is hopeful that he may really find the 
remains of the glass there. 

The Tree of Jesse. A Sermon preached in Salis- 
bury Cathedral on the morning of Sunday, July 20th, 1924 (being 
the Sunday after the " unveiling " of the Jesse window) by Canon Fletcher. 
Reprinted from the Wiltshire Gazette. Pamphlet, 4|in. X 3fin., pp. 8. 
Text Isaiah^ xi., 1 — 3, on the teaching of the Jesse window. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 241 

A Newspaper Man's Memories. By Aaron 

"Watson, with sixteen illustrations. London : Hutchinson & Co. [1925], 
Svo, cloth, pp. 324. Portrait of author as frontispiece, and index. Born 
ISnO he began journalistic work eighteen or twenty years later and followed 
it strenuously until he retired recently to live at Lacock. Beginning as the 
editor of a Manchester weekly paper, he moved thence to Newcastle, and 
started The Newcastle Critic, which he wrote entirely and published himself. 
Of this only about a dozen issues were published, but it was the cause of his 
iDeing appointed assistant editor of 77ie Newcastle Weekly Chrojiicle, where 
/he continued under Joseph Cowen until in 1880 he left Newcastle, went to 
London, and found work on the Pall Mall Gazette, then edited by John 
Morley. He also wrote for the Magazine of Art. He afterwards joined 
the staff of the Evening News, and later became editor of The Echo for a 
while. Then he returned to the North and became editor of the Shields 
Daily Gazette and the Northern Weekly Leader, and later on of the Newcastle 
Daily Chronicle. He returned to London as correspondent of the Bradford 
Daily Observer. His pages are filled with reminiscences, journalistic, 
political, theatrical, literary, and of great events, and famous men with 
whom he came in contact during his life as " A Newspaper Man." 
A long notice appeared in Wiltshire Gazette, June 25th, 1925. 

Stourhead Furniture. A short article, by M. Jourdain, on 
'*' Classic and Egyptian Furniture of the Regency," has fine photographs of 
"*' Mahogany Library Table made by Thomas Chippendale, Junior, in 1805, 
for Stourhead," and " Mahogany Table made in 1804," by the same maker, 
both showing Egyptian details. The writer says, " At Stourhead in 
Wiltshire is a quantity of furniture in mahogany and satinwood made by 
"the younger Thomas Chippendale for the Wiltshire antiquary, Sir Hichard 
'Colt Hoare, in the early years of the nineteenth century. Among the bills 
is an entry of a set of " eight mahogany chairs with circular backs, broad 
sweep pannelled tops, with circle elbows, carved Egyptian heads and fluted 
therm feet, the rails moulded and carved, cane seats and brass socket 
castors " for the library, and the mahogany table and pedestal writing table 
are also enriched with Egyptian heads, combined, in the case of the writing 
table, with heads of the accustomed classic cast. The tapering and fluted 
sheaths finish below in human feet both in the engaged supports upon the 
front of the table, and in the free-standing Egyptian supports between 
the plinth and semi-circular ends. The fine finished heads are carved, not 
inserted in cast brass, which became customary in furniture of this type." 

Malmesbury. North Wilts Herald, Feb. 6th and 13th, 1925. A 
short resume of the history of the place, largely taken from Lee Osborne's 
account. In the account of the Abbey Church the triforium gallery on the 
south side is called the " Monks' Gallery," and that above it, in the 
-clerestory, the "Nuns' Gallery." Where did the nuns come from ? The 
history of the Abbey, Maidulph, Aldhelm, the principal abbots, &c., are 
touched on, and the architecture of the Church described from Britton and 
other authorities, not without some mistakes. Good process views of The 

K 2 

242 Wiltshire Books, Famphlets, and Articles. 

Abbey Church, South Side, Exterior and Interior of South Porch, The Abbey 
House, War Memorial Cross, and General View of town (from the air ?) are 

Malmesbury. A lecture by Mr. A. Eraser on the Early History of 
Malmesbury to the Malmesbury Literary and Debating Society is printed 
in full in Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard, Jan. 10th, 1925. Mr. Eraser 
makes the curious suggestion that the Place Name Malmesbury is derived 
from Mal-mece-bury, which he says would mean the place where the art of 
writing is practised. 

The White Horses of Wiltshire. War Badges on 

the Wiltshire Downs. Pamphlet, cr. 8vo. Price ed. Ten 
illustrations. By G. Lansdown. Pp. 20. Of the White Horses of Wilts^ 
there is not much that is new to be said. The illustrations are from 
photographs, of which one shows us the Broad Town horse, now deceased. 
The last five pages deal with the War Badges cut on the downs in South 
Wilts by many of the regiments in camp there during the War, 1914 — 18, 
and of these there are four illustrations, the Badge of the Rising Sun at 
Codford, cut by Australians, 1916 — 17, and those of the London Rifle Brigade 
and City of London and Australian Battalions at Hurdcott and Eovant, cut 
in 1916. It is stated that the Codford Badge was cleaned by boy scouts two 
or three years ago. Tt would be a great pity that these interesting mementos 
of the War should be allowed to grow over and disappear. Cannot boy 
scouts be found to clean them all regularly every year or two ? They could 
hardly be better employed. 

Castle Combe with 'Eight Illustrations. Pamphlet, 

cr. Svo, pp. 16. By G. Lansdown. The illustrations are : — The Cross ; The 
River Bridge ; Bird's-eye View of Castle Combe ; Church (South Side and 
Interior) ; View of Village ; Manor House. The letterpress is a sketch of 
the history of the place, the manor, the Church, and the village. 

Wilton House. By the Countess of Pembroke. Art. in English 
Life, Feb., 1925, pp. 183 — 188. Nine good photo illustrations :— The Great 
Tower of Wilton House ; Holbein's original Eront Entrance ; Wilton Housa 
from South-East ; The Palladian Bridge ; View of East Side of House 
through the Palladian Bridge; Interior of room with Portrait of Prince 
Rupert ; The West Cloister ; The Morning Room ; The Quadrangle. The 
letterpress gives a short but good account of the architectural history of 
the house. It is noted that in 1914 the north part of the house was altered 
by the removal of Wyatt's " Gothic " porch, and its replacement by a porch 
of Renaissance character, more in keeping with the house, and adding over 
the outer doorway one large window, to let light into the hall. It is also 
noted that the great family group by Van Dyck was painted in the double- 
cube room where it now hangs, and out of which it has never been taken. 

"Bridges Court, Luckington, the home of Colonel Stewart 

Wiltshire Boohs, FamiphUts, and Articles. 243 

Menzies and Lady Alice Menzies. An old Wiltshire Farm House trans- 
formed. An article in The Queen, July 8th, 1925, pp. 20—22, with three 
photos of the exterior and nine of the interior of the house, which has no 
particular architectural features. 

The Green Roads of Eng^land: by R. Hippisley 

Cox. Twenty.four illustrations by W. Collins, R.I., nine maps in colour, 
and one hundred and one plans. 2nd Edition. Revised and enlarged. 
Methuen & Co. 1925. Price 1 Os. 6f^. net. Pp.196. This contains a new 
chapter on the South Downs, but the remainder of the book seems unaltered 
from the 1st Edition, published in 1914, which was fully noticed in W.A.M.^ 
xxxviii., 528 — 530- Reviewed Wiltshire Gazette, April 17th, 1924. 

Iiavington. Iiittleton Mill. The Wiltshire Gazette, June 
18th, 1925, contains a charming article by A. H. Wallace, entitled "Idyllic 
Days at Lavington," on the birds that frequent the site of the Old Mill, for 
generations the home of the Farmer family at Littleton, now marked only 
by the Fishing Cottage. It seems to have been a paradise for birds, Grey 
Wagtails, Kingfishers, Nuthatch, five species of Tits, Moorhen, Water Rail, 
Oreen and Greater Spotted Woodpeckers, and four of the Owls, amongst 
them. The curious method of fighting with their feet instead of their beaks 
as they swim, adopted by the male Moorhens in the breeding season is 
described, as well as their " display " on land when courting. 

Thomas Stephens, of BushtOU. "The Christian Puran 
and its Author," by the Rev. R. D. Acland, in The East and The West^ 
July, 1924, pp. 204—212. This poem was completed in 1614, and a MS. 
<;opy of it was discovered recently amongst the " Marsden Papers " given 
to the New School of Oriental Studies in 1917. This MS., unlike all other 
known MSS. of the poem, in written in Devanagiri (or Marathi) script. 
The Puran was written by Thomas Stephens probably the first Englishman 
to visit, and certainly the first to live and die in, India. He reached India 
in 1579, and stayed till he died in 1619. He was a missionary and a Jesuit. 
Mr. Herbert Chitty proved in Wilts Arch, Mag., xxxii., 220, in an article 
'Upon him, that he was really of Bushton, in ClyfFe Pypard, and not, as the 
Diet, of National Biography says, "of Bourton," The article in East and 
West describes his voyage to India from a letter to his father, printed in 
HakluyCs Voyages. Another letter of his is preserved in the National 
Library at Brussels, written to his brother in 1583, concerning his missionary 
work. He wrote a Marathi Grammar and a Marathi " Doctrina Christiana." 
The writer of the article concludes that Stephens was responsible both for 
the Roman and Devanagiri texts of the Puran, and that a MS. Marathi 
grammar, and another MS. which seems to be that of the " Doctrina 
Christiana," now in the Library of the School of Oriental Studies, are both 
of them Stephens's work. The discovery of these MSS. seems to be of 
considerable importance. 

Iiacock. A little bit of Mediaeval England. An 

article largely taken from Mr Aaron Watson's account of Lacock published 

244 Wiltshire Boohs, Pam'phlets, and Articles. 

in the Wiltshire Gazette, appeared in North Wilts Herald, Dec. 24th, 1924^ 
with four badly.printed illustrations. The article is quite well put together^ 
dealing with the Abbey, before and after the dissolution, Fox Talbot's- 
discovery of photography, &c. Some notice of Mr. Aaron Watson, now a. 
resident there, is given. He has been editor of the London ''Echo " and 
of other North of England papers, and was a member of the Northumberland 
County Council and Vice-Chairman of the Fisheries Committee. 

Wiltshire Apprentices. A long list of Wilts Apprentices and 
their Masters in 1712, 1720, 1730, 1731, is given in the Wiltshire Times, Jan. 
17th, 1925. 

Ford and Slaughterford. A few slight notes on these twa 
places, in the valley of the Weavern, as it is called at Slaughterford, or Box 
Brook, or By Brook, as it is called at Castle Combe, appear in the Bristol 
Observer^ Jan. 10th, 1925, with three illustrations of Slaughterford — the 
Church, Manor House, and Manor House Barn ; and one of the New Church 
at Ford, built in 1 897. Slaughterford Church fell into ruin at the beginning 
of the 17th century, and is so depicted by John Buckler at the beginning of 
tlie 19th century (Buckler Drawings at Devizes), but was restored in 1823. 
The now ruined Quaker Chapel and burial ground, of the I7th century, is^ 

Great Bedwyn, A useful article in North Wilts Herald, Jan. 30th, 
1925, is derived from accounts of Bedwyn in the Wilts Arch. Mag., and 
the list of Members of Parliament for the borough is copied in full. Thera 
are decent illustrations of the Church and War Memorial Cross, the Tomb 
of Sir John Seymour and the School, and a portrait of Sir Felix Pole, the 
General Manager of the G. W. Railway, who, though born in Ramsbury, 
was educated at Bedwyn School, of which his father was master. 

Purton, Glimpses of the Past Life of the Villagre. 

North Wilts Herald, Jan. 9th, 1925. A useful paper, practically a resume 
of some of the principal contents of Mrs. Richardson's book on Purton» 
Early mention of Purton in charters, &c., Notes on the Church, the principal 
houses, the connection of the Clarendons with College Farm, and the 
interesting career of the present owner, Mr. C. J. lies, who, beginning life 
as a farm labourer, first rented the farm under Worcester College, and more 
recently bought it, thus becoming owner of the most interesting house in 
the place, with its fine panelled rooms and carved oak mantelpieces. It is- 
noted that the large cedar in the grounds of Purton House was planted by 
Sir George Hayter, portrait painter. There are badly-printed illusts. of 
the Church, College Farm (2), and the War Memorial Cross. 

The Washington S of Garsdon. Article in the North Wilts^ 
Herald, Feb. 20th, 1925, with illustrations of the Rectory, Washington 
Monument, Sir Lawrence Washington, and the Church. The epitaphs of 
Sir Lawrence Washington, and his son Lawrence, and his widow, who 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 245 

married Sir William Pargiter, of Grittworth (Northants), and gave the 
Church plate, are printed. The plate disappeared, and for some time was 
supposed to be stolen, but in 1814 an old man told Mr. Henry Newberry, 
the curate, that anybody who looked in the Ghost's Chamber at the Manor 
House would find valuable silver there, and there the plate was found. A 
replica of it is now used in St. John's Cathedral, New York. The story of 
the Washington Mural Monument is also told. Taken down at the resto- 
ration in 1855 and damaged, it lay in pieces for a long while in the Rectory 
stables until an American was allowed by the then Rector, Dr Gale, to 
carry it off for transport to America. Before it actually left England Dr. 
Grey, who had succeeded as Rector, interfered and got the monument stopped 
at the port and brought back. It then lay in pieces in the Church until 
Dr. H. C. Potter, D.D., Bishop of New York, who had the replica of the 
chalice made, undertook the expense of restoring and replacing the monu- 
ment on the wall. 

Patricia Ellen, by "Mary Wiltshire" (Miss Isborn). 

Mills & Boon, Limited, 49, Rupert Street, London, W 1. [1924.] 

Cr. Bvo, pp. 249. A novel, and an excellent one, the scene of which is 
laid at Avebury, at Bristol, and at Cirencester, and at each place the actual 
houses so well described really do exist, as the authoress tells us in the 
prologue, though the persons who inhabit them are entirely fictitious. The 
heroine is the daughter of the landlord of the Bed Lion, at Avebury, she 
lives and her artist husband dies during a great snowstorm in the lonely 
cottage by the enclosure of Scotch firs on the left of the Devizes Road three 
quarters of a mile from the Beckhampton cross-roads. The " local colour" 
is singularly precise, and to those who know the neighbourhood everyincidenfc 
in the story can be followed exactly — and what is true of Avebury is also 
true of the Bristol and Cirencester portions. " Mary Wiltshire " is a nom 
de plume, the authoress is really a Devizes lady. A remarkable addition 
to the list of Wiltshire books. 

Biansoni. By Anthony Richardson. London. Constable & Co., 
1925. Cr. 8vo. A novel. The opening section of the book is taken up 
with the triumphant revisiting of his old school (Marlborough) by James 
Brockenholt, who had twenty years before been expelled from it for flirting 
with the tobacconist's daughter, in the role of the generous benefactor. 
The place itself, the master, the masters and their wives, are most vividly 
described (though the author in the Wiltshire Gazette oi hj^xW 2nd, 1925, 
expressly denies that any of the characters in the book are drawn from life). 
The author, a Marlburian himself, is half a Wiltshireman, grandson of a 
Salisbury man, and nephew of Mrs. Herbert Richardson, of Wilton, and 
bis wife is the granddaughter of Canon Baynham, of West Lavington. 

Reviewed in Wiltshire Gazette^ March 1 2th, 1925. 

In the Water Meadows, Rival Tishers. Short article 

in The Times, Oct 24th, 1924, on the water meadows in autumn. No names 
are mentioned, but the scene is really that of Woodford, in the valley of the 
Salisbury Avon, and the writer is Gen. Sir G. Aston, K.C.B. 

246 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

BiddestOUe. The Bristol Observer, Nov. 8th, 1924, has an article 
on Biddestone, " A Charming Wiltshire Village," with four illustrations, 
"The Rev. H. E. Ketchley at the Church Gate," "The Church," "The 
Vicarage," " A Village Scene." The Mountjoy Manor House, built about 
1662 ; the older " Barracks," of which tradition says that Cromwell stayed 
there on his way to Bristol and Ireland ; and other old houses in the 
village ; the Church with its Norman door and curious bell turret, and pews 
of the time of Q. Anne, are shortly mentioned. 

The Collar of S.S. In a paper read to the Dorset Nat. Hist. 
and Ant. Field Club, March 25th, 1924, and reprinted as an 8vo pamphlet, 
pp. 20, Canon J. M.J. Fletcher gives an excellent account of "The S.S. 
Collar in Dorset and elsewhere." He summarises what has been written 
on the subject by others, gives a number of quotations of the early men- 
tion of the collar, discusses the origin and meaning of the S.S, and gives a 
list of effigies, brasses, &c., in which the ornament is shown from 1371 to 
1665, 86 in number, from all parts of England. This does not pretend to be 
a complete list, however, Wiltshire is represented only by the three ex- 
amples in Salisbury Cathedral, the effigy of Sir John Cheney 1609, that of 
Lord Robert Hungerford 1459, and the mural tablet of Sir Robert Hyde, 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, who died 1666. There is a good 
illustration of the Hungerford eflBgy showing the S.S. collar very clearly. 

Wansdyke on Odd Down (Som ). Quarrying at Wans- 

dyke Quarry on the course of the dyke exposed a section of it, 8ft. 6in. 
deep, 16ft. across at the top, and 5ft. wide at the bottom, cut here in the 
solid rock. Two photographs and a short account of the section of the 
dyke here are given in The Bath Herald, May 5th, and The Bath Chronicle 
of May 3rd, 1924, which also gives a photograph. Mr. Passmore's theory 
that the dyke was constructed by the Romano- British people after the de- 
parture of the Roman troops as a defence against the invading hordes of 
Picts and Scots pressing southwards from the north is mentioned. 

The Wishford legend of seven at a birth. The 

tradition in connection with the tomb of Sir Thomas Bonham in Wishford 
Church that seven of his children were born at one birth, and were brought 
to Church in a sieve to be christened, is recalled by a note in Alan, Sept., 
1921, where N. W. Thomas, M.A., writing from the Yoruba country, West 
Africa, says " Seven are said to have been born at once in Ibadar in 1907, 
and an eye-witness certified the fact to me. In view of the well-attested 
case of six at a birth on the Gold Coast, attended by an English medical 
man, there seems no reason to doubt the story." 

The 2nd Battalion Wiltshire Regiment Cen- 
tenary Celebration at Bangalore. The Wiltshire Gazette, 

Dec. 11th, 1924, has a full account of the festivities which marked the cele- 
bration of the centenary of the 2nd Battalion (the old 99th) in India on 
Nov. 13th, 14th, and 15th, 1924, and reprints the history of the formation 
and service of the Battalion from the History of the Regiment by Col. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 247 

Edward Wyndham Tennant (killed in action Sept. 22nd, 

1916). A charming short article by M, K. Swayne Edwards on the per- 
sonality and the poetry of this young soldier who died before he was 20, 
appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 18th, 1924. 

In some Wiltshire Byways. By M. K. Swayne Edwards. 
A series of eleven articles in the Wiltshire Gazette^ July 10th to Sept. 25th, 
on Cycle Rides round Marlborough, Avebury, Silbury, Pertwood, Hindon, 
Imber, and the Plain, and South Wilts valleys generally. Pleasantly written 
disconnected talks on whatever happened to come into the authoress' head 
as she rode or pushed her cycle over the Wiltshire Downs. 

Steeple Ashton The Story of a Disaster. Article in 

The Bristol Observer, Aug. 23rd, 1924, A description of the Church and 
the fall of the steeple, and notes on the buildings of the original house of 
the middle of the 13th century, still incorporated in the present vicarage. 
Incidentally in an account of the old process of threshing by hand it is 
mentioned that the two sections of the flail were joined together by thongs 
of eel skin, as being the most flexible and durable material available. There 
are three poorly-printed illustrations of the Church, Vicarage, and " The 
Old Oak House." 

Highworth, Geology. " Oxford Oolites. Wilts and Berks. 
Representative Sequences. By W. J. Arkell." Reprinted from Type 
Ammonites, vol. v. Feb., April, 1925, pp. 55—61, gives sequences of the 
beds of the old quarries and sand pits north of Redlands Court, High- 
worth, and one mile S.E. of Highworth, with their characteristic fossils. It 
is much to be wished that other geologists would work out the beds in their 
own localities as carefully as Mr. Arkell. 

Lord IiansdOWne. The Times of Jan. 14th, 1925, on the occasion 
of Lord Lansdowne's 80th birthday, had a long article on his political 
career, especially as Foreign Secretary 1900 — 1905, and the part he took in 
laying the foundation of the entente with France. 

Some Flint Tools of the Iron Age. A singular series. 

By the Rev, H. Gr, O. Kendall, F.SA. Antiquaries Journal, 
Vol. v., April, 1925, pp. 158—163. 

Dr. Blackmore some years ago discovered " on top of Laverstock Down, 
a hitherto unknown series of flint tools, turned up by the plough, which he 
named " Rectangular." Mr, Kendall proceeds to describe and illustrate, in 
eleven figures, the characteristics of these flints with much minuteness, and 
concludes that they are not earlier than the Early Iron Age. " Mr. and Mrs. 
Cunnington have been able to show, by their recent excavations, that Figs- 
bury Ring, If miles from Laverstock Down, is of the Iron Age, and on the 
flat bottom of the wide inner ditch, beneath 2ft. to 3ft. of chalk rubble and 
accumulated soil, they found a pile of about a hundred tools and a hun- 
dred flakes of the ' Rectangular,' series ; evidently made on the spot." 
** The whole evidence obtained shows that the ' Ring ' is of the Iron Age." 
These flints do not occur scattered over the surface as other types do, " but 

248 Wiltshire Books, Famphlets, and Articles. 

are found in quantity at certain spots." Dr. Blackmore found them at 
Dean Hill, and at Petersfinger, near Salisbury, and Mr. Keiller dug quanti- 
ties out of one side of a supposed barrow near Juniper Down. Mr. Kendall 
mentions the theories that these flints are merely waste flakes, or that they 
are waste gunflints, but denies that they " are in part cores " whence a. 
particular kind of flake w^as struck, and in part tools." 

'* The Stones of Stonehenge. By E H. Stone. 

1924/' is reviewed by the Rev. G. H. Engleheart in The Antiquaries^ 
Journal, April, 1925. Vol. V., pp. 198—200. 

Short account of the History and Architecture of 
Aldbourne Church, by authority of the Parochial 
Church Council. Marlborough, 1925. Pamphlet, 8vo., 

pp. 12. This little account was compiled to meet the want of a guide book 
for visitors to the Church. The architectural notes are an abstract of Mr. 
Ponting's account in Wilts Arch. Mag., xlii., 561, and to these fuller notes 
are added on the Bells and Church Plate, Lists of the Vicars and Curates, 
a few extracts from Churchwarden's Accounts, a note on the Dedication 
(formerly to St. Mary Magdalen but now to St. Michael). An account of 
the Church and the work of restoration reprinted from the Marlborough 
Times, Aug. 22nd. 1867, with a note on more recent alterations, complete a 
very useful booklet. 

Marlborough and its Memorial Hall. Article in 

Country Life, May 16th, 1925, pp. 755— 758, with eight illustrations. C. 
House, the nucleus of the College ; General View of Memorial Hall, showing 
lay-out in relation to Chapel ; Proscenium and Stage Curtain ; Looking 
across the Hall; Detail showing Inner Porch and Ambulatory; The 
Colonnade in sharp perspective ; Plan ; and Detail showing Names cut in 
Stone on drum wall of Ambulatory. A very short sketch of the history of 
the place and school is an introduction to a short description of the new 
hall. I'he architect was Lt.-Col. W. G. Newton, M.C., the competition 
having been limited to Old Marlburians. Seven hundred and forty-nine 
names of Marlborough men who fell in the war are cut upon the drum wall. 

Marlborough College War Memorial. Opening by the 

Duke of Connaught. A full report of the proceedings, with two views of 
the exterior of the Hall, and an account of the building, appeared in the 
Wiltshire Gazette, May 28th, 1925. 

Recollections of Rushall. By Mrs. F. T. Blyth, of Bankop, 
Ermelo, Transvaal. Wiltshire Gazette, May 28th, 1925. 

Well-written reminiscences of the everyday events of childhood at Rushall» 
where the writer lived in " The Cottage." The Mummers, " Duck's Veast'^ 
at the Charlton Cat, for which a Charlton man " in a weird headdress said 
to be a duck," went round to solicit subscriptions in the neighbourhood, in 
honour of Stephen Duck the poet, and the visit of the Truffle Dogs are 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 249 

recalled. The latter were " little fluffy white dogs," who scratched up the 
truffles under the beeches. The " Stock tree," a large elm, is mentioned. 
The family occupied the Manor Pew, with its chairs, tables, and stove, 
in the Church. The writer signs herself Priscilla. 

Water Supply to Farms, In the Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 3rd, 
1925, is printed in full a long and interesting address by T. Ward Whitfield, 
F.S.I., F.G.S., the Wilts County Drainage Surveyor and Water Engineer, 
which was broadcasted from Bournemouth Station. Speaking of Battlesbury 
Camp, he says that in the sides of the trench cut for a water pipe through 
the centre of the camp three years ago, he noticed a couple of dark veins 
about 18in. below the surface, the substance of which resembled clay that 
had been puddled, and he suggests that this marks. the spot of a prehistoric 
water reservoir. As regards the deep wells on the chalk downs, he remarks, 
" Until a few years ago water was sometimes raised from deep wells by 
means of a large wooden wheel which revolved on a beam or drum, which 
formed a windlass from which a bucket was suspended, the water was raised 
by a donkey, trained to walk inside the wheel in a manner similar to the 
old tread-mill. What I understand to be the last of these wheels in actual 
use-'i Wiltshire was removed only a few months ago from a farm on the 
do\ • i at Coombe Bissett ; the donkey has been relieved of his duties by 
one of 'vhe latest type of water elevators." The depth of this well is said to 
be 270 feet. Mr. Whitfield does not mention it, but a similar wheel existed 
at the Manor Farm, Broad Hinton, until two or three years ago, but this 
also has given way to modern machinery. As to water divining the lecturer 
appears to keep an open mind. Coming to dew ponds he remarks that 
so far from the art of making these being dead, during the last four years 
no less than sixty-five dew ponds have been made or renovated on the 
Wiltshire downs, in connection with the Government scheme for the relief 
of unemployment. " There is no mystery as to the method by which these 
ponds are made or as to how they collect and accumulate water from the 
air." As the warm air passes over the colder surface of the dew pond, its 
moisture is condensed and replenishes the pond. " These ponds are con- 
structed in the following manner : — " A hole or saucer-shaped pit is first 
excavated to a depth of about 8ft. in the centre ; clay is then obtained, well 
puddled, trodden, and beaten flat over the excavated surface ; a coat of 
lime is then spread on this, slaked, and lightly beaten until the surface 
becomes smooth and shiny. A second coat is applied about half an inch 
thick, this is wetted and faced. A protecting layer of straw, incidentally 
a non-conductor of heat, is then laid over the surface and covered with 
rubble and rough earth to a depth of about nine inches, the latter to form 
a protective surface." 

Collections in Wilts for Relief of the persecuted 
Waldensians during^ the Commonwealth. A list of the 

contributions of many parishes to the appeal by the minister, and the 
subsequent house-to-house collection ordered by the Lord Protector, is 
printed in Wiltshire Times, Aug. 8th, 1925. 

250 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

The Iiocal Distribution of the Folk Song and 

Folk Music. Article by Alfred Williams, in Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 
6tli, 1925. Mr. Williams points out that the fact that the latest edition of 
the HandhooJc on Folk Song and Dance attributes the great majority of 
the 340 titles of songs, &c., given in its pages to Somerset, whilst only three 
each are allotted to Wilts, Gloucester, and Oxfordshire, gives an entirely 
erroneous idea as to the superior richness of Somerset in the matter of folk 
songs. He says that with very few exceptions he found the whole of the 
songs attributed to Somerset common also in Wilts and Oxfordshire. He 
doubts whether any place in the country could have been more addicted to 
folk song than Cricklade and Bampton were formerly, where, at the singing 
contests held in the village inns, individual singers were accustomed to sing 
for twelve or even eighteen hours at a stretch, and to have a fresh piece 
each time. Mr. Williams says that from his own personal experience he 
has found that the majority of the songs he collected in the Upper Thames 
Valley are known and sung in Essex, and even in County Cork, and round 
Festiniog, in North Wales. 

George Herbert. A Brief Biography. An article in a 
Yorkshire paper, reprinted in Wiltshire Gazette^ June 11th, 1925. 

The Poet Gay and Wiltshire. The Wiltshire Times, June 
iVth, 1925, has a short article on Gay's connexion with the Duke and 
Duchess of Queensberry, and Amesbury, quoting a letter of his from 
Amesbury, on Nov. 8th, 1730, in which he writes, "I remember your pre- 
scription, and 1 do ride upon the Downs and at present I have no asthma. 
I have killed five brace of partridges and four and a half brace of quails." 
He would have to ride a long way on the Downs now before he could repeat 
his bag of quails. 

Kington St. Michael. An article on John Aubrey and John 
Britton with some account of their lives and writings, and badly-printed 
photos of the Church, Priory Farm, Almshouses, and Memorial Tablet to 
John Britton appeared in The Bristol Observer, Dec. 6th, 1924. 

Cor sham. An article in North Wilts Herald, Jan. 23rd, 1925, with 
illustrations of the Church, Court, and Flemish houses, has a few notes on 
the place, but is chiefly devoted to its oldest inhabitants headed by Lord 
Methuen and Mr. G. P. Fuller. A number of others are mentioned by name, 
and in support of the character given to the place for the longevity of its 
people it is noted that the ages of the six women inmates of the Almhouse 
amount to 512 years. 

Stourhead. An article on " The Beauty of Big Trees," by E. H. M. 
Cox, in Country Life, April 18th, 1925, pp. 592—594, with four admirable 
photographs of the chain of lakes and the trees round them does justice to 
what are undoubtedly the most beautiful grounds in the County of Wilts, 
and more especially to the collection of magnificent trees to be seen there 
at their very best. It is good to learn that Sir Henry Hoare is not only 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 251 

bent on preserving the existing collection in the highest possible condition 
but is adding to it continually by the planting of fresh species. Stourhead 
as the writer points out is an ideal place for the growth and display of big 
trees at their best. 

The Somerset Dukedom. The Times, March 26th, 1925, had 
an article on the decision of the Committee of Privileges of the House of 
Lords that Brig.-Gen. 8ir Edward Hamilton Seymour had made good his 
claim to succeed his distant cousin, 8ir Algernon St. Maur, 15th Duke,who 
died Oct., 1923, as 16th Duke of Somerset. It describes the case as one of 
the most fascinating and romantic peerage cases that have ever come before 
the committee, gives an account of the curious marriage on Sept. 3rd, 1787, 
of Col. Francis Seymour with Leonora Hudson, widow of a Woolwich 
publican and sailor, which has been proved to be regular, and gives some 
account of the " Fortunes of the Seymours," and the career of the Lord 


Presented by Mr. C. E. Ponting, F.S.A. : Roman Coin found at Stanley 

Copse, Lockeridge. 
„ „ Me. J. ScANES : Case of Casts of Seals of Maiden Bradley 

Priory. Large specimen of Fossil Wood, from the base 

of the Chalk, at Dead Maid Quarry, Mere. 
„ „ Capt. B. H. Cunnington : Oil Stove for use in Museum and 

Library. Drinking Cup of Bronze Age, from Beck- 

„ „ Mr. Percy Farrer : Tanged Iron Knife, found with skeleton 

at Tilshead (? Mediaeval or later. A fragment of 

mineral coal was found amongst the ribs). 


Presented by The Author, W. J, Arkell: " Oxford Oolites, Wilts and 
Berks. Representative Sequences. Reprinted from 
Type Ammonites V., Feb.— April, 1925." 

„ „ The Author, Mr. G. Lansdown : " Castle Combe with 

Eight Illustrations." 1925. "The White Horses of 
Wiltshire. War Badges on the Wiltshire Downs." 1925. 

„ „ Mrs. Buxton : Deeds and copies of Wills, connected with 

Tockenham and the Jacob Family. 

252 Additions to Lihrary. 

Presented by Mr. Robert Swyer : A number of volumes oit\iQ Salishury 
Journal, 1788 to 1830. 
„ Mr. 0. Haskins : Tickets for concert at Salisbury in aid of 
widows, &c., of men who fell at the Battle of the Nile, 
„ The Author, Mr. E. H. Stone, F.S.A. : " The Orientation 
of Stonehenge." Article in Nineteeth Century, Sept., 
1925. " The Story of Stonehenge," reprinted from 
Wiltshire Gazette. 
„ The Author, Mrs Cunnington : A Thames Pick of Iron 

hgQ date." Excerpt from Man, Sept., 1925. 
„ The Author, " Fay Inchfawn " : " The Adventures of a 

Homely Woman." 1925. 
„ Mr. T. H. Chandler : "Short account of the History and 

Architecture of Aldbourne Church." Pamphlet, 1925. 
„ The Author, Mr. V. S. Manley : "Warminster. OflScial 
Guide and Souvenir issued by authority of the Warmin- 
ster Urban District Council," &c., 1924. 
„ Rev. W. H. Tozer : The Doctrine of the Trinity, by Joseph 

Trapp, ]J.D., Rector of Dauntsey. 
„ The Publishers, Messrs. Dent : " Bristol, Bath, and Malmes- 

bury," 1925. 
„ The Author, Major P. T. Godsal ; " The Conquests of 

Ceawlin, the second Bretwalda." 1925. 
„ The Earl of Pembroke (through Mr. O. G. S. Crawford) ; 

Several more old Wilton Estate Maps. 
„ Mr. J. J. Slade : Wiltshire Estate Sale Catalogues, Wilts 

Pamphlets, and Illustrations. 
„ Rev. E. H. Goddard : Wood's " Athens© Oxonienses." Bliss's 
Edition, 1813—20, 4 vols., 4to. Wiltshire Portraits, Cut- 
tings, Scraps, &c. 
, Messrs. Simpson : Half cost of Vol. VIII. of Wilts Notes and 

„ Rev. ( 'anon Knubley : Several back numbers of the Magazine. 
„ Rev. J. K. Floyer : MS. Index to the Register of Downton, 

„ The Author, Mr. Aaron Watson (of Lacock) : " A News- 
paper Man's Memories." 1925. 




















rj< O rf O .-I 

CO CD — r-H ^ 

»r^ CN (M 

00 (M r-l 

G<I CD ,-1 


03 : _j CO o 

P .X! 


fi^ • oj : : 

^rr, 9 

'^ ^ S) 

— ^ OS • f:; . . 

V- ^j • o • • 

-/} O r 

'S ^ d 6 

•r-l CO 

o a 
^ o 




.2!^ '-IS 

CO T^ 

02 Ph 


+= Si 

, — - M :3 

oj £ o S fl 
■^ —; -S h?- s- 

CO '^ fl 
2? S S 

O (X) 

O ^ O l> I> 


CO r-l 

^ 05 




• . O IS 
02-I3 G 

l-H O _ 
P£J !» Ph 

J3 S 

- Co; 
a c^ 

IS eg 

• * §^ • 

'B 1^ ^ "o CO 

03 : 


55 o 


O o 


2^ s 

o o 

cu k>. G 
O C =4-1 

t; oj CD 




-T^oocoocoooooo o 

^ o 


o o 



: a 




'^ ^ ^ '.- 



O '• 
;^ as 

CD -J 05 

'E -^ 

o ^ ° 

a 03 rj 


o a s 

CO 1> 05 O O 

,^ CD O CO C^ I— I o 



- or 














: a 

• o 


. ^ o : OS 

02 o oii^ 

o M -2 -.zs ►>, 

'C ^ M-l «^-l OT 

„ 0.2 o o 2 

J ^ a a. 0. g. 

oS S'^'ci oS "^ 





o O J> 





• CO . 

' c : 








. o 

• «4-l ! 


• O • 


^ o 


H A 


^ 2 




t5 O 

• o ^ 


fl 02"-^ 


o c ^ 




C !-i 





03 '— ^ 

M - o;) 



02 J2 


"^ eg 




































I— 1 


1— 1 









































•^ 02 

o e*5 
o; X5 

^ CD 


p eg 


r4 ^ O 

>> : 

fc« • 



ee u» 
1-5 03 

^ a 

o3 oS 




, CD — ' 















O JaJ 

























-H »C O 

00 o o 


GQ ^ 
1-5 CQ^ 

oT CO s 


O (M 


00 i-H 


r- o 





O '— ' 
O 4j CO 

S:? O) o) 
O S 

03 ° (X) 

a IS 

< pq 




;3 o 

a ■+=> 


CO oS 










!-i (M 


I— 1 























<1 rH 


O .2 
> -^ 





O 00 00 

o oo(N 




(M J> r-H 

—-'■ — . 



: : : 










lJ2 1— 1 


: : : 



O ©^ O CD CO 



CO o --- 

r— 1 








Ph :x! 

a • a 

C C O) 

n cQ p 

' O J-> d 



P5 05 





























[Any Member whose name or address is incorrectly printed in this List is 
requested to communicate with the Financial Secretary^ Mr. D. Owen, 
Bank Chambers, Devizes. 1 


arc{)aeological antr Natural ©tstorg Societg, 

DECEMBER, 1925. 

Patron ; 
The Most Hon. The Marquis of Lansdowne, K.G. 

President : 
W. Reward Bell, Esq., F.G.S., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Most Hon. The Marquis of ( The Right Rev. Bishop G. Forrest 
Bath, K.G. I Browne, F.S.A. 

Trustees : 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of Lansdowne, K.G. 
The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bath, K.G. 
W. Heward Bell, Bsq., F.G.S., F.8.A. 
G. P. Fuller, Esq. 

The Committee consists of the following Members, in addition to the 
Honorary Officers of the Society : 

J. I. Bowes, Esq., Devizes 
Mrs. B. H. Cunnington, Devizes 
O. G. S. Crawford, Esq., F.S A., 

Ordnance Survey, Southampton 
Canon E. P. Knubley, Steeple 

Ashton Vicarage, Trowbridge 
The Right Hon. The Earl of Kerry, 

20, Mansfield Street, London, Wl 
A. D. Passmore, Esq., Wood Street, 


E. H. Stone, Esq., F.S.A., The 
Retreat, Devizes 

G. S. A. Way 1 en, Esq., Long Street, 

J. D. Crosfield, Esq., 20, Castle 
Bar Road, Ealing, London, W5 

C. W. Pugh, Esq.,' Hadleigh Cot- 
tage, Devizes 

Honorary General Secretary and Librarian : 
Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffie Vicarage, Swindon 

Honorary Curator of Museum, and Meeting Secretary 
B. H. Cunnington, Esq., F.S.A. (Scot.), Devizes 

List of Members. 


Honorary Local Secretaries : 

Dr. R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A., Fovant 

Manor, Salisbury 
R. S. Ferguson, Esq., Mm Grove, 

Sir F. H. Goldney,Barfc.,^eecA^e^(i, 

H. C. Brentnall, Esq., Grankam 

West, Marlborough 

Rev. H. E. Ketchley, Biddestone 

Rectory, Chippenham 
Rev. Canon F. H. Manley, Great 

Somerford Rectory, Chippenham 
Frank Stevens, Esq., F.S.A., The 

Museum, Salisbury 
Basil H. A. Hankey, ¥j^(\., Stanton 

Manor, Chippertham. 

Honorary Treasurer : 
The Right Hon. The Earl of Kerry, 20, Mansfield Street, London, W, 1 

Honorary Auditors ' 
G. S. A. Waylen, Esq., Devizes 
W. M . Hopkins, Esq., Devizes 

Financial Secretary : 
Mr. David Owen, F.C.A., Lank Chambers, Devizes 

List of Societies &c., in Union with the 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society 

For interchange of Publications, ^c. 

Society of Antiquaries of London 

Royal Archseological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 

British Archseological Association 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 

Kent Archseological Society 

Somerset Archseological Society 

Essex Archseological Society 

Essex Field Club 

Hampshire Field Club 

Bristol and Gloucestershire Archseological Society 

Herts Natural History Society and Field Club 

Powysland Club 

East Riding Antiquarian Society, Yorks 

East Herts Archseological Society 

Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club 

United States Geological Survey 

Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C., United States 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club 

Surrey Archseological Society 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 

Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society 

Sussex Archseological Society 

Society for Promotion of Roman Studies 

s 2 


List of Members. 

LIST or /ne/VIBEKS, JANUAKY, 1926. 

Hon. Member : 
Kite, Edward, Longcroft Road, Devizes. 

Life Members : 

Bath, The Most Hon. The Marquis 

of, Longleat, Warminster 
Crewe,The Most Hon. The Marquis 

of, K.G., Crewe Hall, Crewe 
Fitzmaurice, The Right Hon. Lord, 

Leigh, Bradford-on-Avon 
Howitt, Dr. A. B., 15, Chesham 

Street, Belgrave Square, S.W. 1 
Kidston, G., 19, St. James' Square, 

London, S.W. 1 

Street, London, W^ 1 
Lansdowne, The Most Hon. The 

Marquis of, Bowood, Calne 
Maurice, Mrs. Thelwall, Burbage, 


Pembroke & Montgomery, The 
Right Hon. The Earl of, Wilton 
House, Salisbury 

Penruddocke, C, Compton Park, 

Radnor, The Right Hon. The Earl 
of, Longford Castle, Salisbury 

Rule, Ivan T., Nunton, Nr. Salis- 

Walmesley, John, Lucknam, Chip- 

Wordsworth, Rev. Chancellor, St. 
Nicholas' Hospital, Salisbury 

Annual Subscribers 

aCourt, Captain The Hon. Holmes, 
R.N., Bishopstrow, Warminster 

Adderley Library, Librarian of. 
The College, Marlborough 

Ailesbury, The Most Hon. The 
Marquis of, Savernake Forest, 

Antrobus, Sir Cosmo, Bart., Ames- 
bury Abbey, Amesbury, Salis- 

Andrews, J. L., Marlborough Col- 
lege, Marlborough 

Arkell, W. J., New College, Oxford 

Armin, F. G. H., 17, Market Place, 

Armour, G. Denholm, Corsham, 

Aston, Major-General Sir George, 
K.C.B., Court House, Woodford, 

Avebury, The Right Hon. Lord, 15, 
Lombard Street, London, E.C. 3 

Awdry, Mrs. C. L., Hitchambury, 

Awdry, Lt.-Col. R. W., Little Chev- 
erell, Devizes 

Baker, Kington, 11, Sheridan Road, 
Merton Park, London, S.W., 19 

Barrett,W. H.,76,Marshfield Road, 

Barton, Miss F. M., Rest Harrow, 

Little Cheverell, Devizes 
Bateson,Col. Frank, Manor House, 

Great Cheverell, Devizes 
Bateson, Mrs., Manor House, Great 

Cheverell, Devizes 
Bath Corporation Library, Bath 
Bayliflfe, Cbas. M., Rose Dale, 

Woodland Road, Clevedon, Som. 
Bell, W. Heward, F.G.S., F.S.A., 

Cleeve House, Seend, Melksham 
Bell, Lt.-Col. W.C. Heward, R.F.A., 

Junior Carlton Club, London 
Biggs, Mrs. Yeatman, Long Hall, 

Stockton, Codford, Wilts 
Bingham, Col. D. A., Tristernagh, 

Potterne, Devizes 
Bird, Herbert, Trowle Cottage, 

Bird, W. R., 125, Goddard Avenue, 

Bird, W. Hobart, New Club, Chel- 
tenham, Glos. 
Birmingham Free Libraries, Rat- 

cliflfe Place, Birmingham 
Bishop, E., 24, Westlecott Road, 

Blackmore, Dr. H. P., Vale House, 

Blease, H. F., Snellbrook, Staver- 

ton, Trowbridge 

List of Members. 


Bodington, Ven. Archdeacon, The 

Vicarage, Calne 
Booth, Mrs., Ebbesbourne Wake, 

Borough, R. J. M., Market Laving- 

ton, Devizes 
Bourne, Rev. Canon G. H., D.C.L., 

St. Edmund's College, Salisbury 
Bouverie, E. O. P., F.S.A., Hope- 
cote, Coombe Down, Bath 
Bouverie, Miss A. Pleydell, The 

Old House, Market Lavington, 

Bowes, J. L, Dormer Cottage, 

Bowes, W. H. B., Elms Farm, 

Malash, Canterbury, Kent 
Bown, W. L., Enderly, Clarendon, 

Bradford, Miss M. Vf., St. Amand's, 

Adderbury, Banbury, Oxoq. 
Brakspear, H., F.S.A., Pickwick 

Manor, Corsham 
Brassey, Lt -Col. Edgar, Dauntsey 

Park, Chippenham 
Brentnall, H. C, Granham West, 

Briggs, Admiral Sir C. J., K.C.B., 

Biddestone, Chippenham 
Brocklebank, Rev. J. W. H., Long- 
bridge Deverill, Warminster 
Brooke, J. W., 21, The Green, 

Brooke, W. de Leishton, Sandfield, 

Potterne, Devizes 
Buchanan, Walter,20, M oore Street, 

Cadogan Square, London, S. W. 3 
Bucknill, Mrs. L. M., Cricklade, 

Burdett, Miss M. C. F., 83, 

Elizabeth Street, Eaton Square, 

Burgess, Rev. C. F., Easton Grey 

Vicarage, Malmesbury 
Burmester, Capt. A. C, Newtown 

Lodge, Hungerford^ 
j Burrow, E. J., Wayside, London 
j Road, Cheltenham 
t Bury, Rev. Ernest, All Saints' 
I Vicarage, Branksome Park, 
j Bournemouth 

I Bush, J. E., The Cabin, Melksham 
iBush, T. S., 20, Camden Crescent, 
! Bath 
(Butler, Sir R. R. F., Bart., c/o 

David Owen & Co., Bank Cham- 
bers, Devizes 

Buxton, Gerald J., Tockenham 

Manor, Swindon 
Byron, Mrs., Savernake Lodge, 


Caillard, Sir Vincent H. P., Wing- 
field House, Trowbridge 
Calderwood, J. L., The Hermitage, 

Calley, Major-General T. C. P., 

C.B., M.V.O., Burderop Park, 

Calne Public Library, Calne, Wilts 
Canner, Rev. J, T., Chitterne 

Vicarage, Codford, Wilts 
Canning, Col. A., Restrop House, 

Purton, Wilts 
Cary, Lt.-Com. Henry, R.N., 

Newton House, Rowde, Devizes 
Cattarns, R., Great Somerford, 

Chicago University General 

Jjibrary, per Messrs. B. F. 

Stevens & Brown, 1, Trafalgar 

Square, W.C. 2 
Chubb, Sir C. H. E., Bart., Silver- 
lands, Chertsey 
Clapham, Capt. J. T., 3, Homefield 

Road, Wimbledon Common, 

London, S.W. 19 
Clarke, Rev. A. H. T., The Rectory, 

Clarke, Rev. C.P.S., Donhead St. 

Andrew llectory, Salisbury 
Clark-Maxwell, Rev. Preb. W. G., 

F.S.A., St. Leonard's Rectory, 

Clay, Dr. I{. C. C, F.S.A., Manor 

House, Fovant, Salisbury 
Clifton, The Right Rev. The Lord 

Bishop of, St. Ambrose, Leigh 

Woods, Bristol 
Codrington, Commander C. A., 

R.N., Wroughton House, Swin- 
Cole, Clem, Calne, Wilts 
Cole, Dr. S. J., ('ampfield, Devizes 
Collis Sands, Miss, Park Cottage, 

Colville, H. K., The Lodge, Hil- 

marton, Calne 
Combs, D., Dinton, Salisbury 
Congress, Library of, Washington 

D.C, U.S.A., ;w Messrs. E. G. 

Allen & Son, Ltd., 12 <fe 14, Grape 

Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, 

London, W.C. 2 


List of Members. 

Copeland, G. W., 13, Milton Road, 

Cooper, Mrs., King's Leigh, 191, 
Willesden Lane, Brondesbury, 
N.W. 6 

Courthope, Miss E. J., Brookfield, 
Wadhurst, Sussex 

Coward, Edward, Southgate House, 

Coward, Mrs., Southgate House, 

Cox, Alfred, 429, Strand, London, 
W.C. 2 

Cox, Stafford P., Stradbroke Cot- 
tage, Coombe Bissett, Salisbury 

Crawford, O. G. S., F.S.A., Ord- 
nance Survey, Southampton 

CrosiSeld, John D., 20, Castle Bar 
Road, Ealing, London, W. 5 

Cruickshank, G. E., 5, Stone Build- 
ings, Lincolns Inn, W.C. 2 

Culverhouse, P., Redlands, The 
Common, Ealing, London, W. 5 

Cunnington, B. H., F.S.A. (Scot.), 
33, Long Street, Devizes 

Cunnington, Mrs. B. H., 33, Long 
Street, Devizes 

Currie, Lady, Upham House, Aid- 
bourne, Wilts 

Curtis, Miss E. J., Havering House, 
Milton, Marlborough 

D'Almaine, H. G. W., F.S.A., 
Abingdon, Berks 

Dartnell, H. W., " Abbotsfield," 
Park Lane, Salisbury 

Day, H., 57, Ashford Road, Swin- 

Deans, Mrs., 11, Croft Road, Swin- 

Devenish, H. Noel, Little Durn- 
ford, Salisbury 

Dixon, Robert, Pewsey, Wilts 

Dobson, Mrs., 1 1, Cambridge Park, 
Redlands, Bristol 

Dubb, aMiss H. M. A., The Manor 
House, Chilmark, Wilts 

Dunkin, Rev. H., Patney Rectory, 

Dunne, A. M., Denford House, 
Hungerford, Berks 

Dunning, Gerald C.,Union Society, 
University College, Gower 
Street, London, W.C. 

Edwards, W. C, 3, Victoria Road, 
Clapham Common, S. W. 4 

Edwards, Miss M. K. S., c/o Miss 

Shere, 8, New Street, Salisbury 
Edwards, H. S. W., Armsley, God- 

shill Wood, Fordingbridge, 

Elworthy, Percy, Membury House, 

Elworthy, Mrs., Membury House, 

Engleheart, Rev. G. H., F.S.A., 

Dioton, Salisbury 
Everett, C. R., The Hawthorns, 

Market Lavington, Devizes 
Everett, Major-General Sir H. J., 

K.C.M.G., C.B., Avonturn, 

Alderbury, Salisbury 
Everett, Lady, Avonturn, Aider- 
bury, Salisbury 
Ewart, W. H. Lee, Broadleas, 


Farquharson,Mrs.,Tilshead Lodge, 

via Salisbury 
Farrer, Percy, F.S.A., Westfield, 

Mullen's Pond, Andover, Hants 
Fass, F. G., Broughton Gifford, 

Ferguson, R. S., M.B., CM., Elm 

Grove, Calne 
Finlay, The Hon. Wm., Fairway, 

Great Bedwyn, Hungerford 
Fletcher, Rev. Canon J. M. J., 25, 

The Close, Salisbury 
Float, Miss L. C, The Secondary 

School, Devizes 
Flower, C. T., 2, Lammas Park 

Gardens, Ealing, London, W. 5 
Fowle, Rev. J. S., Hardenhuish 

Rectory, Chippenham 
Fox, Miss E., The Old Rectory, 

Aldbourne, Hungerford 
Frankel, Alfred, The Priory, 

Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts 
Eraser, J. Alex, Northcliffe, 

Tetbury Road, Malmesbury 
Freeman, G. H., 9, Alexandra Road, 

Kingston Hill, Surrey 
Fry, Claude B., Hannington Hall, 

Highworth, Wilts 
Fry, Geoffrey, Oare House, Marl- 
Fuller,G. P.,Neston Park,Corsham 
Fuller, R. F, Great Chalfield, 

Fuller, Bev. W., 1, Lansdown 

Grove, Devizes 

List of Members. 


Gamble, Sir David, Bart., White 

Lodge, Purton, Wilts 
Gamble, Lady, White liOdge, 

Purton, Wilts 
Gardner, E. C, Lloyds Bank, Ltd. 

(Capital and Counties Branch), 

Gardner, Eric, F.S.A., Patmore 

House, Weybridge 
Gee, Miss Wilda, Homecroft, Holt, 

Trowbridge, Wilts 
George, Reuben, 132, Goddard 

Avenue, 8windon 
Gething,G. T.,Chilmark, Salisbury 
Gilbert, J. C, High Street, Swindon 
Gimson, H M., Stanton St. 

Bernard, Marlborough 
Gipps, Miss, Porch House, Lacock, 

Gladstone, John E., Bowden Park, 

Glanely, The Right Hon. Lord, 

Lackham House, Lacock, Wilts 
Glanfield, Rev. E., The Rectory, 

Limington, llchester, Somerset 
Goddard, Rev. E. H., Clyflfe 

Vicarage, Swindon 
Goddard, Mrs. E. H., Clyffe 

Vicarage, Swindon 
Goddard, F. Pleydell, The Lawn, 

Goddard, Dr. C. E., Harrowdene 

House, Wembley, Middlesex 
Godman, G. W., Wedhampton 

Cottage, Devizes 
Godwin, Miss J. D., Moxhams, 

Goldney, Sir F. H., Bart., Beech- 
field, Corsham, Wilts 
Goldsbrough, Rev. Albert, Burley- 

in- Wharf edale, Leeds 
Goodchild, Rev. W., Berwick St. 

John Rectory, Salisbury 
Gore, C. H., F.G.S., 69, Eastcott 

Hill, Swindon 
Gough, W., Nore Marsh, Wootton 

Gowring, Rev. E. A., Grittleton 

Rectory, Chippenham 
G.W.R. Mechanics' Institute, 

Grant-Meek, Miss M., Manning- 
ford Bruce, Marlborough 
Grayson, Commander G., Brook- 
side, Fovant, Salisbury 
Greenstreet, Rev. L. W., Comp- 

ton Bassett Rectory, Calne 

Greenwood, H. H., 34, Victoria 

Road, Swindon 
Greville, The Hon. Louis, Heale 

House, Woodford, Salisbury 
Gundry, W. L. D., Hillworth, 

Gwatkin, R. G., Manor House, 

Potterne, Devizes 
Gwillim, E. L. L., Marlborough 

Hall- Ren ton, Rowfold Grange, 

Billinghurst, Sussex 
Hamilton, A. D., Bridge Cottage, 

Lacock, Chippenham 
Hammond, L. O., Cricklade, Wilts 
Hammond. J. J., Bishops Walk, 

The Close, Salisbury 
Hankey, Basil, Manor House, 

Hankey, Mrs. Basil, Stanton 

Manor, Chippenham 
Harding, A., Little Chalfield 

House, Melksham 
Harding, Miss W., Little Chalfield 

House, Melksham 
Harring, R. M., 22, Roundstone 

Street, Trowbridge 
Harrison, Rev. A. H., Lydiard 

Tregoze Rectory, Swindon 
Harrison, Mrs., Lydiard Tregoze 

Rectory, Swindon 
Harrison, Rev. D. P., Lydiard 

Millicent Rectory, Swindon 
Haskins, Chas., Brownie Brae, 

Hawley, Lt.-Col. Wm., F.S.A., 

Seabrook Vale, nr. Folkstone, 

Head, A., Ivyleigh, Doone Road, 

Heneage, Claud W., 5, Egerton 

Mansions, London, S.W. 3 
Heneage, Miss, 44. Lower Belgrave 

Street, London, S.W. 1 
Henson, J. W., B.A., Boys' High 

School, Trowbridge 
Herbert, Major the Hon. G., 

Knoyle House, Salisbury 
Heytesbury, Col. Lord, The Green 

House, Crockerton, Warminster 
Hoare, Sir Henry H. A., Bart., 

Stourhead, Bath 
Hobhouse, Rt. Hon. Sir C. E. H., 

Bart., Monkton barleigh, Brad- 
HoUoway, Mrs., The Manor, West 

Lavington, VVilts 


List of Members. 

Hookham, C, Furze Hill, Broad- 
way, Worcestershire 
Hookham, Mrs. F., Furze Hill, 

Broadway, Worcestershire 
Hopkins, W. M., Lloyds Bank, 

Ltd., Devizes 
Hornby, C. H. St. John, Porch 

House, Potterne, Devizes 
Howlden, H. Linley, Old Manor 

House, Freshford, Somerset 
Hudson, Mrs. Gertrude, Hill 

House, Newbury 
Hurst, Rev. R. C, The Vicarage, 

Hussey, W., Westbourne Road, 


Hott, Rev. Percy, Stanton Fitz- 
warren Rectory, Highworth, 

Impey, Edward, The Manor, 
Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 

Jackson, J. T., Eastcroft House, 

James, Warwick, F.R.C.S., O.B.E., 

2, Park Crescent, Portland Place, 

London, W. 1 
JeflFcoate, Rev. R., 5, Berkeley 

Square, Clifton, Bristol 
Jenner, Lt.-Col. L. C. D., C.M.G., 

D.S.O., The Manor House, 

Avebury, Marlborough; 
John Ryland's Library, Man- 
Johnson, W. A., Southfield House, 

Chiseldon, Swindon 
Johnson, Rev. Beaumont, Sedge- 
hill Vicarage, Shaftesbury 
Jones, Mrs. E. Marsden, Church 

House, Potterne, Devizes 
Jones, Rev. F. Meyrick, Mere, 

Jones, Walter H., M.A., Morgan 

Hall, Fairford, Glos. 
Jupe, Miss, The Old House, Mere, 

Jupp, A. O., The Quarry House, 

Jupp, Mrs. The Quarry House, 


Keir, W. Ingram, F.R.C.S.K., 

Coombe Down, Bath 
Kelham, H. O. L., Wye House, 


Kelham, Mrs., Wye House, Marl- 

Kerry, The Right Hon. The Earl 
of, 20, Mansfield Street, London, 
W. 1 

Ketchley, Rev. H. E., Biddestone 
Rectory, Chippenham 

Kirby, S. H., at the Cathedral 
Hotel, Salisbury 

Klein, W. G., 7, Eldon Road, 
London, N.W. 3 

Knight, C. M., 7, Marlborough 
Buildings, Bath 

Knubley, Rev. Canon E. P., The 
Vicarage, Steeple Ashton, Trow- 

Lake, Richard, Kestrels, Easterton, 

Lambert, Uvedale, F.R. Hist. S., 

South Park Farm, Bletchingley, 

Lansdown, C. M., Glenbeigh, 

Lansdown, George, " Sholebroke," 

Wingfield Road, Trowbridge 
Latham, Miss, Bushton Manor, 

Clyflfe Pypard, Swindon, Wilts 
Lawrence, W. F., Cowesfield, 

Lawrence, Ed. T., 34, Parade, 

Barry, Glam. 
Lee-Pilkington, Mrs., Ashton 

House, Ashton Keynes, Swindon 
Lethbridge, Rev. H. C. B., South- 
broom Vicarage, Devizes 
Lister, E. C, Westwood Manor, 

Locket, J. Wood, New Holme, 

Bratton, Westbury, Wilts 
Long, Col. William, Newton 

House, Clevedon 
Lott, Herbert C, 10, Carlisle 

Parade, Hastings 
Lovat, Miss, Worton, Devizes 
Lovibond, Mrs. J. L., Windover 

House, St. Anne's Street, Salis- 

Mackerdy, Major E. M. S., The 

Abbey House, Malmesbury 
McCombe, Rev. J. W., Broughton 

Giflford Rectory, Melksham 
Mc Neil-Smith, Rev. H. B., Charl- 

ton Vicarage, Marlborough 
McNiven, C. F., Puckshipton, 


List of Memhers. 


Major, Albany F., O.B.E,, F.S.A., 

30, The VValdrons, Croydon 
Manley, Rev. Canon F. H., Somer- 

Mann, W. J., Highfield, Trowbridge 
Marlborough College Natural 

History Society, President of, 

The College, Marlborough 
Maskelyne, Mrs. Story, Basset 

Down, Wroughton, Wilts 
Maskelyne, A. St. J. Story, Public 

Hecord Office, Chancery I^ane, 

London, W.C. 2 
Masters, W. A. H., 42, Cricklade 

Street, Swindon 
Matcham, G. Eyre, Newhouse, 

Maton, Leonard, Groveley, Ex- 
mouth, South Devon 
Maurice, Dr. Walter, Lloran House, 

M arlborough 
Mellor, A. Shaw, Box House, Box, 

Methuen, Field Marshal Lord, 

Corsham Court, Wilts 
Methuen, The Hon. Mrs. Paul, 

Methuen, The Hon. Anthony, Ivy 

House, Corsham 
Miles, Miss C. F., 59, Egerton 

Gardens, London, S.W. 3 
Milling, Bev. M.J. T., The Vicar- 
age, Ashton Keynes, Cricklade 
Milman, Miss, Brownston House, 

Milman, Miss B. M., Brownston 

House, Devizes 
Mitchell, Miss E. C, The Square, 

Wilton, Salisbury 
Money-Kyrle, Mrs., Whetham, 

Morrison, Hugh, M.P., 9, Halkin 

Street, Belgrave Square, S.W. 1 
Morse, W. E., The Croft, Swindon 
Myers, He v. Canon, The Close, 


Naish, Miss R. V., Wilton, Salis- 

Napier, Mrs. Charles, Chitterne 
House, Codford, Wilts 

Neale, John Alex., D.C.L., 125, 
Powis House, St. James' Court, 
S.W. 1 

Neeld, Lt.-Col.Sir Audley D., Bart., 
C.B., Grittleton House, Chip- 

Nelson, The Right Hon. Earl, Tra- 
falgar, Salisbury 

Newall, R. S., F.S.A., Fisherton 
de la Mere House, Wylye,. Wilts 

Newberry Library, Chicago, U.S. A., 
per Messrs. B. F. Stevens & 
Brown, 4, Trafalgar Square, Lon- 
don, W.C. 2 

Newbolt, Sir H. J., Netherhamp- 
ton House, Salisbury 

New England Historic Genealo- 
gical Society, 9, Ashburton Place, 
Boston, Mass.,U.S.A., per M essrs. 
B. F. Stevens & Brown, 4, Tra- 
falgar Square, London, W.C. 2 

New York Public Library, per 
Messrs. B. F. Stevens & Brown, 
4, Trafalgar Square, London, 
W.C. 2. 

Nicholson, Godfrey, Woodcott 
House, Whitchurch, Hants 

Noel, Rev. Wyndham, Christ 
Church Vicarage, Bradford-on- 

Norton, Mrs., Whitehall, Chilmark, 

Norwood, Cyril, D. Litt., The 
College, Marlborough 

Noyes, Miss Ella, Sutton Veny, 

of, Southampton 

Osbourne, Mrs., Little Inglemere, 

Owen, David, Richmond House, 
Weston Park, Bath 

Oxford Architectural and Histor- 
ical Society, A shmolean Museum, 
Beaumont Street, Oxford 

Palmer, Brig.-Gen. G. LI., Berry- 
field, Bradford-on-Avon 

Parker, Vice-Admiral E. Hyde, 
Bodorgan House, Ramsbury, 

Parsons, R., Hunt's Mill Farm, 
Wootton Bassett 

Parr, Miss Bertha, Salthrop House, 
Wroughton, Wilts 

Passnaore, A. D., Wood Street, 

Payne, E. H., Wyndcross, West- 
bourne Road, Trowbridge 

Peake, H. J. E., Westbrook House, 


List of Members. 

Peake, Dr. A. E., Arnold House, 

Corsham, Wilts 
Pearson, Miss Edith A., Moxhams, 

Pearson, J. K., Atherfield House, 

Bradford Road, Trowbridge 
Penruddocke, Capt. George, Comp- 

ton Park, Salisbury- 
Perkins, Kev. Charles E., Little 

Hinton Rectory, Swindon 
Perkins, H., Hillside, Marlborough 
Phillips, A. J., Victoria House, 

Pewsey, Wilts 
Phillips, Bertram, Dinton House, 

Pile, T. A. J., Sutherland House, 

Norfolk Square, London, W. 2 
Pincott, Mrs. Frank, North Holme, 

Bratton, Westbury, Wilts 
Plummer, A. C, 102, Bath Road, 

Pole, Sir F. J. C, Elcot, Derby 

Road, Caversham, Reading 
Pouting, C. E., F.S.A., Lockeridge, 

Upper Parkstone, Dorset 
Powell, John U., 38, Norham Road, 

Pritchard, J. E., F.S.A., 22, St. 

John's Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Pridham, J. W., 38, Regent Circus, 

Protheroe, J. S., 150, Victoria Road, 

Public Record Office, per the Sup- 

erintenden t of Publications,Book 

Dept., H.M. Stationery OjQSce, 

Princess Street, Westminster, 

London, S.V^. 1 
Pugh, C. W., Hadleigh Cottage, 

Pugh, Miss, Hadleigh Cottage, 

Pullen, W., Goodrington House, 

Westlecott Road, Swindon 
Pye-Smith, E. F., The Close, Salis- 

Rawlence, E. A., St. Andrews, 

Churchfields, Salisbury 
Read, Sir Alfred, 29, Cockspur 

Street, London, W. 1 
Reading Public Library, Reading 
Redfern, Rev. J. Lemon, Ashley 

Rectory, Tetbury, Glos. 
Reed, F. B., 50, Breakspears Road, 

Brockley, London, S.E. 4 

Rendell, Ethelbert, Bath Road, 

Rickards, E., Diana Lodge, Purton, 

Rickards, Mrs., Diana Lodge, 

Purton, Swindon 
Richardson, A. P., Purton House, 

Purton, Wilts 
Richardson, Rev. A. T., The Rec- 
tory, Brixton Deverill, Bath 
Richardson, Mrs. H., Red House, 

West Street, Wilton, Salisbury 
Richardson-Cox, E., South Wrax- 

hall Manor, Bradford-on-Avon 
Rison, R. E., Airdrie, Crescent 

Avenue, Binley Road, Stoke, 

Robinson, Major H. N., Monks 

Park, Corsham, Wilts 
Roemer, Major de, Lime Park, 

Hurstmonceux, Sussex 
Rogers, J. Smith, 44, Belle Vue 

Road, Salisbury 
Rumboll, C. F., M.D., Lowbourne 

House, Melksham 
Russell, Samuel, Newstead, Mead- 
hurst Road, Western Park, 

Sainsbury, Herbert, Greystone 

House, Devizes 
Sainsbury, Mrs. Herbert, Grey- 
stone House, Devizes 
Sainsbury, E. A., Wingfield Road, 

Salisbury, The Right Rev. The 

Lord Bishop of. The Palace, 

Salisbury Clerical Library, Church 

House, Salisbury 
Salisbury Public Library, Endless 

Street, Salisbury 
Sanders, Rev. Harry, The Avenue, 

Scott, H. Dudley, Manningford 

Manor, Marlborough 
Scott, Miss Elsie C, The Old 

Rectory, North Bradley, Wilts 
Scott, G. H. Firth, Winterbourne 

Monkton, Marlborough 
Selman, Mrs. H. E., Kington 

Langley, Chippenham 
Shaw, Col. F. Kennedy, Teffont 

Magna, Salisbury 
Simpson, A. B., Upper Lodge, 

Fernhurst, Haslemere, Surrey 
Simpson, Cecil, Clittonville, The 

Common, Sutton, Surrey 

List of Memhers. 


Simpson, J. J., Osbourne House, 

Gotham Park, Bristol 
Skurray, E, C., West Lodge, 

Slade, J. J., "Gazette" Office, 

Slade, Miss M. E., M.B.E., 63, 

Avenue Road, Sv^^indon 
Sladen, Rev. C. A., Heathfield, 
^ West Moors, Dorset 
Sleight, Miss Charlotte, Park 

Cottage, Devizes 
Smith, R. M. Morgan, Manor 

House, Seend, Melksham 
Smith, A. F., 397, Ferndale Road, 

Snailum, W. W., Wingfield Road, 

Soames, Rev. Gordon, Mildenhall 

Rectory, Marlborough 
Spicer, Capt. J. E. P., Spye Park, 

Stanley-Clark, Col. H. C, The 

Manor House,Bulford, Salisbury 
Steele, Lt.-Col., R.A.M.C, South- 
gate Lodge, Devizes 
Stephens, Rev. Canon J. F. D., 

Christian Malford Rectory, 

Stevens, Frank, F.S.A., Blackmore 

Museum, Salisbury 
Stevenson, Brig.-Gen. E. H., 

Worton Littlecourt, Potterne, 

Stone, E. H., F.S.A., The Retreat, 

Potterne Road, Devizes 
Stone, W. J. E. Warry, 72, Elm 

Park Gardens, Loudon, S.W, 10 
Storey, H. L., The Manor House, 

Stote, Rev. A. W., Colehill Vicar- 
age, Wimborne 
Sturton, Rev. J. A., Market 

Lavington Vicarage, Devizes 
Sumner, Heywood, Cuckoo's Hill, 
1 1 Gorley, Fordingbridge, Hants 
[ Talbot, Miss, Lacock Abbey, 
' ' Chippenham 

Talbot, The Ven. Archdeacon, 103, 
' I Bath Road, Swindon 
•^jTatum, Edward J., 49, Canal, 
I Salisbury 

jTayler, Mrs. M. C, The Abbey 
' House, Bradfordon-Avon 
Thomas, Mrs., Rowdeford House, 


Thomas, Mrs. L. H., 10, Gloucester 

Square, London, N.W. 
Thorold, Miss, Bromham Rectory, 

Thornely, Thomas Heath, The 

Elms, Nursteed, Devizes 
Thompson, G. Malcolm, Kington 

Manor, Kington St. Michael, 

Timbrell, J. Neate, Bank Street, 

Tothill, Lady, The Chantry, 

Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts 
Trenchard, M . Ashf ordby, Stanton 

Fitzwarren, Highworth, Wilts 
Trotter, A. P., Greystone, Teflfont, 

Tupholme, Rev. W. S., Steeple 

Langford Rectory, Salisbury 

Uppsala University Library, The 
Chief Librarian of, Uppsala, 

Usher, T. C, Sunny Croft, 'Trow- 

Vigors, Mrs., East Kennett Manor, 

Viney, Herbert, Maplecroft, Melk- 

Wales, National Library of, 

Wales,National Museum of,Cardiff 
Walker, Rev. F. G., Upton Lovell 

Rectory, Bath 
Walker, H. Seeker, Fairfield, 

Walrond, R. D., Aldbourne, Bram- 

cote Road, Putney, London, 

S.W. 15 
Walsh, Arthur H., The Manor 

House, Purton, Wilts 
Wasey, Mrs. G. K., Leigh Hill 

House, Savernake, Marlborough 
Warrington, The Right Hon. Lord 

Justice, 10, Montagu Square, 

London, W. 1 
Watson, Aaron, Lacock, Chippen- 
Watson, Rev. A. J., Savernake 

Vicarage, Marlborough 
Watson-Taylor, G., Urchfont 

Manor, Devizes 
Waylen, G. S. A., 41, Long Street, 



List of Members. 

Waylen, W. A., Littledean, Newn- 

ham, Glos. 
Weallens, Rev. R. S., Berwick 

Bassett Vicarage, Swindon 
Webb, Mrs. Naesmyth, Bibury, 

Branksome Park, Bournemouth 
Webb, J. R., Fovant, Salisbury 
Webb, W. A., 83, Argyle Road, 

West Ealing, London, W. 13 
Wells, Charles, FJ.I., 134, Crom- 
well Road, Bristol 
Westlake, Rev. R. L. A., Sutton 

Benger Rectory, Chippenham 
Weston, Lt.-Col. R. S., Elmsgate, 

Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 
Weston, Miss Gertrude, Elmsgate, 

Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 
Weston, Miss Ellen, The Home 

Farm, Stockton, Codford St. 

Mary, Wilts 
Whitehead, Arthur, 35, Canal, 

Wilder, Col. Graham, Ruckley 

House,Easton Grey,Malmesbury 

Williams, A. F., 57, Sheldon Road, 

Williams, Philip, Malt House, 

West Woodhay, Newbury 
Williams-Freeman, Dr., Weyhill, 

Wilson, Miss Maud,Norton Manor, 

Wood, Mrs., Norton Cottage, 

Westlecott Road, Swindon 
Woodward, C. H., Exchange 

Buildings, Devizes 
Woolland, Mrs., Baydon Manor, 

Ramsbury, Wilts 
Wrangham, Rev. Canon F., The 

Vicarage, Highworth, Wilts 

Yale 'University Library, New 
Haven, Conn., U.S.A., per 
Messrs. E. G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 
12 & 14, Grape Street, Shaftes- 
bury Avenue, London, W.C 2 

Z 8 OCT |v 

C. H. Woodward. Printer and Publisher, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 


STONEHENGE AND ITS BAREOWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
Magazine in separate wrapper 7s. 6d. This still remains one of the best and 
most reliable accounts of Stonehenge and its Earthworks, 

AUBREY, F,R.S., A.D. 1659-1670. Corrected and enlarged by the Rev. 
Canon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates. 
Price £^ 10s. 

pp. vii. -f 501. 1901. With full index. In 8 parts, as issued. Price I3s. 

pp. XV. 505. In parts as issued. Price 13s. 

DITTO. THE REIGN OF ED. IIL 8vo., pp. 402. In six parts 
as issued. Price 13s. 

WILTSHIRE, STONEHENGE, and AVEBURY, with other references, 
by W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., pp. 169, with 4 illustrations. No. 89, Dec, 
1901, of the Magaz'me. Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 947 books, 
papers, &c., by 732 authors, 

THE TROPENELL CARTULARY. An important work in 2 vols., 8vo, 
pp. 927, containing a great number of deeds connected with property in many 
Wiltshire Parishes of the 14th and 15th centuries. Only 150 copies were 
|)rinted, of which a few are left. Price to members, ^£1 10s., and to non- 
inembers, £2. 


Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

Wilts Archgeological Magazine bound to match previous volumes. 
We have several back numbers to make up sets. 

. H. WOODWARD, Printer and Publisher, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 


North Wilts Museum and 

In answer to the appeal made in 1905 annual subscriptions 
varying from £2 to 5s. to the amount of about £30 a year for this i 
purpose have been given since then by about sixty Members of 
tlie Society and the fund thus set on foot has enabled the' 
Committee to add much to the efficiency of the Library and 

It is very desirable that this fund should be raised to at least 
£50 a year in order that the General Fund of the Society may 
be released to a large extent from the cost of the Museum and 
set fiee for the other purjDoses of the Society. 

Subscriptions of 5s. a year, or upwards, are asked for from all 
Members, and should be sent either to Mr. D. Owen, Bank Cham- 
bers, Devizes, or Rev. E. H. Goddahd, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

The Committee appeal to Members of the Society and otheis 
to secure any 

Objects of Antiquity, 


Natural History Specimens, 

found in the County of Wilts and to forward them to the 
Hon. Curator, Mil. B. H. Cqnnington, Devizes; 

Whilst Old Deeds connected with Wiltshire families 
or places, Modern Pamphlets, Articles, Portraits, 
Illustrations from recent Magazines, or Papers 
bearing in any way on the County, and Sale 
Particulars of Wiltshire Properties, as well as 
local Parish Magazines, 

will be most gratefully received for the Library by the Eev. 
E. H, Goddahd, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon, Hon. Librarian. 



28 OCT 1938 


JUNE, 1926. 

Vol. XLIII. 



Archaeological & Natural History 


Published under the Direction of the 

A. D. 1 8 5 3. 


REV. E. H. GODDARD, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
statements made therem.] 

Printed for the Society by C, H. Woodward, 
Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 

Price 8s. 

Members, Gratis. 


TAKE NOTICE that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
vohimes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are 
each fully indexed separately, 

The annual subscription is now raised to 15s. Qd., the entrance fee 
for new Members remaining 10s. Qd. as before. Life Mem- 
bers £10 10s. 

Members who have not paid tlieir Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owen, Bank Chambers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
Subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
tary : the Eev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 


To be obtained of Mr. D. OWEN, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev. A. C. Smith, M.A, One Volume, Atlas 
4to, 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. Price £2 2s. 
One copy offered to each Member of the Society at €1 lis. 6d. 

604 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev, T. A. Preston, M.A. Price to the 
Public 16s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society at half-price. 

IN THE SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

Part II. 1911. Fully illustrated. Price 2s, 

Price Is. APPENDIX No. L, II., and IIL, 3d. each. 

LIBRARY at the MUSEUM. Price Is. 6d. 

COLLECTION. Price 6d. 

BACK NUMBERS of the MAGAZINE. Price to the Public, 8s., 5s. 6d., 
and 3s. 6d. (except in the case of a few numbers, the price of which is raised). 
Members are allowed a reduction of 25 per cent, from these prices. 


Archaeological & Natural History 


No. CXLIV. JUNE, 1926. Vol. XLIII. 

Conknts^ PAGE. 

List of Bronze Age Drinking Cups found in Wiltshire : 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington 267—284 

The Society's MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House : By 

Canon F. H. Manley 285—310 

Report on Human Remains received from Mr. A. D. Pass- 
more : By Sir Arthur Keith, M.D., F.R.S 311-312 

The Woodminton Group of Barrows, Bowerchalke : By R. 

C. C. Clay, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A.... 313-326 

Objects found during Excavations on the Romano-British 
Site at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell, Wilts : 

By R. de C. Nan Kivell 327—332 

Notes 333—353 

Wilts Obituary .... ..« 353— .358 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 358 — 383 

Additions to Museum and Library 384—385 

Accounts OF the Society for the Year 1925 386 — 388 


Map of Seagry and District 290 

Objects from the Woodminton Group of Barrows, Bowerchalke, 

Plates L— V 322 

Objects found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell, Plates 

I.— Vin. 330 

Plan of a New Stone in the Kennett Avenue as excavated 342 

Objects of Early Iron Age from N. Wilts (Passmore Collection), 

Plates I. and II 342—343 

Stone perforated Mace Head fpund near Bilbury Camp, Wylye 344 
Recumbent Gravestone of the 12th century found in Court 

Street Trowbridge, 1924 345 

The Devizes Skippet (14th century or earlier) 346 

Late Celtic Bronze Enamelled Cheek-piece of Bit from Middle 

Chase Farm, Bowerchalke , 352 

Plan of Stonehenge 358 

Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



"multorum manibus CxRande levator onus." — Ovid. 
No. CXLIV. June, 1926. Vol. XLIII. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunntngton. 

This list aims at being as complete a record as possible of the vessels of 
the " drinking cup " or " beaker " type that have been found in Wiltshire. 
The term " drinking cup " has been adopted throughout on account of its 
being invariably used by the older writers whose records are quoted, and as 
a label it serves as well as any other. 

Drinking cups were divided by Thurnam into three types or classes 
(Arch., xliii., 391) :— 

A. High-brimmed globose cup. 

B. Ovoid cup with recurved rim, 

C. Low-brimmed cup. 

Thurnam's classification was adopted by Abercromby with the addition 
of various sub-types {Bronze Age Pottery^ vol. i., p. 18). 

Type C. is a northern form and is not represented in the present list ; 
and as Abercromby's sub-types may also be disregarded in this connection, 
the vessels have been divided simply into types A. and B. 

It is possible only to ascertain the type of about half the vessels represented 
in the list ; i.e., forty-two out of a total of eighty-one. There are twenty- 
three of type A. and nineteen of type B. 

Forty out of the total are recorded by Sir K. Colt Hoare in ^^ Ancient 

Among the objects found by Hoare, now in the Stourhead Collection in 
the Society's iMuseum at Devizes, there are, including fragments, only 
thirteen cups represented ; one of these is not mentioned in " Ancient 
Wiltshire'^ (No. 84), so that there are only twelve out of the forty, the 
others having been lost before the collection came to Devizes. In many 
cases when vessels in the barrows were found badly broken the pieces were 
not preserved. The record is even worse than this, because Hoare records 

268 List of Bronze Age " Drinking Gwps'' found in Wiltshire. 

finding three drinking cups just over the Wiltshire border that are not 
therefore included in the list, and these are all lost.^ 

Of those found since Hoare's time four have been lost (Nos. 17, 43, 70, 71). 

Thurnam refers to thirty-six drinking cups as having been found by 
Hoare and Cunnington {Arch., xliii., 389), and states that there were nine 
in the collection at Stourhead before its removal to Devizes (p. 337). There 
are, however, now thirteen in the collection, i.e., four more than those seen 
by Thurnam ; these were, perhaps, in fragments at the time of his visit to 
Stourhead. Abercromby refers to twenty-six drinking cups from Wiltshire 
(p. 87), but as two of these entries refer to the same vessel (4a, Avebury 
and 10, East Kennett), the actual number is twenty-five. 

In five cases, as recorded by Hoare, drinking cups were found with burnt 
interments (Nos. 5, 6, 57, 75, 79). Unfortunately it is impossible to verify 
these, as all the vessels are lost, and none were illustrated. The question 
arises as to how far it is safe to rely on Hoare's mention of a " drinking 
cup " in any particular case as referring definitely to the very special type 
of vessel to which the term would now be applied. In describing the 
various kinds of vessels found in barrows, Hoare classes them by what he 
believed to be the purpose for which they were intended rather than by 
their form. He therefore distinguishes drinking cups as a class, as vessels 
destined to hold food for the dead, and not " ashes, burned bones, or trinkets." 
At the same time he notices that they differ " both in shape and design " 
from cinerary urns and incense cups {A. W., 25). 

In one case Hoare certainly uses the term " drinking cup " where modern 
usage would not justify it. He speaks of a " drinking cup, found at the 
feet of a skeleton under a bell barrow, with a * grape cup,* gold, amber, and 
jet beads," etc. {A. W., 202, Normanton Barrow, 156 ; Goddard, Wilsford, 7). 
These objects are now at Devizes {Cat. 280), and the vessel described as a 
" drinking cup " is a very fine urn-shaped vessel with deep overhanging rim. 
Thurnam would have described it as a " Partially decorated urn-shaped 
Food Vessel" {Arch., xliii., 379'). The fact that it was found empty with 
a skeleton burial, justified Hoare, according to his own classification, in the 
use of the term " drinking cup " in this case. 

Hoare also used the term for a vessel with a skeleton burial of Saxon 
date found on the site of Shrewton Windmill (il. IF. 174), but the vessel 
cannot now be identified. Hoare distinguished, nevertheless, between this 
and Bronze Age barrows, and said " Here we find an interment of a later 
sera, and of the same period as that before described on Rodmead Down, 
when the custom of gathering up the legs had ceased, and when the use of 
iron was more generally adopted ; for in the early tumuli none of that metal 
has ever been found " {A, W. 174 ; the burial on Rodmead Down was Saxon, 


In all other instances where Hoare's use of the term can be tested, it is 
applied to the type of vessel to which modern usage would ascribe it. But 
it must be said that there is an element of doubt in some cases just when 

' A. W., p. 235. One on the western side of Bokerley Dyke, in a barrow 
but without a burial ; and two at Woodyates, Barrow 9 (p. 238—9). 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 269 

one would most wish to be without it, as when drinking cups are said to 
have been found with burnt burials and in disc barrows. 

Forty-six of the total number found have occurred in simple bowl barrows, 
often in small low mounds ; two in disc-barrows (Nos. 63, 75), two^ in bell 
barrows (Nos. 4, 81) ; two as secondary and perhaps one as primary burials 
in long-barrows (Nos. 31, 55, 17a) ; two under sarsen stones (Nos. 68, 69) 
two at the foot of a standing stone (Nos. 15, 16); four in oval barrows 
(Nos. 40, 70, 71, 77) ; eight in graves with apparently no mounds over them 
(Nos. 18, 20, 35, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49). Except in five cases the cups were all 
found with burials or in burial places ; the exceptions are Nos. 3a, 16a, 16b, 
20a, 67a, where the vessels were probably used for domestic purposes. In 
these, as in that of West Kennet (No. 17a), the entry represents not a 
single, but fragments of an indefinite number of vessels. 

In forty-three out of sixty-five burials of which the particulars are known 
no other objects were found with the cups. 

Metal was found only in eight out of sixty-five burials ; three of these 
were with vessels of type B, in each case a flat tanged dagger without rivets, 
two certainly of copper (Nos. 38, 41), the third probably so (No. 81) ; in two 
with vessels of type A, one a knife-dagger (No. 36), the other unknown 
(No. 26) ; in the three remaining cases the type of the vessel is not known 
(Nos. 4, 5, 6). 

In two burials flint daggers were found with drinking cups, one of type A , 
the other of type B (Nos. 12, 39). Abercromby mentions ten flint daggers 
found in England with vessels of type A, and states that none had been 
found with type B (p. 23). 

In the only case where the forms of two vessels found in the same barrow 
is known, that with the primary burial was of type B, and that with the 
secondary of type A (Nos. 7o, 71). In this case therefore, type B was, if 
anything, older than type A. Looking at the evidence as a whole, as far as 
it is known for Wiltshire, it cannot be said that one type is older than the 
other ; they appear, indeed, to have been contemporary. 

As bearing on the question of date it is noteworthy, that, in addition to 
those found with burnt burials, Hoare records a deposit of burnt bones 
«below a skeleton with a drinking cup (No. 7). 

Abercromby states that in no case was amber found with drinking cups by 
Hoare in Wilts {Journ. Anthro. Instit, vol. xxxv., p. 261, 1905) ; but the 
l)urial with which No. 12 was found was closely associated with another 
•skeleton with which were beads of amber and of the much discussed seg- 
mented beads of blue vitreous paste. Another drinking cup (No. 11) was 
;apparently found nearer the surface of the same mound that must have 
been deposited later than the burial with the beads. 

The association of gold discs of an Irish type with a drinking cup (No. 
38) has also important bearings on the question of date {Antiq. Journ. ^ 
•Jan., 1925, p. 68). 

The entries in the list are under the name of the parish in which the 

Not counting fragments in Nos. 1 and 2 of list. 

T 2 

270 List of Bronze Age ''Drinking Guys'' found in Wiltshire, 

vessels were found. The number immediately following this name is thafc 
which the barrow bears in the " List of Antiquities in the County of 
Wilts," by the Rev. E. H. Goddard, W.A.M., vol. xxxviii., p. 153. 

When the entry consists in whole, or in part, of a quotation, it is to be 
understood that it is taken from Hoare's Ancient Wilts" ; his account of 
the opening of a barrow and description of the finds is often not more than 
a line or two, and whenever reasonably possible his actual words are given 
in full. When it has been necessary to summarise an entry care has beeB 
taken to omit no detail of interest. 

The word " cist " occurs frequently. Hoare explained that " By the word 
cist I mean an excavation cut in the soil or chalk, for the reception of the 
skeleton, ashes, or sepulchral urn." (A. W., 42, note.) 

Without illustration it would be impossible to describe adequately the 
ornamentation of the vessels. Practically all those now extant have been 
illustrated in the works to which references are given. 

Abbreviations : — 

Ahercromby — '* Bronze Age Pottery.'^ 

Arch. — ^^Archseologia." 

A.W. — Hoare's "^nciVn^ Wiltshire" vol. I. 

Smith. — " British and Roman Antiquities of the North Wiltshire 

Downs,'' Rev. A. C. Smith. 
W.A.M. — " The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History 

D.M. Cat. — Devizes Museum Catalogue. 


1. Aldbourne. (1) Arch., LII., 48 ; (cclxxvi.). 

Among the material of this bell-shaped barrow on Warren Farm 
Canon Greenwell found part of the bottom of a drinking cup. 
British Museum ? 

2. Aldbourne. (3) Arch, LIL, 48—49 ; (cclxxviii.). 

Among the material of this bell-shaped barrow on Warren Farm- 
Canon Greenwell found a piece of a drinking cup. British Museum ?' 

3. Aldbourne. (5) Arch, LII. 53 ; (cclxxx.). 

Canon Greenwell found among the material of this large mound a 
piece of a drinking cup with the toothed impressions of the ornament 
filled in with a white inlay. 
British Museum ? 
3a. Alton Priors. W.A.M., xxxvii.. 60, note. 

A few small sherds were found at Knap Hill Camp. 

4. Amesbury. (15) A.W.,205. Barrow 164, Norman ton. 

"No 164 may be considered as the most beautiful bell-shaped 
barrow in the plains of Stonehenge." It contained within a shallow 
cist the skeleton of a man with head to north-east, and resting on a 
plank of elm wood. On the left side of the head a fine bronze knife- 
dagger that had been in a wooden sheath, and a smaller knife-dagger ;. 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnmgton. 271 

at the feet there was a " richly ornamented drinking cup " ; and at 
the head and feet stags' horns. Three large pieces of oak wood had 
radiated from the skelton to the top of the mound. 

Unhappily the only object of this interesting find that has been 
preserved is the larger knife-dagger. D. M. Cat. Ft. /., No. 126. Lost. 

5,6. Amesbury. (19) ^. IF. 199, Barrow 132. 

"In this barrow we found in a deep cist, an unusually large 
quantity of burned bones, and with them two drinking cups, two 
incense cups, and two brass pins " (^.e., two bronze awls). Only the 
two incense cups are preserved. D, M. Cat., Pt. /., Nos. 123, 123a, 

fig. JjOSt. 

7. Amesbury. (22) ^. PT., 199, Barrow 130. 

"At a depth of about one foot and a half from the surface, we 
discovered a skeleton with a drinking cup, and lower down a deposit 
of burned bone." On the east side of the barrow the skeletons of 
two infants were found, one with head to the east, the other to the 
west, and each placed over the head of a cow. " We afterwards found 
a cist nearly four feet deep in the chalk, which contained, as we 
conceived, the primary interment, viz., the skeleton of a man ; but 
these relics had been disturbed, and some brazen articles, with which 
the bones were tinged, had been removed. Lost. 

8. Amesbury. (40) ^.PT., 159. Barrow 25, " Stonehenge." 

" No. 25 is a wide bowl-shaped barrow, in which we found, within 
a shallow cist, a skeleton with its head towards the north, and a 
drinking cup by its right side, and near it a neatly-formed pin or 
needle of bone." Lost. 

9,10. Amesbury. (51) ^.Tf., 163, PI. xvi. Barrow 36, " Stonehenge." 
"It produced three human skeletons, laid from north to south, 
and immediately one over the other ; the first, about two feet deep ; 
the second on a level with the adjoining soil. Close to the right side 
of the head of this last skeleton was a drinking cup, and with it a 
considerable quantity of something that appeared like decayed 
leather. Six feet lower lay the third, with which was found the 
drinking cup engraved in Tumuli, Plate xvi." Among the bones 
was found a piece of a skull " about five inches long that had 
apparently been sawn off." 

Cup from primary interment at Devizes, Ca^., Pt. I., No. 180, fig. 

11, 12. Amesbury. (54) A.W. 163 ; Barrow 39, " Stonehenge." Evans* 
" Stone:' 315. 

" No. 39 is a bowl-shaped tumulus, adjoining the south side of the 
Cursus. . . . This interesting barrow had experienced a prior, but 
partial, opening, and one skeleton with a drinking cup had been 
disturbed. On reaching the floor, we discovered another skeleton, 
lying with its head due north, which from the size of the bones, and 
the great quantity of beads attending the interment, we conceived to 
have been that of a female ; and several of these being found near 

272 List of Bronze Age ^^ Drinldng Cwps" found in Wiltshire. 

the neck, conOrmed in some degree the opinion. Close to the head 
stood a kind of basin, neatly ornamented. . . . On removing the 
head we were much surprised to find it rested upon a drinking cup^ 
that had been placed at the feet of another skeleton, and which was 
interred in'an oblong cist two feet deep, and lying also north and south. 
With the drinking cup was a spear-head of flint, and a singular stone."^ 

The statement that the skeleton with the beads was found *' On 
reaching the floor" seems inconsistent with the record that the head 
rested on the drinking cup (No. 12) at the foot of the skeleton in 
a cist two feet deep. However this may be the description clearly 
shows that these two burials were closely associated, and that if not 
actually contemporary, no long time is likely to have elapsed between 

The cup from the primary burial, the very beautiful flint dagger, 
whetstone, three segmented beads of blue vitreous paste, and nine 
small amber beads, are at Devizes, Cat. Ft. 7., Nos. 84, 85, 85a, 88. 

13. Amesbury. (56) ^.TT., 165. Barrow 43, " Stonehenge." 

•*.... at the depth of three feet, the skeleton of an adult 
with a drinking cup, and on the floor of the barrow, another of a 
child. We afterwards, in a shallow cist, found the third skeleton of 
a man, lying with his head to the north, and close to it, on the right 
side, was a curious pebble, and under his left hand was a dagger of 

The knife dagger, and the pebble of banded flint are at Devizes. 
Cat. Ft. /., Nos. 89, 90. Lost. 

15. Avebury. (10) A fragment of a large drinking cup was picked up on 
this barrow. Ornamented with horizontal lines and thumb nail 
markings. Passmore Collection. 

15, 16. Avebury. W.A.M.^ xxxviii., 3—5, fig. "Longstone Cove." 

A burial of a skeleton with a drinking cup was found at the foot 
of the standing stone known as *' Adam," in Longstone Cove, after 
the fall of the stone in 1911. The vessel and skeleton were 
fragmentary, having been disturbed in the course of cultivation, but 
it was evident that the burial must have taken place after the erection 
of the stone. 

A fragment of the rim of another drinking cup was found among 
the packing boulders in the hole in which the stone had stood, 

16a. Avebury. Report of the British Association on *^ The Age of Stone 
Circles,'' 1922, p. 5. (Hull Meeting.) 

About a dozen small fragments of pottery of drinking cup type, 
probably of more than one vessel, *' with typical notched pattern in 
chevrons, horizontal and vertical lines, with plain zones," were found 
in the course of excavations in the great fosse of the circle of 


By Mrs. M. E, G^innington. 273 

16b. Avebury. Unpublished. 

Fragments of pottery of drinking cup type were found in excava- 
tions in the ditch of the entrenchment on Windmill Hill, by the Rev. 
H. G. O. Kendall in 1923. Devizes. 

17. Avebury (25b). IT.^.J/., xx., 347. Smith, p. 164, VIb. 

A fragment of a drinking cup was found in this barrow on Overton 
Hill. Lost. 

17a. Avebury. (22). West Kennet Long Barrow. Arch., XXXVIIL, 405 
XLIL, 203, 211 ; J. r., II , 96 ; Cr. Brit., PI. 50 ; W.A.M., x., 130 ; 
Smith, 154, vi., b. 

Numerous fragments of pottery, both of Neolithic and of drinking 
cup type, were found by Thurnam in this chambered barrow ; "in 
three of the four angles of the chamber there was a pile of such 
evidently deposited in a fragmentary state, there being scarely more 
than two or three portions of the same vessel." 

Fragments in the British and Devizes Museums, Cat., Pt. II,, X94. 

18. Avebury. Unpublished, Found at Beckhampton with remains of a 

skeleton besides a large sarsen stone in July, 1925. Devizes. 

19. Berwick St. John. (12) Pitt-Rivers, Excavations, ii., 19, 26, PI. 17, 

" Susan Gibbs " Walk, Barrow xx. 

Found in a grave 3ft. deep, beneath a small round barrow, at the 
feet of a skeleton. Farnham Museum. 

20. Berwick St. John. Pitt-Rivers, Excavations, ii., 60, PI. 92, Rotherly." 

Found in a grave in the Romano-British village of Rotherly, 
without any sign of a barrow, at the feet of a contracted skeleton. 
Farnham Museum. 

20a. Berwick St. John. Pitt- Rivers, Excavations, iv., p. 36—7, figs. 6—9. 
Fragments of pottery of drinking cup type were found in the ditch 
of South Lodge Camp, Rushmore. Farnham Museum. 

21. Bishops Cannings. (54) ^. IT., II., 93, Barrow 4, "Beckhampton"; 

Arch. Instit., 1849, p. 109, fig. 10 ; W.A.M., iv., 362, note ; vi., 321 ; 
Smith, p. 109, vii., b. 

Found in a small low barrow at the head of a contracted skeleton. 

Devizes, Cat., Pt. /., No. 296. 

22. 23. Boyton. (4) Arch., XV., 343, figs. ; A,W., 102 ; W.A.M., xxi., 257. 

Two drinking cups were found with a skeleton, lying with head to 
the east, in a grave beneath a barrow ; the larger cup 9in. high, was 
near the feet, arid the smaller, Sj in. high, about a foot distant. Lost. 

24. Brigmilston. 

Found in a barrow with piece of red deer horn. No details known, 
Devizes, Cat., Pt. II., XlO fig. 

25. Bulford. Fragments in Salisbury Museum, No details known. 

274 List of Bronze Age *' Drinldng Gups'' found in Wiltshire, 

26. Calne Without. (2c) W.A.M., xxiii., 215. 

Found by flint diggers in a low barrow. An object of bronze or 
copper found with it was lost. 
Devizess Gat., Pt. IL, X9 fig. 

27. Collingbourne Ducis, (9 ?) W.A.M., x. 91. 

Fragments of a drinking cup were found in one of the barrows 
opened in 1855 and 1861, by the llev. W. C. Lukis, on Cow Down. 
It is not possible to identify the barrow with any certainty. 

Devizes, Gat., Pt, IL, X36. 

28. Durrington. (8) A.W., 1Q6. Barrow 66. 

'• No. 66 is a low barrow, in which were fragments of a human 
skull, of a large sepulchral urn, and a drinking cup." Lost. 

29. Durrington. (25j ^. PF., 167, Barrow 84. 

" In making our section we found pieces of stag's horns, pottery, 
and the remains of a skeleton and drinking cup, and two knives ; but 
the primary interment was a skeleton, with its legs gathered up, and 
hands placed under its head." 

Of whatever material the " knives" were, they do not seem to 
have been actually associated with the skeleton and drinking cup. 

30. Durrington, (36) ^. If ., 168, PI. 18, Barrow 93. TF.^.J/., xvi., I7l,fig. 

"No. 93 contained, near the top, an interment of burned bones, in 
a rude broken urn, with a small cup ; also the remains of a skeleton, 
charred wood, and stag's horns, and flint apparently prepared for 
warlike instruments. The primary deposit was a skeleton, with its 
head placed towards the south-east, accompanied by a fine drinking 

The small urn-shaped vessel found with the secondary burial is at 
Devizes, Cat., Pt. L, No. 240. 

Devizes, Ca^., P^. /., No. 30. 

31. Figheldean. (31) W.A.M., xxxviii., 390. Arch. XLIL, 180, 197—8, 


A long barrow opened by Thurnam in 1864. Me found a secondary 
interment, about a foot below the surface of the mound, of a skeleton 
in a moderately contracted position with a fine drinking cup near the 

British ^luseum. 

32. Heytesbury. (4e) A.W.,m\ W.A.M., xxi., 259, fig. (here referred 

to as found at Imber) ; Arch., XLIIL, 393, note c. ; CD., PI. 40. 

A low barrow near Knook boundary, south of Imber Firs, " pro- 
duced, at the depth of 5ft., a human skeleton lying on its face, with 
the head towards the north. At its feet was a drinking cup of red 
pottery." Lost. 

33. Heytesbury. (4f) ,4. IT., 104; " Tytherington." 

" A very low barrow bearing marks of high aptiquity, and which, 
on opening, contained a skeleton lying on its left side, with its legs 

By Mrs. M. E. Gunnington. 275 

drawn up, two rude arrow heads of flint near its head, and a drinking 
cup at its feet." Lost. 

34. Hilmarton. 

A fragment of a drinking cup was found 6ft. below the surface at 
Goatacre. No details known. 
Devizes, Cat, Ft. II , X89. 

35. Imber. ^ JF, 87. 

Hoare found *' the remains of a human skeleton deposited with his 
drinking cup," in a grave without any barrow in the " British Village " 
at Wadman's Coppice. Lost. {See No. 20, above.) 

36. Kennet, East. (Ic) Arch. Journ., XXIV., 28; Evans' ''Bronze," 

p. 226 ; ''Stone,'' p. 193 ; Arch., XLIH., 392, 410, 452 ; LXI, 104. 

Found near the feet of a skeleton in a grave 5ft. deep under a low 
barrow ; a stone perforated hammer and bronze knife-dagger were 
found also, and along the right side of the skeleton "there had been 
a wooden staff." Hull Museum. 

Note. — The various references to the finds in this barrow have 
led to some confusion. The facts seem to be that it was opened by 
the l^ev. 11. C. Connor in 1840 (Arch. XLIII., p. 289) ; the objects 
were exhibited by Bishop Denison at Salisbury at the temporary 
Museum when the Arch. Institute met at Salisbury in 1849 {Arch, 
Journ., XXIV., p. 28) ; they were also exhibited to the Society of 
Antiquaries in London in 1869, by permission of the Hon. Mrs. Denison, 
in whose possession they then were [Proc. Soc. Antiq., 2nd, S., IV., 
339). After this, in spite of efforts to trace it, the whereabouts of 
the vessel was unknown until recently it appeared in a public auction 
in London ; it was bought by a dealer, from whom it was purchased 
in 1925 for the Hull M useum. The whereabouts of the objects found 
with it is still unknown. 

Abercromby entered the find under two headings, viz., "4a, near 
Avebury," and " 10, East Kennet." 

Smith (p. 168) speaks of the barrow "from which Dr. Thurnam 
obtained the double axe," and reproduces the figure from Arch., 
XUIL, p. 410, Fig. 96, which Thurnam clearly states was the one 
from the barrow opened by the Rev. U. C. Connor in 1840. 

The figure of the cup given by Merewether {Arch. Journ., 1849, 
p. 110, Fig. 12) is not very accurate, but as Thurnam himself refers 
to it, Arch., XLIIL, 289, Table 3, No. 2, he could have had no doubt 
that it was the same vessel, of which he gives a better picture. 

The Hev. E. H. Goddard says the barrow was opened ''circa 1854," 
but this should be 1840. ( W.A.M., xxxviii., 270, Ic.) 

Kennet, West, see Avebury, No. 17a, 

37. Kilmington. (3) A.W. 42-3, Barrow 4, Whitesheet Hill. 

"At the bottom of the third tumulus we discovered a cist cut in 
the chalk, but not a single fragment of either bone or pottery. . , . 
But our researches . , . were not wholly unproductive, for a few 
feet under the turf we found a skeleton laid on its side, the head 

276 List of Bronze Age " Drinldng Cups "/ound in Wiltshire. 

turned towards the north-east, and a richly-ornamented drinking cup 
at its feet." Devizes, Gat., Pt. I., No. 368. 
Lockeridge, see Overton. 

38. Mere. (6a) A.W., U, Fh 11. ^rcA. XLIII , 527, fig. 218 ; LXL, p. 

105. Evans' Bronze, 223 ; Stone, 382 ; W.A.M., xxi., 257; xxxvii., 98 ; 
Antiquaries' Journal, V., 68. 

In a small low barrow, opened by Mr. Fenton, "at the depth of 
about 3|ft , he found a cist, 6ft. in length, from east to west, con- 
taining the skeleton of a large man with his limbs gathered up and 
crossed, and that of a younger person by his right side. From the 
position of their heads they seem to have been placed in the affectionate 
attitude of embrace, as the two skulls nearly touched each other. 
Close to them was a richly-ornamented drinking cup ; and near the 
left side of the adult was a small lance head of brass,^ and a piece of 
grey slaty stone, perforated at the ends. He also found a small 
instrument of bone, and two circular ornaments of thin, but pure 
gold." On the eastern side of the cist was a great deal of charred 
wood, but no apparent sign of burning in the barrow. 

Devizes, Cat., Pt. /., No. 81b. 

39. Overton, West, (f.ockeridge.) W.A.M., xli., 187. Proc. Soc, Ant,, 

XXXIL, 14. 1920. 

In a shallow grave with no mound over it, a beaker and a fine 
flint dagger were found with a skeleton of a man. Devizes, 

40. Round way, (5) W.A.M., vi., 162. (Double Barrow No. 6.) 

Fragments of a drinking cup were found, apparently unassociated, 
in the east end of this barrow. Devizes, Cat., Pt. II., X70. 

41. Roundway. (8) W.A.M., iii., 185; Arch., XLIIL, 392,450: LXL, 

104—105, figs. Cran. Brit, II., PI. 42. Evans' ''Bronze," 223; 
Smith, 70, viii. e. 

A small, very low barrow, contained a contracted skeleton in an 
oval grave, 6ft. deep from surface. A drinking cup was found at 
the feet, a tanged and barbed flint arrowhead near the skull, near 
the left hand a tanged dagger of copper — (analysed) ; in front of the 
breast between the bones of the forearm a slate wrist guard, and 
adhering to it a small object of bronze or copper, much corroded. 

Devizes, Cat., Pt. II., X47— X50a. 

42. Roundway. (9) W .A.M., y\., \^\—^. Barrow 4. 

This barrow was opened by William Ounnington, F.S.A., and 
Hoare records that a skeleton was found " lying from north to south, 
but without any accompaniment of arms or trinkets." {A. W., II. 98.) 
It was re-opened by William Cunnington's grandson in 1856, who 
found the remains of a skeleton in an oval cist with fragments of a 
drinking cup. Devizes, Cat. Pt. II., X52. 

^ Analysed and found to be of copper. 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 277 

43. Round way. Arch. Instit., 1842, 109, Fig. 9. 

" Found in digging clay for a pond, near Roundway Down, without 
any irregularity of the ground, but near a skeleton, whose position 
could not be ascertained, having been carelessly disturbed by the 
workmen." Lost. 

44. Sutton Veny. (11a) A. W., 103. W.A.M., x., Ill, fig. 

A barrow now destroyed, on the right of the road between Sutton 
Veny and Longbridge Deverill. A plate of thin chloritic slate was 
found "immediately under the right hand, and close to the breast of 
a skeleton, which had been interred with its head towards the north, 
and its legs . , . gathered. A few inches from this ornament (the 
slate) were two boar's tusks, and close to the knees of the skeleton 
was a drinking cup." The slate plate was called a " Breastplate " by 
Hoare ; it is very large (4|in. x 2|in.) for a wrist-guard, which it 
otherwise resembles. Lost. 

The slate and boar's tusks are at Devizes, Cat , Pt. /., Nos. 63—4. 

45. Sutton Veny. (lib) il.PT., 103. 

" Another of the small barrows in this neighbourhood produced 
the interment of a skeleton, with a drinking cup at its feet." Lost. 

46. Swindon. TFl^.M., xxxviii., 42, Fig. 1. 

Men digging stone in 1906 found a shallow grave, 3ft. deep, without 
any barrow over it, containing a skeleton lying on its right side, head 
to the south, feet to the north, face pointing east, the body only 
slightly contracted. Behind the head and almost touching it was a 
drinking cup. The skeleton was that of a young person about 15 
years of age, with markedly dolichocephalic skull. 

Passmore Collection. 

47. Swindon. W.A.M., xxxviii., 42, Fig. 2. 

Later, about 50 yards east of the last (No. 46 above), workmen came 
upon a small heap of bones, apparently those of a child, buried without 
the flesh, or previously disturbed. Lying by the bones were the 
crushed remains of a large drinking cup. 

Passmore Collection. 

48. Swindon. W.A.M., xxxviii., 43, Fig. 3. 

Later (1908), workmen found a third burial near the same spot, 
but previously disturbed and scattered. The bones were those of a 
young person about 17 years of age, and among them were fragments 
of a large drinking cup. 

Passmore Collection. 

49. Upavon. W.A.M., x]., 6. 

In 1915, during building operations at the Central Flying School, 
a grave 3ft. deep, without any mound over it, was found, containing 
a skeleton, with head to north-east, accompanied by a drinking cup. 

Ornamented with rows of horizontal lines. Devizes. 

50. Upton Lovel. (2c) A. W., 75, PI. ix. Barrow 3. 

A low barrow, contained a skeleton with head to north, and a 
drinking cup near the legs. Devizes, Cat., Ft. I., 13. 

278 List of Bronze Age " Drinking Cups "found in Wiltshire. 

51. Wanborough. (1) fF.^.M., xxviii., 262. 

A fragment of a drinking cup was picked up in this barrow during 
excavations. Ornamented with horizontal lines. Passmore Collection. 

52. Wilsford. (1) ^. IT., 206. " Normanton " Barrow, 166. 

" No. 166 contained the remains of a skeleton, accompanied by a 
drinking cup, and stags' horns." Lost. 

53-54 Wilsford. (2b) A.W.,205. " Normanton " Barrow, 161. 

" In . , . a low barrow ... we found a skeleton, with 
its head laid towards the south-east, and with it a drinking cup. 
Eighteen inches lower down was another . . . (skeleton) ; and 
beneath it we discovered a cist of the depth of nearly six feet, cut in 
the chalky rock, and containing the primary interment of a young 
man, with his head lying towards the north, and a drinking cup close 
to his right hand ; it had been neatly ornamented, but was broken 
by the pressure of the incumbent earth." 

It is not known whether the cup now at Devizes is that from the 
secondary or primary interment ; but it is probably the former, as 
Hoare states that the primary cup was broken. Devizes, Cat , Pt. /., 
No. 147. 

55. Wilsford. (34) ir.^./I/., xxxviii.,405. " Normanton " Long Barrow, 

170. A.W., 206. Arch., XLIL, 196, 198. W.A.M., xvi., 93, note. 
MS. Cat., Nos. 228—9, 245, 256—7. 

This long barrow was opened by Thurnam, who seems not to have 
found the primary burial, but only five secondary ones of skeletons ; 
with one of these near the summit of the mound a drinking cup was 
found near the hips of a contracted skeleton. British Museum ? 

56. Wilsford. (40) J. W^., 210, Lake Group Barrow 6. 

A secondary interment of a cinerary urn inverted over burned bones 
— among which was a bone pin, was found about a foot from the 
surface of the mound ; 5ft. below this were the remains of two 
skeletons. Below these, in a grave, 5ft. deep and 7ft. long, cut into 
the chalk, was a skeleton of a child, apparently not more than two 
or three years old, accompanied by a drinking cup. 

The bone pin is at Devizes, Cat., Pt. /, No. 174b. Lost. 

57. Wilsford. (51) A.W.,2n. Lake Group, Barrow 24. 

In this barrow were found, immediately under the turf, burned 
bones with the fragments of a drinking cup. Another deposit of 
burned bones were found 2ft. lower down, "immediately over the 
head of a skeleton ; and beneath this we found a second skeleton 
. . . and several large pieces of stags' horns by its side." Lost. 
58,59,60. Wilsford. (53) ^.TF., 21 1, PI. 28. Lake Group, Barrow 22. 

" No. 22 had also been partially opened, for amongst the unburned 
bones which had been moved we found the remains of two neatly- 
ornamented drinking cups ; and, on digging towards the south-east, 
we discovered the skeleton of a child, and over it a drinking cup." 

This last cup is at Devizes, Cat., Pt. /., 246. 

By Mrs. M. E. Cnnnington. 27^ 

61. Wilsford. (54) A.W.,^\\. Lake Group, Barrow 21. 

"No. 21 had been opened before; but amongst the earth and 
scattered bones we found fragments of a fine drinking cup, some 
chipped flints, and one perfect arrowhead of flint." A. W., PI. 30, 
No. 5. 

The arrowhead is at Devizes, Cat., Pt. /., No. I73b. Lost. 
Note. — Mr. Goddard, W.A.M., xxxviii., 350, mentions a second 
" drinking cup" under this number, but Hoare {A.W , 212-3), who 
is apparently referring to another barrow 21, speaks of " two small 
earthen cups," and one of these was certainly an incense cup and is 
illustrated in Plate xxxi. Duke, in his notes on this barrow ( W.A.M., 
XXXV., 586) speaks of " two small urns or drinking cups," but in view 
of Hoare's illustration of one of them, this description is obviously 
of no value. The incense cup was bought by the British Museum at 
the sale of the Duke Collection ( IF.^.i/.,xxviii., 261, Lot 119), but 
no mention is made of a drinking cup, or beaker, in any of the lots. 
It is, therefore, more than doubtful if the second vessel was indeed a 
drinking cup. 

62. Wilsford. (62) A. W., 208, PL 28, No. 3 ; Wilsford Group, Barrow 13. 

" In No. 13, a large bow^l-shaped barrow, we found the skeleton of 
a young and stout man deposited in a shallow cist, with the head 
towards the south-east, and near it a large and rude drinking cup." 

Devizes, Cat, Pt. T., 245. 

63. Wilsford. (70) A.W.,^OS. Wilsford Group, Barrow 7. JrcA., XLIII., 

294, note b. 

This was a disc barrow with three mounds ; " in one of which we 
found the relicks of the skeleton of a youth, and fragments of a 
drinking cup ; in the centre tump was a simple interment of burned 
bones, with a small brass pin^ ; and the third seemed to have been 
opened before." Lost. 

64 65, QQ, 67. Wilsford ? There are fragments of four drinking cups, part 
of the Duke Collection, now in the British Museum. 

These were, no doubt, from barrows in the neighbourhood of Lake, 
but no particulars are known about them. One, if not two, of these 
vessels, may have come from a bowl barrow, associated with the 
skeletons of one or two children, apparently a secondary burial. 
This is Barrow 5 of the Rev. Edward Duke's notes {W.A.M.^ xxxv., 
584). One of the vessels, of which there are two fragments, elabor- 
ately ornamented, seems to have been of type A ; two seem to have 
been of type B. 

67a. Winterbourne Dauntsey. W.A.M., xliii., 54 (a), 55 (c). 

Fragments of several drinking cups were found in excavations at 
Figsbury Bings. Devizes. 

68—69. Winterbourne Monkton. W.A.M., i., 303; Smith, 85; Cra7i. 
Brit., ii., 2, PL 58 ; Evans' Stone, 228. 

Hoare generally means by this a bronze awl. 

280 List of Bronze Age " Drinking Cicps " found in Wiltshire. 

Fragments of two cups were found with the skeleton of a man in 
a circular grave under a sarsen stone ; there were also two conical 
buttons and a "pulley" ring of Kimmeridge shale, a serpentine 
pebble, and a flint knife. Devizes, Cat ^ Pt. II., Nos. X83— X87a; 

70—71. Winterbourne Monkton. (10) Arch. Instit., 1849, 105, figs. x. and 
aa; Evans' Stone, 293 ; Smith, Antiq. North Wilts, p. 126, III. e. 

Opened by Dean Merewether, who describes the barrow as a large 
oval mound, with three large sarsen stones on top. " On removing the 
three sarsen stones from the apex, about a foot deep appeared the 
fragments of a small ornamented urn (fig. X.) containing the skull 
bones principally of a young person . . . near the top (of the 
urn ?) was a sarsen, rounded, and about two inches in diameter." At 
a depth of 5ft., the heads of two oxen were found (fig. Y.), apparently 
laid on the N.E. side of a grave, 6ft. by 4ft., cut in the chalk. At a 
depth of 5ft. below this, and 10ft. from the top of the mound, a con- 
tracted skeleton of an adult (fig. Z) was found, lying on its left side ; 
behind the head was a drinking cup (fig. aa) ; at the right foot a 
tanged and barbed flint arrowhead (fig. bb), and a worked flint de- 
scribed as a " spear-head " (fig. cc). Another worked flint was found 
"subsequently" (fig. dd). 

The whereabouts of these objects is not known. 

72. Winterbourne Monkton. (16). 

A fragment of a drinking cup was picked up on this barrow. 
Passmore Collection. 

73. Winterbourne Stoke. (10) A. W., 125, Winterbourne Stoke Group, 

Barrow 27. 

"At the depth of 7ft. we came to the floor of the barrow, where 
we discovered a large oblong cist, 5ft. long, 4ft. wide, and 2|ft. deep, 
neatly cut in the chalk. On clearing away the earth round this cist, 
we perceived a sepulchral urn, inverted in a half circle, cut in the side 
of the large cist, which, on taking out, we found had been placed in 
the lap of a skeleton, which lay at the depth of about a foot within 
the cist, its head towards the north. The urn contained burned 
bones. . . . On removing it and the skeleton we found five more 
skeletons lying almost side by side, two of which were young 
persons, and when we reached the floor of the cist we found what I 
considered to be the primary interment, viz., two skeletons lying by 
the side of each other, with their heads to the north. ... At 
their head was placed a drinking cup. From the evidence of the 
various soils in the mound, it appeared that the burials had been 
made at three diflferent times ; firstly, that at the bottom of the cist, 
then the six skeletons above it, and lastly the urn burial." Devizes, 
Cat, PL /., 274. 

74. Winterbourne Stoke. (17). 

A fragment of a drinking cup was picked up on this barrow. 
Passmore Collection 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, 281 

75, Winterbourne Stoke. (17) A.W., 121. Winterbourne Stoke Group. 

Barrow 8. 

This is a disc barrow. " In the centre it had an oval cist, 4|ft. 
long, and 2ft. wide, with an even floor of chalk, and in the middle 
of it was a heap of burned bones, but no ashes. At the distance of a 
foot was a fine drinking cup, richly ornamented." Lost. 

76. Winterbourne Stoke. (20) ^.TF., 121. Winterbourne Stoke Group. 

Barrow 7. 

" In a cist cut in the native chalk was the primary deposit of an 
adult skeleton, lying from north to south, with a drinking cup at his 
feet." The skeleton of a child with " a basin-like urn " was found as 
a secondary interment in the mound. Lost. 

77. Winterbourne Stoke. (35) W.A.M., xl, i2. ^. IF., 165 ; Barrow 49 

(at west end of cursus). Evans' Stone, 273. W.A.M., x., 23. 

This was an oval barrow opened by Thurnam in 1864. Near the 
east end, at a depth of about Hft., a much contracted skeleton was 
found, with a drinking cup close to the back of the skull. A small 
cup of thick pottery was found near the centre of the barrow, and at 
the west end, from 1ft. to 3ft. deep, near the skull of the crouched 
skeleton of a tall man, were four beautiful leaf -shaped javelins or 
daggers of fiint.^ British Musem. 

78, Winterbourne Stoke. (54) A.W., 118, pi. xiv. ; Barrow 5. Arch., 

XLIIL, p. 425 ; Evans' Stone, p. 239. 

A large mound in which " within a foot of the floor, we found the 
skeleton of a young person, deposited over the north-west edge of a 
very large and deep oblong cist, and upon the same level, on the south 
side, we discovered an interment of burned bones. On clearing the 
earth to the depth of 5ft., we reached the floor of the barrow, in 
which a cist of the depth of 4ft. was cut in the native chalk, and at 
the depth of 2ft. on the southern side of the cist was deposited the 
skeleton of an infant, apparently but a few months old. From the 
position in which these interments were placed it is evident they 
had been deposited at different times, and were subsequent to the 
primary one, in search of which we next proceeded. On clearing 
away the earth from the large cist we found the head of a skeleton 
lying on the north side, but to our surprise no vertebrae or ribs, 
further on were the thigh bones, legs, etc," A drinking cup was 
found at the feet, and two whetstones. There was also found, 
position not stated, a conical button and a " pulley ring" of shale, 
and a piece of flint rudely chipped, as if intended for a dagger or 
spear," Devizes Cat., Pt. L, Nos. 39, 72, 178, 210. 

* In Arch., XLIII., 297, Thurnam states that the flint javelin heads were 
found with the skeleton at the eastern end of the barrow ; this would imply 
that they were together with the drinking cup, but this is obviously a slip, 
for in the fuller accounts it is distinctly stated that they were found with 
the skeleton at the western end. See Ibid. 414. Pro. Soc. Antiq., 2 S. ii., 
p. 427. IF.^.if., xi., 42. 

282 List of Bronze Age " Drinking Cups " found in Wiltshire. 

79. Winterbourne Stoke. (56) A. W., 115. East Group Barrow 7. 

A large barrow in which " At the depth of 4Jft. we discovered the 
skeleton of an infant, with its head laid towards the south, and im- 
mediately beneath it a deposit of burnt bones and a drinking cup, 
which was unfortunately broken. At the depth of 8ft,, and in the 
native bed of chalk, we came to the primary interment, viz,, the 
skeleton of a man lying from north to south, with his legs gathered 
up according to the primitive custom, on his right side, and a foot or 
more above the bones, was an enormous stag's horn." Part of the 
stag's horn only is at Devizes, Cat.^ No. 7la. Lost. 

80. Winterbourne Stoke 1 

" Found in the hands of a skeleton in Barrow near the Stoke Road 
to Stonehenge, 1816." Devizes, Cat., Ft. I., 164. 

81. Winterslow. (11) Arch Jour., l.,\)\i.\bQ — 7. Ho^^vq^^ Modern Wilts 

v., 208. Arch., XLIII., 361, 449; LXI , 106, fig. Evans' Bronze, 216. 

This large bell-barrow was opened by the Rev. A. B. Hutchins in 
1814. The primary burial, in a grave 4ft. deep, consisted of " a 
skeleton of immense size," with a drinking cup between the knees 
and feet, and in it two flint arrowheads ; under the right arm was a 
flat-tanged dagger of copper or bronze,^ and a slate wristguard. 

Ashmolean Museum. 

^ Daggers of similar form found with Nos. 36 and 38, on analysis proved to 
be of copper. 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 




(U u 

I I 


ft o 


1 I 


1 Aldbourne 









3a Alton Priors 


4 Amesbury 












































s • 


























14 Avebury 










17 „ 












19 Berwick St. James 








20 „ „ ... 





20a „ „ ... 

21 Bishops Cannings ... 







22 Boy ton 


















24 Brigmerston 



25 Bulford 

26 Calne Without 








27 Collingbourne Ducis 



28 Durrington 

















31 Figheldean 








32 Heytesbury 















34 Hilmarton 

35 Imber 




10 f 



36 Kennett, East 






37 Kilmington 







38 Mere 








39 Overton, West 





40 Bound way 























* Flint. 


284 List of Bronze Age " Drinking Cups '\found in Wiltshire. 








3 . 









II 1 1 


\ 1 





44 Sutton Veny 













46 Swindon 





47 „ 










49 Upavon 





50 Upton Lovel 








5] Wanborough 


B . 

52 Wilsford 





































57 „ 


























































67a Winterbo'ne Dauntse] 


68 Winterbo'ne Monktoi 







69 „ „ .. 






70 „ „ .. 








71 ,. „ .. 

. 10 







72 „ „ .. 

. 16 


73 Winterbourne Stoke 








74 „ „ .. 

. 12 

75 „ ,. .. 

. 17 







. 20 






77 „ „ .. 

. 35 







78 „ „ .. 

. 54 







79 „ „ .. 

. 56 











81 Winterslow 

. 1 










t Oval Barrow. 

X Other objects of flint. 

* Flint. 



By Canon F. H. Manley.^ 
The deeds, of which abstracts are given below, form a useful series 
not only because they are such a complete record of the manner in which 
the estate was built up, but also because they throw light upon several 
points of local history in both Seagry and Great Somerford. 

The parish of Seagry includes in Domesday two manorial holdings, and 
the manor mentioned in these deeds under the name of Nether Seagry is 
apparently that then held by Drogo Fitz Ponz, and it is worth while noticing 
that " the two mills paying twenty-two shillings & fourpence" recorded as 
at the time of the Conqueror belonging to this manor are included among the 
appurtenances of the " scite of the Manor of Nether Seagree," conveyed to 
Rebecca Stratton in 1648. 

The earliest deed, which is a copy of the original, dated 1556, shows how 
the estates of the Mompessons, of Bathampton, were divided among four 
-coheiresses on the death of their brother, Edmund Mompesson, in 1553, 
and traces back the connection of the family with those of Godwin and 
Bonham, whose heiresses brought various properties to this branch of the 
Mompesson family. 

The manors of Segree and Somerford Bolles were allotted to William 
Wayte, as part of the share of his wife, Ann Mompesson. Wm. Wayte 
owned the manor of Wymering, in Hampshire, and dying in 1561, left six 
daughters co-heiresses of his property, and several proceedings in Chancery 
still existent, give us some insight into the disputes which arose between 
them. {Chancery Pro., II., Bundle 9, No. 21.) 

The Somerford Bolles manor^ ultimately came into the hands of the 
Bruning family, Richard Bruning having married one of the co-heiresses, 
Eleanor Wayte, who died in 1593 (Will P.C.C. 6 Nevill), and the Seagry 
manor passed to the Norton family, Rose Wayte, another of the co-heiresses 
liaving married Sir Richard Norton, Knt., who died in 1592. Their grandson, 
Sir Richard Norton, Bart., succeeded to the Seagry estate on the death of his 
father. Sir Richard Norton, Knt., in 1611 (Will. RC.C. 90 Wood). He 
was of Tisted, Hants, and in consequence of espousing the Royal cause 
became impoverished by the Civil Wars. He sold the Seagry estate in 

i 1648, and the purchaser of the Manor House with appurtenances was the 
tenant, Mrs. Rebecca Stratton. 

When Aubrey compiled his brief notes upon Seagry,^ he seems to have 

i paid a visit to the Manor House, and tells us that the Mompesson "coate 
is in the Hall window with the martlet on the shoulder," and he also states 

that " Mr. Stratton hath all the Deedes/' and these must be the deeds from 
A. 1 to A. 9 almost all of which are now in the possession of the Wilts 

I Archaeological Society. Strangely enough, despite the careful pedigree of 

^ The Society is indebted to Canon Manley for the cost of the block of 
the accompanying map. 

2 Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxxi., pp. 290—3. 
2 Wilts Coll^., ed. Jackson, pp. 280—3. 

U 2 

286 The Society's MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House. 

the Mompessons given in deed A. 1, Aubrey's version of the pedigree which 
he inserts in his notes is not correct, so that he must have read the document 
somewhat carelessly. We owe the preservation of these old deeds, and 
others in this collection, to the insistence with which Mr. Houlton, when 
he bought small pieces of land claimed the custody of deeds which more 
properly should have remained in the hands of those who owned the larger 
portions of these properties. 

From a memorial tablet still in Seagry Church we learn that Mrs. Rebecca 
Stratton was the widow of Henry Stratton. In the Visitation of Wiltshire, 
162.3, appears a short pedigree of Stratton of Bremble [Bvemhilham] Siud 
the second son is John Stratton, of Segree, alive at that date. John Stratton 
died in the following year, and was buried at Seagry 21st Oct., 1624, where 
his wife, Johan, had already been laid to rest, 5th Oct., 1622. The Inq. P.M. 
of John Stratton, of Seagry, is included in the printed Wilts collection. It 
seems probable that he resided at the Manor House, and that his second 
son, Henry, was the husband of Mrs. Rebecca Stratton, succeeding to his 
father's interest in this property. Mrs. Rebecca Stratton died in 1678, and by 
her will (Arch Wilts, pr. 6 June, 1679,) left "the fee and inheritance of the 
Capital Messuage with the land and the Mill" to her son Robert, saddled 
however with a settlement, which gave possession of the capital messuage 
with appurtenances to her son Thomas and his wife Ann [Lawrence] for the 
term of their lives. Thomas Stratton was buried at Seagry, 22nd Aug., 1670, 
and his wife Ann at Dauntsey, 6th March, 1692/3. Robert Stratton thus 
did not come into full possession of the manor until the latter date. He 
was buried at Seagry 1 1th October, 1700, and under the terms of his will 
(Arch. Wilts, pr 27th May, 17ul) the capital messuage of the manor with 
certain lands was left to his niece Anne, daughter of his brother Thomas 
and Ann Stratton, for her life, together with certain other lands for a term 
of ten years, but the fee simple of all his property was devised to his great 
nephew Robert, a grandson of his brother John Stratton, and in default to 
Robert's brother Thomas Stratton, the two brothers being both of them of 
Hard wick, Co. Gloucester. This Robert Stratton soon began to encumber 
the property with mortgages, and in 1710 sold to Joseph Houlton, the 
younger, of Trowbridge, a member of a family of wealthy clothiers, a 
considerable portion of the estate, being land chiefly lying in Upper 
Seagry. Robert Stratton did not, however, part with either of his two 
messuages on the estate, but retained possession of the old Manor 
House and the mill, the former of which was in the occupation of 
his cousin, Ann Stratton, until her death in 1731, buried at Seagry, 24th 
Sept. (Will, Arch. Wilts, pr. 8th Oct, 1731.) Robert Stratton himself 
was buried at Seagry 9th Oct., 1758, and his is the last of the Stratton 
memorial tablets in the Church. He left a family of six children, but by 
his will (Arch. Wilts, pr. 28th Nov., 1758) directs that his estate in Seagry 
is to be sold, and the manor then passed into other hands. At the date of 
the tithe apportionment, 1840, Lord Holland was owner. 

Kritton tells us that Robert Stratton pulled down the old Manor House 
"about the middle of the last century," and a question has been raised as 
to its position. There is at present near the Church at Seagry a com- 
paratively modern farm house called the Church Farm, and a fine mediaeval 

By Canon F, H. Manley. 287 

gateway, which Britton assumes to be part of the original Manor House. 
Mr. Anketell, in his notes upon Seagry ( Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxiii., p. 71), 
contends that both Aubrey and Britton are wrong in thinking that the 
Manor House stood near the Church and asserts that the Church Farm 
was formerly a grange farm belonging to Bradenstoke Priory, and that the 
fragment of ancient building still in existence has about it a monastic 
character. The names, however, of the fields attached to the capital 
messuage in Deed A. 5, viz., Cowleaze, Sheepfield, and Mill Furlong, enable 
us to identify it with the farm house and buildings near the Church, because 
the fields there still bear these old names. Britton is no doubt right in 
saying that Robert Stratton erected the modern farm house on the site of 
the old Manor House about the middle of the 1 8th century, and not, as Mr. 
Anketell states, in 1700, for at that date Robert Stratton had not come into 
possession of it. 

Our deeds also enable us to correct another error in Mr. Anketell's paper 
based upon a note in Canon Jackson's edition of Aubrey's Wiltshire Col- 
lections. In this note (p. 282) we are told that Sir Richard Norton's estate 
(formerly Mompesson's) was broken up among three purchasers, (I) the 
Stratton family, (2) The Right Hon. Henry Fox, (3) Mr. Bayliffe. But from 
Deeds A. 6 and A. 7, and the other Feet of Fines which I have added to 
the latter, we find that the Norton estate, which amounted to some 600 
acres, was disposed of to six purchasers, Mrs. Rebecca Stratton ; Richard 
Lesseter ^ ; John Elye, and Nicholas White ; Wm., Thos., and Anthony 
Bristowe ; Thos. Clarke ; and Richard Kinge with others, most of them 
presumably being tenants. Again we are told in this note that the Strattons 
lived in Upper Seagry, but the manor which they held was that of Nether 
Seagry, in which part of the parish their manor house stood. We see, too, 
that, far from the Strattons selling "their portion" to Mr. Houlton, they 
still retained all the messuages and a considerable amount of the land. 
Indeed, Mr. Anketell's paper, although it contains much interesting in- 
formation, is not reliable for details, and his identification of properties is 
vitiated by his reliance upon this erroneous note. 

With regard to the second manor mentioned in Domesday, this seems 
rightly identified with the manor and farm of Over Seagry, which belonged 
to Sir Edward Hungerford, of Farley Castle, in 1582,^ and at the time of 

' 1 From copies of other deeds in my possession I am able to identify this 
holding as passing later to the Hayward family, and later still to Simon 
Salter, clothier, of Malmesbury, and sold tojvarious purchasers by his son* 
William Salter, in 1861. The homestead now called "The Close" belongs 
to Mr. Godwin. It is numbered in the Tithe App. Map 195. 

^ From details given in Chancery Proceedings [Mitford, Bundle 481, No. 
67 &c.] of 1708 and 1709 we learn that the Manor of Over Seagry, worth 
^121 10s. per annum, had been leased to Edward Adye, of Seagry, gent., 
and after his death intestate his son, Wm. Adye, obtained a new lease, 
dated 25th Sept., 1704, from Dame Margaret Hungerford, of Coulston. 
Wm. Adye married a certain Faith Porter, of Wrington, co. Somerset, said 
to have had a considerable fortune, but had become seriously involved 

288 The Society's MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House. 

the apportionment, 1840, was owned by Earl Radnor, The old house is still 
standing, and is a picturesque little building. It is generally called Seale's 
Farm. In the Tithe App. Map the Homestead is numbered 196. 

One other house in Seagry claims to be a manor and was for many years 
in the possession of the Bayliflfe family. It lies in Upper Seagry and is an 
ancient building with a justices' room, now called Manor Farm. At the time 
of the tithe apportionment, where, in the map it is numbered 272, it was 
owned with some 150 acres of land by Mr. Henry Eailiffe. As early as 1707 
Mr. Charles Bailifife, of Bernards Inn, London, gent., purchased of John 
Stratton a messuage and some 40 acres of land in Seagry (Close Boll, 4891, IS 
Wm. III., pt. 12, No. 11). Possibly Mr. Bailiffe enlarged this messuage 
and made it his residence, but if so its claim to be a manor house has no 
foundation. On the other hand Mr. Bailiffe may have obtained what 
among the possessions of Bradenstoke Priory is described as "the farm of 
the site of Seagry Manor" (Minister's Account, 3985, Hen, VIII.) This 
was a farm of one tenement with other premises and their appurtenances 
demised to the Lady Joan Danvers. 12th .Jan., 1537/8 for a term of 60 years. 
If this was the house which Mr. Bailiffe enlarged he had grounds for con- 
sidering it to be a manor house. There is, however, another ancient farm- 
house,* with thatched roof, which for many years was rented by the Hay ward 
family, not far from the Church, and in the time of the tithe apportionment 
belonging to Lord Mornington, the owner of Seagry House, which might 
have been the Priory property. Unfortunately it is not possible to trace 
the old deeds of the Bailiffe estate which would settle for us the question. 

What led Mr. Joseph Houlton to think of forming an estate at Seagry 
we do not know, but through his marriage in 1707 with Priscilla White, the 
heiress of Grittleton House, he became interested in the neighbourhood, 
and probably had in view the possibility of other members of his family 
wishing to reside in the district. His purchase from the Strattons was 
added to by purchases from Mr. Edward Pyott and others, and he erected 
a messuage with outhouses on the land which he had bought from the 
the Strattons in Upper Seagry. On the marriage of his third son, Nathaniel, 
in 1723, with Mary Newton, of Taunton, he put his Seagry estate, together 
with other property, into settlement for their benefit. The messuage erected 
by Joseph Houlton was now probably enlarged by his son to become a 
suitable residence for himself and his wife. Nathaniel Houlton 

in his affairs before his death in 1708 [buried at Seagry, 8th Nov., 1708]. 
He had mortgaged the Manor with its capital Messuage to John Scrope, 
Esq., who on Wm. Adye's failure to pay the mortgage money took possession 
of the property and obtained from Dame Margaret a fresh lease of it to 
himself, dated 20th April, 1708, on three lives. The capital messuage was 
then occupied by Richard Pocock. The proceedings were taken by Henry 
Richmond, clerk, of Hornblotton, co. Somerset (see memorial tablet in 
Seagry Church), one of the principal creditors of Wm. Adye and a brother 
in law. 

* There can be little doubt that this was Pyott's Farm, and in the Tithe 
App. Map the homestead is numbered 195. 


By Canon F. H. Manley. 289 

added to the Seagry estate by purchases of land adjoining in Great 
Somerford, as well as in Seagry. On his death in 1754 his wife, who sur- 
vived him, seems to have remained here for a time, but in 1766 she let the 
whole estate to John Houlton, her nephew, Rear-Admiral of the Blue, who 
resided at Seagry House for some years, and on the death of his aunt in 1770 
became owner. Later Admiral John Houlton succeeded to the Grittleton 
estate and in 1785 sold the Seagry House property to Sir James Tylney 
Long, of Draycot, and went to reside at Grittleton House.^ 

Seagry House still retains its original character, as a compact but handsome 
Georgian building, until lately much as Nathaniel Houlton left it. His 
coat of arms is within a triangular pediment in front, on a stone shield, 
HOULTON quartering white. Some years ago additions were made to the 
house under the direction of Mr. H. Brakspear, but its general appearance 
was not altered. It stands now in a well-wooded park. 

Turning now to some of the other deeds, the collections D. 1 — 10, E. 1 
— 7, and G. 1—7, all refer to properties in Great Somerford. The first 
of these has to do with a messuage called " Fletchers als the Churchouse 
and lands in the manor of Somerford Maltravers." The signature of Sir 
Robert Jason, who held this manor in 1671, is attached to the deed of that 
date. From other deeds still extant we know that " Fletcher's als the 
Churchouse " was owned by the Mompessons early in the 17th century, and 
from later deeds we can identify its position, as being where at present 
stands, north of the War Memorial Cross, the " Red House," lately occupied 
by Mrs. Pitt, now the property of Mrs. Adamson, and built about a hundred 
years ago. The messuage mentioned in D^q^l E. 1, later used as a public 
house, is probably the first house in Startley adjoining the Seagry House 
grounds, which shows signs of having been at some time a farmhouse. 
With regard to the deeds G, 1 — 7, this property is mentioned in the Inq. 
P.M. of Sir Walter Longe, Knight, dated 5th Oct, 1637, where it is said 
to be held by him "of the King by knight's service and rent." It probably 
at one time formed part of the small manorial property in Great 
Somerford belonging to the nuns of Kington Priory, which at the 
Dissolution came into the possession of the Long family. 

The sketch map on the next page will show the locality of most of the 
houses to which allusion has been made. It is based on Andrews' and 
Drury's Map of 1773, said to be on scale of 2in. to the mile. This latter 
map is, however, by no means infallible, more especially as to the position 
of houses. It omits to mark houses which other evidence shows must have 
existed at the time the map was made and inserts houses in places which 
seem not then to have been built upon. In the case of Seagry we find 
" Lower Seagry " misplaced, also in Great Somerford " West Street " is 
changed into " Wier Street," and " Fletcher's als the Churchouse " is not 

For pedigree of the Houlton family see Wilts N. & Q., vol. vi., p. 83, &c. 

290 The Society's MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House. 








By Canon F, H. Manley. 291 

Schedule op Seagry House Estate Deeds. 
A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7* 8, 9^ 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

18, 19, 20. 
B 1* la, 2, 3. 

C. 1*. 

D. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 
E 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

P 1, 2, 3, 

G. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

H. 1*. 

J. 1, 2, 3. 

S. E. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

K 1, 2. 

L. 1. 

M. 1 

W. 1, 2. 

^ Deed missing. 


A. 1. 2 Feb. 2 & 3 Phil. & Mary (1556). Copy of Deed of Partition 
of the property of Edmund Mompesson dec. among his four sisters 
co-heiresses, Anne, Mary, Elisabeth & Susan. 

This Indenture made 2 Feb., 2 & 3 Phil. & Mary, between W™. 
Wayte, Esq., and Anne his wife, Gilbert Welles, Esq., s. and h. of Mary 
Welles, Rich. Perkins, Esq , and Elizabeth his wife, and Susan Mom- 
pesson, these being the four sisters and co-heiresses of Edmund Mom- 
pesson, Esq., who died seized of the following estates — (i.) the Manor 
of Bathampton Wyly with 6 mess. &c. (ii.) Manor of Deopford with 4 
mess. &c. (iii.) Manor of Hanging Langford with 12 mess. &c. (iv.) 
one mess. &c. in Steeple Langford. (v.) 3 mess, in Chesingbury. (vi.) 
1 mess. &c. and 1 cottage &c. in Wyly. (vii.) Manor of Heddington with 
12 mess, &c. (vii.) Manor of Seagree with 10 mess.' (viii.) 3 mess. 2 
in Starklye.2 (ix.) 1 mess. &c. in Brinkworth. (x.) lands in Manor of 
Littleton Drewe with 12 mess. &c. (xi.) Manor of Somerford Bolles 
with 12 mess. &C.-'' (xii.) 1 mess. &c. in Somerford Mauditts. (xiii.) 
20 mess, &:c. in Milford pichard, Apshull, Tedrington, Heytesbury, 
Sutton Knock, Feny Sutton, and Chicklade. (xiv.) 2 mess. &c. in 
Clapcott. (xv.) 2 mess. &c. in Grittleton. (xvi.) 13 mess. &c. in 
Hollompton. (xvii.) 1 mess &c. in Moreshawe. (xviii.) 1 mess &c. 
in Drexale. (xix.) lands in Fisherton Anger, (xx.) 3 mess. &c. in 
Calne. (xxi.) over and besides the Manor of Newton Tony, lands &c. 
lately assured to Richard Mompesson, uncle of Edmund &c. 

'400ac. land, 150ac. meade, lOOac. pasture, 45ac. wood, lOac. moor, with 

2 lOOac. land, 30ac. pasture, 40ac. wood, 20ac. marsh with apps. 
^ 400ac. land, 20ac. meade, 20ac. pasture, 20ac. wood, lOac. marsh, and 40/- 
rent with apps. 

292 The Society's MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House, 

Anne, Mary, Eliz., and Susan, drs. of John M. the younger and Alice ; 
[ — he J.M., s. and h. of Drewe M. and Agnes his wife ; he D. M. s. and 
h. of John M. the elder and Isabell his wife ; he J. M. s. and h, of Robert 
M. and Alice his wife, who was dr. and h. of W"*. Godwin and Eliz'^ his 
wife, which Eliz*'' was d'. and h. of Thomas Bonham and Katherine his 
wife—] became co-heireses on death of their brother Edmund M. and it 
has been agreed among them to divide the property as follows : — 

A. W"" Wayte k Ann his wife to have manor' of Segree & Somerford 
BoUes and lands and tenements in Starkley and Chesingbury also one 
quit rent of xviii^ per ann. issuing out of lands sometime of John Warren 
in Brinkworth and ii'rent per ann out of premises in Littleton Drewe, 
the yearly value of the whole being xli^ iii^ 

B. Gilbert Welles to have manors of Hedington and Littleton Drewe 
and lands in iMorshall,Clapcott,Heytesbury, Calneand Fisherton Anger, 
the yearly value of the whole being xli^ iii^ per ann. 

C. Rich*^ Perkins & Eliz*^'' his wife to have manor of Great Bath- 
ampton Wylye, lands in Hanging Langford, ten*, called Apshull, lands 
in Great Apshull except, &c., value of the whole being xli^ iii^ per ann. 

D Susan M. to have manors of Little Bathampton, Wily, and 
Deopford, and lands in Edrington, Mylford Pichard, Tedrington, 
Grittleton, Wraxall, Steeple Langford, Hollampton Knok, Chicklade, 
Feny Sutton, Brinkworth, andCowlson, also lands in West Apshull and 
Weyly and Great Apshull, tent called Hindell's in Wyly, value of the 
whole being xli^. iii^ per ann. 

Signed by Gilbert Welles, Rich*^ Perkins, Elizth Perkins, Susan 

A. 3. 28 Nov., 1617. An Exemplification of a Recovery Mich. 
15 Jas. I. (1617) of the Manor of Seagree with app^ and 8 mess, 16 
gardens, 200 ac. land, 80 ac. meadow, 300 ac. pasture, and 40 ac. wood 
with app^ in Segree, Somerford, and Staunton, co. Wilts. Sir Francis 
Neale and George Blythe gen. versus James Metcalfe gen. and Antony 
Pickeringe. Vouchee Sir Richard Norton. 

A. 2. 21 Sept., 1647. Lease for 3 Lives. 

Indenture made 21 Sep., 1647, between (i) Sir Rich*^" Norton, of 
Rotherfeild, co. South'' Barr' (ii) Rebecca Stratton, of Seagry, wid. 
. . . for £120 p*^. to him he lets to her All the Capitall Messuage 
and Scite of the Manor of Nether Segree with app^ &c. and fishing 
of certain flood-gates now in occ". of Tho^ Adye &c. heretofore de- 
mysed with the Capital Mess,, for 99 years if Rebecca S., her s. Tho^ 
and his w. Ann live so long, paying £10 per ann. . . . she under- 
takes kc, and to allow Sir Rich*^ to hold the Courts of the Manor in 
the Mansion House twice every year and find meat &c. for his oflScers 
not exceeding eight persons for not more than three days and also 
to do her best to collect the rents due to him and once a year to send 
him an account of the same &c. . . . She allowed to take yearly 
24 loads of wood towards fireboot, &c. 

the mark of R Rebecca Stratton. 
Seal missing. 

By Canon F. H. Manley, 293 

Witnesses E. Norton, W"" Lawrence, Rich*^ Hibbard, Rich^ Lesseter. 

A. 4. 15 Nov., 24 Chas. I. (1648). Three parts of an Indenture 
tripartite dated 15 Nov., 24 Chas. I., made between (i) Sir Rich'^ 
Norton, of Rotherfeild, co. South" Barr' (ii) Rich^ Estcourte, of 
Lincoln's Inn, Esq., and Rich'^ Thorner, of Barnard's Inn, gent., (iii) 
Arthur Bold, of the Inner Temple, Esq., and Rich*^ Estcourte, of 
Lincoln's Inn, Esq. Whereas Sir R. N. by indent, dated 14 Oct. last 
did sell unto s^^ R. E.and R. T. &c. all that the Manor of Nether Segree 
and lands belonging to it lying in Segree Nether and Upper, Somer- 
ford Bowles, and Staunton, &c. 

Three deeds with good seals and clear signatures to declare the uses 
of a Recovery of the manor and lands viz. for the use of the s'^ Sir R. 
N. his heirs and assignes for ever. 

A. 6. 28 Nov., 24 Chas. I. (1648). An exemplification of a re- 
covery Mich. Term, 24 Chas. I., of the Manor of Nether Segree with 
app' and of 9 Mess., 1 Water Mill, 1 fulling Mill, 20 gardens, 250 ac. 
land, 89 ac. meadow, 230 ac. pasture, 20 ac. wood, and 73" rent with 
app*. in Nether and Upper Seagree, Somerford Bowles, and Staunton, 
CO. Wilts. Anthony Bold arm and Tho** Estcourt arm. versus Rich. 
Estcourte arm and Rich, Thorner gen. Vouchee Richard Norton, 

A. 5. 25 Nov., 24 Chas. I. (1648). An Indenture of this date made 
between (i) Sir Rich*^ Norton, Barr\, and (ii) Rebecca Stratton, widow, 
being a Conveyance of a Capital Messuage and scite of the Manor of 
Nether Segree with app^ and lands in Nether and Upper Seagry, 
Somerford Bowles, and Staunton, including one mess, in Nether Seagry 
wherein W™. Flower now lives, and one water Grist Mill and one Full- 
ing Mill lying near this last mess, for the sum of £1022 5s. 8d 

The land attached to the Capital Mess, is the Cowleze 18ac., Sheep 
field and Mill Furlong 24 ac, Northfield and New Furlong 28 ac, the 
Heath 6 ac, Hartsfurling 6 ac, the Grove 5 ac, the Great and Little 
Mores 9 ac, in Downe meade 25 ac, in Downe fielde 10 ac, the Hide, 
Knapps, Harrolds, and the Meade plott in Upper Seagree, 120 ac. 

The land attached to the other mess, and the mills is the park 4 ac, 
the Conigre 2 ac, the Meade Ground 1^ ac, the Lagger, the Cherry 
Orchard, and close adjoining the Floodhutch, together 1 ac, in Clay 
Corner 3 ac, in Priorsmeade 3 ac, * whereof the successors of the Priors 
of Broadestocke hath usually had three cocks of hay and the Miller of 
Segree hath usually had two cocks,' in Downe meade 1 farrundale. 

Conveyed to the s*^ Rebecca Stratton her heirs and assignes for 
ever with a Covenant to levy a fine thereof before the end of the next 
Mich. term. 

Signed Rich. Norton. Seal lost. 

Witnesses Will. Singleton, John Stratton, Rich Thorner, 

Paul Thorner, Richard Thorner, junr. 

A. 7. Mich. Term, 24 Chas. I. (1648). Two parts of a Fine of this 
date between Rebecca Stratton, wid.. Pit., and S' Rich** Norton 
BarrS Def. of 2 Mess., 1 Water Mill, 1 Fulling Mill, 2 barns, 2 gardens 

294 The Society's MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House, 

2 orchards, 80 ac. land, 30 ac. meadow, 150 ac. pasture, 20 ac. wood, 
and commons of pasture with app^ in Nether and Upper Seagry, 
Somerford Bowles, and Staunton, co, Wilts. 

This deed is missing but is recited as above in Deed A. 18. 

[This, with five other Feet of Fines, all dated 'in the quindere of 
of St. Martin, 24 Chas. I. (25 Nov. 1648) ' Westminster supplies us with 
the full details of sale of Sir Richard Norton's Seagry estate. The other 
Feet of Fines are given below. 

Rich. Lesseter, quer, and Rich Norton, Bart., def. of 1 mess., 1 cot- 
age, 2 barns, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 12 ac. of land, 3 ac. of meadow, 
5 ac. pasture and commons of pasture for all beasts in Nether Segree, 
Upper Segree, Somerford Bowles, and Staunton. 

John Elye, gent., and Nicholas White, quer', and Rich. Norton, 
Bart., def. of 3 mess., 3 barns, 4 tofts, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 80 ac. land» 
20 ac. meadow, 30 ac. past., and of commons of pasture, &c. 

W""., Tho*., and Anthony Bristowe, quer% and Rich. Norton, Bart., 
def. of 2 mess., 2 barns, I toft, 2 gardens, 3 orchards, 55 ac. land, 9 ac. 
meadow, 8 ac. pasture, and commons of pasture, &c. 
, Tho' Clark, als Hillier, quer, and Rich. Norton, Bart., def. of I mess., 
1 barn, 1 garden, 1 orchard, 11 ac. land, 3 ac. meadow, 4 ac. pasture, 
and common of pasture, &c. 

Rich. Kinge, John Yewe, and John Winckworth, quer% and Rich. 
Norton, Bart., def. of 2 mess., 1 barn, 1 toft, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 
55 ac. land, 3 ac. meadow, 13 ac. pasture, and commons of pasture, 

A 8. 23 Dec. 1659. An Indenture tripartite of this date between 
,(i) Rebecca Stratton, of Nether Seagry, wid„ John Wells, of Studley 
Farm, Lydiard Tregoze, gent., and Wm. Thorner, of Little Somerford, 
yeo.,(ii) W"" Lawrence the elder,of Little Somerford, gent., W"* L., gent., 
his s., John Bathe, of Hook, in Lydiard Tregoze, yeo., Rich^ 
Thorner, of Little Somerford, gent., and Rich*^ Lesseter, of Seagry, 
yeo., (iii)Tho^ Stratton, one of the sons of the said R. S., gent., and 
Anne his w., being a settlement of lands in Seagry, determinable on 8 

In this Indenture is recited the indenture dated 21st Sept. 1647. A, 
2. but only in respect of the Capital Messuage and Scite of the 
Manor of Nether Segree with app^ and also an indenture of assign- 
ment dated 10 Nov., 1648, made between (i) Rebecca S. and (ii.) John 
Wells, of Studley Farm, Lydiard Tregoze, gent., and W" Thorner, of 
Little Somerford, yeo., whereby these latter held all her property for 
her use, now by this Indenture, on payment of iJ500 to Rebecca S. by 
W»n Lawrence, the elder, of Little Somerford, gent., as marriage por- 
tion for his d"" Anne, now the wife of Tho' S., the capital messuage 
and Scite of the Manor, &c., are assigned to the second parties men- 
tioned above in trust that Rebecca S. should enjoy the premises 
for her life and that after her death Thos. S. and his w. Anne, should 
enjoy them for life on the same terms as in Lease of 21 Sept., 1647, 
paying ^10 per ann. to the trustees for heirs of Rebecca S. 

By Canon F, H. Manley, 295 

Signed by all the parties, seals missing. 

Witnesses Richard Thorner, jf-. Robert Stratton, Leonard Atkins. 

A. 9. Deed Poll under hand and seal of Rebecca Stratton, wid., 
dated 9 Nov., 1654, whereby she admits all the uses in an Indenture 
dated 3 July, 1651, under her hand and seal between (i) herself, (ii) 
Henry Mayo, the elder, and John Yewe, the younger, yeoman. 

This deed is missing but is recited as above in Deed A. 18. 

A. 10. 2 and 3 May, 1705. Indentures of Lease and Release of 
these dates for effecting a mortgage, the parties being (i) John Stratton 
of Hardwick, co. Glos., his youngest s. Robert and another s. Thos., 
(ii) Rich. Lewis, of Corsham. The sum advanced is £500. The 
property mortgaged is the Northfields 26 ac,, in the Starchfield near 
Dodford Mill 8 ac, The Downfield 6 acres, the Heath 8 acres, the 
Hide, Napps, the Wood and the Mead plot together 180 ac, the Wood 
3 ac, and the Five Acres all situate in Nether or Upper Seagry late in 
occup" of s^ John S., nephew of Robert S., late of Nether Seagry, gent, 
dec. and now of Ann S. sp., the premises being granted to her for 10 
yrs by will of s*i R. S., dec, dated 1 Sept., 1699. 

The two deeds are both signed and sealed by John S., Robert S., and 
Thomas S., the seals (not armorial) being in good condition. 

Endorsed with receipt for i=*500 paid to R S. and T. S. 

Witnesses W™- Phillpott, Robt. Finnell, A. Martyn, Tho. Hulbert. 

A. 11. 4 May, 1705. Deed to lead to the use of the fine in respect of 
the lands mentioned in the Lease and Release of 2 and 3 May, 1705, 
the indenture being between the same parties. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) by R. S. and T. S. 

Witnesses A. Martyn, Tho. Hulbert. 

A. 12. Fine dated Easter 4 Anne (1705) Rich. Lewis, arm., quer. 
and John Stratton, gen., Robert Stratton and Tho^ Stratton, def., 
128 ac land, 9 ac. meadow, 98 ac pasture, 3 ac wood and commons of 
pasture for all kinds of animals in Upper and Nether Seagry. 

A. 13. 24 and 25 Apr., 1706. Indentures of Lease and Release of 
these dates for effecting a mortgage the parties being the same as in 
Deeds A. 10. A further sum of £500 is advanced the additional 
property brought into the mortgage being The Capitall Mess, situate 
in Nether Seagry, 2 orchards belonging to the same, the Wainbarton 
2 ac, the Sheepfields 18 ac, the Cowleaze 16 ac, the Moores, 9 ac, the 
Grove 5 ac, Hares furlong 6 ac, Cowmead 8 ac , 4 ac chargeable in 
same, Battensham 3 ac, Alderham 2 ac, the Laines 1 ac, 21 Beasts 
leazes in Cowmead — all these by will of Rob* Stratton, dec, devized to 
Ann S. for life, with remainder to Robt Stratton party to this deed — 
before end of Trinity Term a fine to be levied. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) John S., Hob' S., Tho. S. 

Endorsed with receipt for £500 paid to Rob*" S., John S., and Tho. S. 

Witnesses W"^ Phillpott, John Hibberd, Robt Pinnell, A. Martyn, 
Geo. Draper. 

A. 14. 26 Apr., 1706. M'^s Stratton's Surrender. 
An indenture between (i.) Anne Stratton of Nether Seagry, sp., (ii.) 

296 The Society's MSS- The Deeds of Seagry Rouse. 

Robb Stratton of Hardwicke, co. Glouc, gent, s. of John S. of same, 
whereby for £280 paid to her she gives up poss" of the lands mentioned 
in deeds A. 10. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Ann Stratton. 
Endorsed with receipt of ^£280 paid to Ann Stratton. 

Witnesses W"^ Phillpott, A. Martyn. 
A. 15. Fine dated Trinity 5 Anne (1706). Rich. Lewis arm. quer. 
and John Stratton, gen., Rob^ Stratton, and Tho^ Stratton def. 2mess., 
2 orchards, 10 ac. land, 30 ac. meadow, 45 ac. pasture, commons of 
pasture for 21 beasts and all kind of animals in Upper and Nether 

A. 16. 1 Aug., 1707. A further Mortgage for £50 being an 
Indenture of this date between (i.) Uob^ Stratton of Hardwicke, co. 
Glouc, gent , (ii.) Tho* Lewis of Subberton,'co. Southron, Esq., Ex^ of 
last Will of Rich. L. of Oorsham, co. Wilts, Esq., dec, wherein are 
recited the deeds and fines of the previous mortgages, these mortgages 
confirmed and a further mortgage of i'50 on the same properties 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Robert Stratton. 
Endorsed with receipt of £50 paid to R. S. 
Witnesses A. Martyn, Wal. Gibbons. 

A. 17. 29 Sept., 1709. The mortgage transferred to M" Martyn 
and increased to £1188 10s. Od. by an Indenture tripartite between (i) 
Tho* Lewis (ii) Rob* Stratton, now of Nether Seagry (iii) Grace Martyn 
of Hinton in Steeple Ashton, widow of John Martin, late of the same. 
Signed and sealed by Tho. Lewis and Rob' Stratton two armorial 
seals, one possibly that of LEWIS . . a lion rampant. 

Endorsed with receipts of payment of ^f 1188 lOs. Od. to T. L. and of 
£261 9s. 6d. to R. S. 

Witnesses Hen, Horton, Tho. Stileman, A. Martyn. 
A. 18. 22 and 23 March, 1710. Lease and Release of these dates 
with a Grant of the following Lands and hereditaments — the Hide, 
Napps, the Wood, Mead Piatt, the Coppice 120ac, Northfield Sac, the 
Heath 7 ac. Five Acres 5 ac, Downfield 7 ac, Starchfield 11 ac. with 
Commons of pasture for 20 beasts and sheep in Starchfield . . all 
these lying in Nether Seagry, Upper Seagry and Staunton, the parties 
being (i) Robert Stratton of Nether .Seagry, his father John S. of 
Hard wick co., Glouc , and his brother Tho^ S. of Hardwick, son and 
heir app. of.s*^ John S., (ii) Joseph Houlton, the younger of Trowbridge 

£1800 is paid to Robert S, and 5/- apiece to John S. and Tho^ S., and 
the property sold to Joseph Houlton . . £1580 10s. Od. of the s^ 
£1800 is to be paid to M"^* Grace Martyn, widow and exec, of John M., 
gent, dec, in settlement of her mortgage, A. 17., and the residue of 
the term of the mortgage is to be assigned to Kobert Houlton, clothier, 
and Joseph Cooke, malster, in trust for Joseph H. ' to attend and goe 
along with the freehold which he has purchased and in trust for 
Robert Stratton in respect of the Capitall Messuage and the land 

By Canon F. H. Manley. 297 

going with it ' . . A schedule of the deeds of the property is attached 
to the indenture of Release and Grant, these being the deeds, A. 1 to 
A 9, given above . . the deeds handed over to Joseph H. for safe 
custody, but inasmuch as these also relate to the title of the Capitall 
Messuage and lands going with it now in possession of Anne Stratton, 
sp., for her life, and on her death the freehold possession of Robert S., 
these latter to have access to these deeds if necessary. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) by Rob' S., John S., Tho^ S. 

Endorsed with payments of £219 10s. Od. to Robert S. and 
£1580 10s. Od. to M'* Martyn. 

Witnesses Harman King, attorney at Trowbridge, James Skues, 
clothworker by Trowbridge, John Wild, Tho^ Willett, clerk to H. K., 
Nathaniel lioulton, son of s<^ M' Houlton, Gab. Goldney, clothier in 

A. 19. 24 March, 1710. An assignment from M" Grace Martyn. 
by direction of M' Robert Stratton, to M' Rob* Houlton and M' Jos. 
Cooke, in trust for M"^ Jos. Houlton and M"^ Rob* Stratton, being an 
Indenture Quadripartite of this date, the parties being (i) Rob' S., (ii) 
M'^ Martyn, (iii) Jos. H., the younger, (iv) Rob' H., clothier, and Jos. 
C, malster, both of Trowbridge. M's Martyn having been paid 
£1580 10s. Od , the amount due on her mortgage dated 29 Sept., 1709, 
A. 17, she assigns the remainder of the term of the mortgage to R. H. 
and J. C. in trust for W J. H. and M' R. S., so that the remainder of 
the term in respect of the property purchased by M' J. H. should go 
with the freehold, and the remainder of the term in respect of the 
property, the inheritance of M"^ R. S., should go with that freehold. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Rob' Stratton, Grace Martyn. 

Endorsed with receipt of payment to Grace Martyn of ^£'1580 10s. Od. 

Witnesses A. Martyn, Harman King, Tho' Stileman. 

A. 20. 2 July, 1744. An assignment of Mortgage being an in- 
denture of this date between (i) Jos. Houlton of Farleigh Hungerford, 
and Rob' H. of Grittleton, (ii) Sam^ Martyn of Chipp™, (iii) Rob* 
Stratton of Nether Seagry reciting an indent, of 13 May, 1724, between 
(i) R. S., (ii) Jos. Houlton of Grittleton, now dec, which was a mort. 
for i'SOO on Cowleaze 18 ac, and Sheepfield with mill furlong, 24 ac, 
adjoining the Mansion in Nether Seagry where M" Anne Stratton was 
then dwelling,and also reciting the terms of the indenture of assignment 
of 24 March, 1710, and the Lease and Release of 24th and 25th Apr. 
I7u6 ,in which these fields were included, now the mortgage on these 
fields is increased to ^517 2s. Od. and transferred to Sam^ Martyn. 

Signed and sealed Rob' Stratton, the seal is armorial— apparently 
Ar. 2 bars gu. MARTIN bearing an escutcheon of pretence — a unicorn's 
head and in chief 3 lozenges conjoined. 

Witnesses Sam. Martyn, jn., Uriah Tarrant. 


B. 1. [ . . . ] Deed of purchase of date ... by Joseph 
Houlton [f^ of Nath H.] from Nath' Godwin of St. Giles in the Fields, 

298 The Society's MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House. 

CO. Midd""., founder, and Jos. Holborow of Luckinton, free-mason of the 
3 closes called * Wilding's'in Seagry, formerly * Alcroft's ' 23 ac, subject 
to the payment of two mortgages (i) dated 7 Feb., 1700, granted by 
John Ferris, late of St.Giles, London, wiredrawer to Elias F. of 
Malmesbury, apoth. of £100, (ii.) dated U Aug., 1701, granted by Kath. 
Withers, late of Luckinton, sp., to s"^ John Ferris and Anne, his mother, 
also of ^100. 

This deed is missing, but is mentioned in Deed S.E. 2. 

B. la. Trinity Term. V Geo. i, (1721). A Fine of this date between 
Nathaniel Houlton, quer., and Joseph Houlton, arm., and Priscilla, his 
wife, and Nathaniel Godwin, deforc, of I cottage, one orchard, 32 ac. 
of land, 19 ac. of pasture and commons of pasture for all kinds of 
animals in Langley Burrell and Seagry — i*60. 

B. 2. 8 Sept., 1738. Release and Covenant, being an Indenture 
of this date between (i.) Nath^ Houlton, Esq., of Seagry, one of the sons 
of Jos. H., the elder, dec; (ii.) Jos. H. of Farleigh Hungerford, Esq., 
and Rob* H. of Grittleton, Esq., two other sons of Jos. H., the elder 
dec— under the Marr. Sett*, 29 March, 1723, given later, Jos. H., the 
elder, had undertaken to pay off the Mortgages on * Wilding's,' and also 
a charge on the Tilshead estate, but this he had failed to do before his 
death — to put an end to disputes in connection with the will of J. M., 
the elder, Nath. H. covenants to pay off these mortgages and charge, 
and to release his brothers from any responsibility as executors of 
J, H., the elder's will in the matter. 

Signed Nath^ Houlton, seal HOULTON Ar. on a fesse wavy, between 
3 talbots heads, as many bezants. 

Endorsed witnesses Sam' Lobb, Cha. Aland. 

The Counterpart of the above deed is signed and sealed Joseph 
Houlton, John Houlton, and endorsed by same witnesses. 

B. 3. 19 Sept., 1768. Assignment and mutual covenants being 
an Indenture between (i.) Mary Houlton, widow of NatW H., (ii.) Rob* 
H., brother of Nath. H., and John H., nephew of s*^ Rob* H. . . the 
mortgages on * Wilding's ' and charge on Tilshead estate not having 
been paid off heforejdeath of Nath. H., his executors, R. H. and J. H., 
arrange with M ary H . for assignment to them and discharge of the 
mortgages by them. 

Signed and sealed Mary Houlton, Rob* Houlton, John Houlton. 
Endorsed witnesses Tho^ Putt, Benj*" Incledon, Tho" Pollock, Jos. 


C. 1. 2 May, 1715. Deed of purchase of this date by Jos. Houlton 

* This farm is, no doubt, that described by Mr. Anketell, as formerly 
rented by the Sealys and Benjamin, although his account of its past history 
is wrong. From whom Edward Pyott purchased it we do not know. The 
Homestead is number 1 92 in the Tithe Apport. map, and at that date it 
was owned by Lord Mornington and occupied by Jesse Hayward with 
118 ac. of land, Lord Mornington occupying himself the rest of the Seagry 
House Estate, of which 132 ac. were in Seagry. 

Ihj Canon F. H. Manley. 299 

[father of Nath' H] from Edward Piott, gent, of a Mess, and Lands in 
Nether Seagry, viz.:— i\\Q'^\ion\Q Close 4 ac, Brewers 4 ac, New 
Inclosures in Sandf urlong 8 ac, Shadwell 2 ac, inclosed out of N orthfield 
13 ac , Meadplot 2 ac, the Heath 4 ac, in Downmead the Great and 
Little Ham, Shadwell Ham and the Stich together 10 ac, in the 
Commonfield Meadhill, Wetland, the Lynch and Brickmead together 
28 ac, 17 Beasts Leazes in Down Mead . . all these in Nether 
Seagry, Somerford Bowles, and Stanton Quinton, 

This farm in 1766 was in occ" of Mary Benjamin as tenant. 

This deed is missing, but is mentioned in deed S.E. 2. 

Edward Fyott., gent, was buried 7 Nov., 1735 (Seagry Register). 

The Lower Crofts. 

D. 1. 8 June, 1671. A Lease for 99 years being an Indenture of 
this date between (i.) Sir Rob* Jason of Enfield, ISarr'. (ii.) Marg' 
Knapp of Br<^ Somerford, wid. 

In consideration of surrender of a former lease by Hob' Jason, Esq., 
father of s^ Sir R. J., and payment of £40, he, the s*^ Sir R. J , lets to 
M. K. these lands lying in the Commonfields of Somerford, viz : — 6 ac. 
in Downfield, in Broadfields 6 ac, in Westfields 6 ac, the Lower Crofts 
10 ac, for 99 years if she, M. K., her son, Sam^ K , and his son, W"" K., 
live so long, paying an annual rent of 9s. 4d , * one good wholesome and 
well-fede Choller of Brawne,' or in lieu thereof 3s. 4d., also a herriot of 
the best goods on death of either of them tenants in poss". 

Signed Robert Jason, 1671. Seal lost. 

Endorsed witnesses Rob' Jason, jn., 1671, John Gastrell, Ric* 
Jackson. Also 'surveyed 5 Sept., 1681, per W"* Hobins sen' ibm,'and 
'surveyed 27 Aug., 1696, per W'" White senes^'*- ibm.' 

8 June, 1671. A counterpart of the above Lease signed by Margaret 
Knapp's mark, the witnesses being John Gastrell and Tho* Webb. 

D. 2. 10 Feb., 1698. A Lease for one year being an Indenture of 
this date between (i.) Matth. Bluck of Hunsdon, co Hertford, and Rich. 
Webb of the Inner Temple, exec's of last Will of Rich. Hawkins, late of 
London, Kn', (ii.) Tho^ Taylor, jn., of Allington, and W"' Beard of 
same, of a Mess., with orchard, &c., 1 ac, and Sandhill Lease 3 ac, 
and in Courseham 1 ac, part of the Manor of Somerford Maltravers, 
also the mess, called Fletchers, als the Churchhouse with orchard, &c., 
2 ac, in Outer Nithy 2 ac, in Crofts Corner 3 ac, in Broadfield J ac, 
in Westfield 4J ac, all parcel of same Manor, also 2^ ac. in Downfield, 
1^ ac. in Broadfield, and 2 ac in Westfield, in Sprietnam 2 ac, also 
parcel of same Manor, also the lands mentioned in Lease of 8 June, 
1671, to be held by T. T., jn,, and W. B., to enable them to take a 
Grant and Release, &c. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Matth. Blucke, Ric. Webb. 

Witnesses Jo. Smith, Rich. Browne, Rob' Southam. 

D. 3. 11 Feb., 1698. Conveyance in fee in trust for Sam' Knapp. 

An Indenture of this date between (i.) Vlatth. Bluck and Rich. Webb, 
(ii.) Sam' Knapp of Broad Somerford, yeo., Tho' Taylor, jn., and W™ 

300 The Society's MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House. 

Beard, in consideration of j£216 the first parties convey the Mess^ and 
Lands mentioned in last Lease to T. T., j", and W»n Beard in trust for 
Sam^ Knapp. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Matth. Blucke, Ric. Webb. 

Endorsed with receipt for £216. Witnesses as in previous deed. 

D. 4. 8 Nov., 1707. A mortgage of £70 raised on Fletchers, als the 
Church House. 

An Indenture of this date between (i.) Sam^ K., T. T., j", and W 
B., (ii.) Henry Bayliffe of Chippenham, the property mortgaged being 
the mess, called Fletchers, als the Churchhouse in Br*^ Somerford with 
orchard, &c., one close adj. 2 ac, Lower Croft 10 ac, Southill 3 ac, 8 
parcels in Br*^mead, 1 ac. in Courseham, 2| ac. in Downfield, 1^ ac. in 
Br^'field, 2 ac. in Westfield, 7 parcels in Spritnam, 2 ac. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) by the first parties. 

Endorsed with receipt of £70 paid by W^a Beard to Sam^ Knapp. 

Witnesses A. Martyn, Sam^ Martyn, Jam' Gastrell. 

D. 5. 18 July, 1709. Sam^ Knapp's Will. 

In the Name of God, Amen, &c., I devize unto Rich. Knapp my 
younger son the Messuage, orchard and close adjoining 1 ac, heretofore 
called Fletchers, Crofts, 10 ac. Sandhill 3 ac, in Courseham 1 ac, in 
Sprittenham 7 parcels, in Downfield 2J ac, in Broadfield 2 ac, in 
Westfield 3j ac, all parcel of the late Manor of Somerford Maltravers, 
and being in Broad Somerferd. 

Signed and sealed (a heart pierced with 2 darts) Samuell Knapp. 

Witnesses Cha^ Church, John Mills, John West. 

D. 6. 8 Jan., 1713. An Indenture Quadripartite of this date, the 
parties being (i.) Sam' Knapp ; (ii.) W™ Knapp his s.; (iii.) Henry 
Bayliffe of Chipp'P, (iv.) Tho« Taylor, jn., and W^ Beard. . . 
Mention is made that Wna Knapp has purchased from Sam^ Knapp the 
mess, and lands in deed of 8 Nov., 1707, except the Crofts, for £160, 
paying off all mortgage charges. . . He, however, now obtains from 
W"^ Beard a mortgage of £60 on the property he has purchased, and 
his father £40 on the Crofts, which still remains his property. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) by all the parties, and endorsed with 
receipt for £40 paid by W"^ Beard to S. K. 

Witnesses A. Martyn, Sam. Martyn. 

20 Apr., 1713. A Deed poll of S. K. of this date whereby he acknow- 
ledges receipt of £5 from W™ Beard, to be a further charge on the 

Signed and sealed (armorial) S. K. 

Witnesses A. Martyn, W™ Beckett. 

This pinned on to the Indenture, and a Bond of S. K. enclosed 8 Jan., 

D. 7. 28 May, 1717. Indenture Quadripartite of this date the 
parties being (i.) W*" K., s.and h. of S. K., dec, (ii.) Rich. K. a younger 
s. of S. K., dec; (iii.) Henry Bayliffe ; (iv.) W™ Beard. . . Mention 
is made that the £60 mortgage has been paid on Fletchers, als the 
Churchhouse, also that Rich. Knapp, by his father's will, has become 

By Canon F. H. Mauley, 301 

owner of the Lower Crofts, the mortgage on which is now increased to 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) by all the parties. 

Endorsed with receipt of payment of £25 to K. K. by W"i B. 

Witnesses A. Martyn, Rich. Wastfield. 

Richard Knapp's bond enclosed. 

28 May, 1717. A counterpart of the above Deed. 

D. 8. 28 June, 1720. Indenture Quadripartite of this date, the 
parties being (i.) Henry Bayliflfe, (ii.) W™ B^ard, (iii.) Rich. Knapp, 
(iv.) Robt Wilshire of Foscott. . . The mortgage on the Lower 
Crofts 10 ac. is transferred to R. W. and increased to £100. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Henry Bayliflfe, W*" Beard, Rich. 

Endorsed with receipt of payment of jESO 15s. lOd. to W'" Beard, and 
£19 4s. 2d. to R. K. 

Witnesses Mary Spencer, John Martyn, Tho^ Simbs, Sam. Martyn. 

Rich. Knapp's Bond enclosed. 

D. 9. 25 and 26 Jan., 1725, being a Lease and Release with Grant 
from Mf Rich. Knapp and others to M^ Nath^ Houlton; the parties to 
the Release are (i.) Rich, Knapp of Br^ Somerford, and Mary his w., 
Tho" Taylor, j", and W™ Beard, (ii.) Nath' Houlton of Trowbridge, 
clothier. — In consideration of £5 paid to R. K. by N. H., the Lower 
Crofts 10 ac. are conveyed to N. H. subject to the payment of all 
charges upon them due to Rob^ Wiltshire now amounting to £170. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Rich. Knapp his mark. 

Endorsed with rec. for payment of £5 to R. K. 

Witnesses Jos. Houlton, s", Jos. Houlton, jn, Tho' Willett. 

D. 10. 27 Jan., 1725. An assignment from M^ Rob* Wiltshire, by 
<iirection of M f Knapp, to Jos. Houlton, Esq., in trust for M' Nath. 

An Indent. Quad, of this date, the parties being (i.) R. K., T. T., j", 
and W«i Beard, (ii.) Rob' Wiltshire, (iii.) Nath. H., (iv.) Jos. H. of 
Hungerford Farley. The charges of <£170 on the Lower Crofts due to 
R. W. are paid off, and the remainder of the term of the mortgage 
-assigned to J. H. in trust for}N. H. 

Signed by mark and sealed (not armorial) Rich. Knapp. 

Endorsed with rec. of payment of £170. 

Witnesses Jos. H., j», Tho« Willett. 

Cromwell's Leaze 

E. 1. 7 May, 1711. Conveyance in Fee being an Indenture of this 
date between (i.) W»n Alexander, the elder, of Broad Somerford,clothier, 
and Rich^ Lawrence of same, gent., his surviving Trustee, (ii.) Rich. 
Knapp of same, husbandman whereby for £36 W. A. and R. L. sell to 
R. K. ' All that mess, with close 2 ac. in Br*^ Som<^, on the south side of 
the Lower Marsh, late in tenure or poss^ of Tho' Crumwell, part of 
Manor of Som^ Maltravers, and all appur' to same belonging, except 

X 2 

302 The Society's MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House. 

2 ac. in Broadfield, 2 ac. in We'stfield and one Beastleaze in Broadmead 
formerly appertaining to this Mess." 

Signed Wi. Alexander, Rich. Lawrence, sealed (not armorial). 

Endorsed with seisin of the mess, and receipt of payment of -t'Se to 
W. A. 

Witnesses Fra. Goodenough, W™ Alexander.]" . 

E. 2. 10 Apr., 1714. Mortgage of above premises for £30 to John 
Paynter of Hilmarton, sergemaker, being an Indenture of this date 
between (i.) Hich. Knapp of Br"^ Som**, husb" , (ii.) J. P. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Rich. Knapp. 

Endorsed with rec. of £30, witnesses Wal*^ Hanry, John Bull. 

Rich. Knapp's Bond enclosed. 

E. 3. 29 Dec, 1722. The mortgage increased to £40 and transferred 
to RoV Wiltshire of Foscutt, yeo., being an Indenture tripartite of this 
date between (i.) J. P., (ii.) M. K., (iii.) R.W. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) John Painter, Rich. Knapp's mark. 

Endorsed with J F.'s rec. for £30 and R. K's rec. for £10. Witnesses 
Sam. Martin, Ad"" Tuck. 

Rich. Knapp's Bond enclosed. 

E. 4. 14 March, 1725. Assign* of the Mortgage from R. W., by 
direction of K. K. to M"^ Nath. Houlton of Trowbridge, clothier, being- 
an Indent, trip, of this date between (i.) R. W., (ii.) R. K., (iii.) N. H., 
the mort. now being for i'25. 

Signed by mark and sealed (not armorial) Rich. Knapp. 

Endorsed with R. W.'s rec. for £25, he having already been paid £15 
by R. K. 

Witnesses Jos. Houlton, sen^ Christopher Marven, Joshua Freem. 

Bond of Rich. Knapp enclosed. 

E 5. 2 March, 1729. The assign* of 14 March, 1725, E 4, andalso 
that of 27 Jan., 1725, D 10, not having been duly executed by 
Robt Wiltshire, an assignment of both Mortgages is now made by his 
daughters and joint exect*, being an Indent. Trip, of this date between 
(i.) Rebecca and Ann Wiltshire, (ii.) Nath' Houlton, (iii.) Jos. Houlton 
of Farleigh Hungerford. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Rebecca Wiltshire, Ann Wiltshire 
Nath' Houlton. 

Endorsed witnesses Charles Carwithin, clerk, Walt*" Wiltshire. 

E. 6. 22 and 23 Sept, 1738. A Lease and Release of these dates in 
respect of the mess, and close 2 ac. in Hr^ Somerford on south side of 
Lower Marsh, the parties to the Release being (i.) Rich'^ Knapp and 
Mary his wife, (ii.) Jos Houlton of Hungerford Farleigh, (iii.) Nath. 
Houlton of Nether Seagry, whereby for t*42 R. K. and his wife convey 
the premises to Jos. H. in trust for Nath. H. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Rich. Knapp's mark, Nath. Houlton 
Endorsed with receipt for £42, witnesses VVm Barrett, Cha" Barrett* 
Also note of later date added " House and close of Ground in Startley 
formerly the Green man." 

E. 7. 23 Sept', 1738. Release of Equity of Redemption, being 

% Canon F. H. Manley, 303 

an Indenture of this date between (i.) Richard Knapp, (ii.) Nath. 
Houlton,whereby for £42 R. K assigns to N. H. all Equity of Redemp- 
of the s*^ premises in respect of all the mortgages previously mentioned. 
Signed with Rich. Knapp's mark and sealed HOULTON. En- 
dorsed with receipt for £42 witnesses W"i Barrett, Cha* Barrett. 

Brobbin's Close. 

p. 1. 7 April, 1686. A Marriage settlement, being an Indent. 
Tripart. of this date the parties being (i.) Jasper Hibberd the elder, of 
Seagry, yeo., (ii.) Jasper Hibberd the younger, his son, and Katharine 
his wife, (iii.) Rich. Pope, yeo., and John Morse, yeo., both of Daunt- 
sey. In consid" of a marr. had between J. H.jn,and Kath., d^ of 
R. F. and of -£100 paid by R. P. to J. P. s" as marr. portion, Jasper 
Hibberd, s" , grants unto R. P. and J. M. " The Mess, called the Hide 
house, now in poss" of Tho* Hull, butcher, situate in Upper Seagry, 
with three closes of land adjt 13 ac, three Hams in the Common Mead 
of Nether Seagry, 1 ac. adj" the Lynch and 6 Beasts Leases in the s*^ 
Common Mead now in possn of s^ J. H, s" " to be held for use of s* 
J. P. s" until death, then of J. P. j" until death, then of his wife Kath. 
until death, then of eldest son, &c. 

Signed and sealed (armorial but illegible) Jasper Hibbard, sen' en- 
dorsed witnesses Christopher Simons, cl., Tho^ Adeye, s" , Tho' Adeye, 
j" , Rodolph Simons. 

F. 2. 24 June, 1723. A mortgage deed being an Indenture of this 
date between (i.) John Hibberd, of Seagry, yeo., only s. and h. of John 
H. late of Seagry, (ii.) Elizabeth H. only d^ of s*^ J. H., dec, for 
securing payment of £500. By will of J. H., dec, dated 17 Sept., 1721. 
Eliz. H. was given the Freehold Estate which her father had bought of 
Alexander Pyott and the " Ferrys's Lease " which he bought of John 
Wheeler, but subject to the condition that if within 2 yrs. of the dec. of 
the s^ J. H., his s. J. H. should pay ^500 to his s, Eliz. H. that then she 
should give up poss^ of this property to her br. The land purchased 
from Alexander Pyott, Citizen and Draper of London, consisted of 
" Appletree Leaze," 7 ac, " Sand Furlong," 3 ac, " North Field," 10 ac, 
*' The Heath," 3 ac, and that from John Wheeler, " Ferrises Lease," 
5 ac. Eliz. H. releases this property to her brother in consideration of 
a Mortgage being raised upon it by him. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) John Hibberd. 

Endorsed with payments by him amounting to ^500. 

Witnesses Chas. Bayliflfe, Mary Bayliflfe. 

P. 3. 14 and 15 July, 1731. Indentures of Lease and Release 
of these dates, the parties to the Release being (i.) Jasper Hibberd, of 
Seagry, yeo., Mark Newth, of Wootton Bassett, glazier, and Rebecca 
his wife and Elizti^ Hibberd, of Seagry, sp., (ii.) Natli^ Houlton, of 
Trowbridge, clothier. In consideration of 5s. paid to J. H., .£35, paid 
to M. N. and Rebecca his wife, and £32 13s, Od., paid to E. H., they 
convey to Nath. Houlton the Meadow " Brobins's Close," 2 ac in 
Nether Seagry, Rebecca N. and Eliz^h H. are the daughters of John 
Hibberd and grand-daughters of Jasper H., dec 

304 The Society's MSS, The Deeds of Seagry House. 

Signed and Sealed (not armorial) by J. H., M. W., R. N., E. H. 
Endorsed with payment of sums above-mentioned, witnesses Edw* 
Pyott, John Mortimer. 

The Breach. 

G. 1. 5 July 1636. Ohattle Lease for 3 lives, being an Indenture 
of this date between (i.) Walter Longe, of Draycott Cerne, Kn* (ii.) 
Aldome Comly, of Rodborne, husbandman whereby W. L. lets to A. C» 
for 99 years, should A. C, his now wife Edith and his son Aldome 
Comly live so long, his commons of pastures in the pasture ground 
called the West Breache in Broad Sommerford on payment of £8 and 
an annual rent of 10s. 

Signed Walter Longe, seal lost. 

Endorsed witnesses W"^ Batten, Henry Mayo. 

Endorsed also with a Deed Poll dated 9 May, 1670, whereby Aldam 
Comly, of Langley in Kington St Michael, yeo., assigns to John 
Stevens, the elder, of Stanton Quinton, yeo., all his interest in the 
" West Breach " mentioned in the above Indenture. 

Signed and Sealed (not armorial) Aldam Comly. 

Witnesses Danniell Tanner, John Tanner's mark. 

G. 2. 29 and 13 Dec, 1665. Indentures of Lease and Release 
of these dates, the parties to the Release being (i.) Walter Longe of 
Marlboro', Esq , (ii.) Stephen Alesope, eld. s. of Henry A., of Westerley> 
CO. Glouc , yeo., whereby for £22 W. L. grants to S. A. his 20 ac. of 
pasture ground in " The Breach," Great Somerford, and commons of 
pasture for 20 Bother beasts in " The Breach," now in the poss'^ of 
Aldelme Comley and subject to his Lease determinable with his death* 
, . . mention of Lady Elizabeth Longe, dec, mother of W. L. 

Signed Walter Long, seal lost. 

Endorsed witnesses Rich. Goodenough, Hen. Witt, John Tussell. 

G. 3. 14 and 14 Nov., 1678. Indentures of Lease and Release of 
these dates the parties to the Release being (i.) Stephen Alesope of 
Stanton Quinton, yeo., (ii.) Ayliffe Keynes, of Rodbourne, gent.,whereby 
for ^45 S. A. grants to A. K. the above property. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Stephen Alsop. 

Endorsed witnesses Francis White, W"^ Stevens, Tho. Brewer. 

Enclosed Bond of S. A. to A. K. 

G. 4. 9 Apr., 1694. Mortgage Deed, being an Indenture of this 
date between (i.) Ayliffe Keynes, of Rodbourne, gent., (ii.) Elizabeth 
Ferris, of same wid. whereby £30 is advanced by E. F. to A. K. on the 
above property. 

Signed Ayliffe Kaynes and sealed (armorial). 

Endorsed witnesses J. Stratton, Tho. Brewer, and receipt for ^£30. 

9 Apr., 1694. Counterpart of the above Mortgage Deed. 

Signed Elizabeth Ferris and sealed (not armorial). 

Endorsed witnesses Tho. Brewer, Christian Chivers. 

G. 5. 20 Jan., 1732. An Assignment of Mortgage, being ao 
Indenture of this date between (i.) John Kaynes, of Devizes, wool- 

By Canon F, H. Manley. 305 

stapler (ii.) Edward Adye, of Seagry, cooper. By the Will of Eliz^h 
Ferris, dec. the above mortgage was left to her " cousin John Kaynes, 
son of Ayliffe Kaynes," and he on payment of £21 assigns it to Edward 

Signed John Kaynes and sealed (armorial). 

Endorsed with receipt of -£21. Witnesses Israel May, Eliz. Player's 

G. 6. 5 and 6 Jan., 1738. Indentures of Lease and Release of 
these dates, the parties to the Release being (i.) Ayliffe Kaynes, of 
Rodbourne, gent., eld. s. and h. of A. K., late of R. dec, gent., (ii.) 
Nath^ Houlton, of Seagry, Esq., whereby for £21 A. K. grants to N. H. 
the 20 ac. of pasture called "The Breach," in Grt Somerford and 
commons of pasture for 20 Rother beasts in " The Breach," subject to 
the Mortgage upon the property. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Ayliffe Keyns. 

Endorsed with rec. for £21. Witnesses Cha^ Carwithen, W. Collins. 

G. 7. 9 Jan., 1738. Assignment of Mortgage to attend Fee, being 
an Indenture Trip, of this date the parties being (i.) Edw"* Ady, of 
Seagry, cooper, (ii.) Ayliffe Kaynes, of Rodbourne, gent., (iii.) Nath. 
Houlton, of Seagry, Esq , and Rob^ Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., 
whereby for j921 paid to him by N. H. and 5s., paid to him by R. H., 
E. A. assigns to R. H. in trust for N. H. his interest in the s"^ premises. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial) Edw*^ Adye, Ayliffe Keynes, Nath. 

Endorsed with rec. for £21, Witnesses Cha^ Carwithen, W. Collins. 

Long Hedge Leaze. 

H. 1. 16 Oct , 1734. Deed of purchase by Nathaniel Houlton 
from Thos Crew, and others of one close in Seagry, " Long-hedge 
Leaze," 7 acres, W™ Latcham being Tenant in 1766, 

This Deed missing but mentioned in Deed S.E. 2. See Deed N 2. 

Peior's Mead. 

I. 1. 20 Sept., 1717. Indenture of this date between Heanage 
Walker, of Hadley, co. Middlesex, Esq , and John Chapman, of Weston, 
CO. Somt clerk whereby H. W. for payment of i'SS lets to J. C. for 99 
years if Ann Satchell, relict of W^S., late of S. James', Clerkenwell, 
gent., dec. and formerly Ann Lambert, d^ of Rob^ L., gent., should 
happen so long to live at yearly rent of 10s, per ann, all that parcel 
of meadow ground called " Prior's Mead," 10 ac. lying near the parish 
of Seagry by in the parish of Lyneham. 

Signed Heanage Walker. Seal " a chevron between 3 stags' heads 
an tiered." 

Endorsed with receipt for £88. Witnesses Cha^ Heneage, Geo. 

I. 2. 5 Aug., 1730. Indenture of this date between John Chapman, 
of Weston, co. Somt clerk, and Nathaniel Houlton, of Trowbridge, 
gent., reciting indenture of Lease of " Pryor's Mead," by Heanage 

306 The Society s MSS, The Deeds of Seagry House. 

Walker to John Chapman, dated 10 Oct., 1717, determinable -with 
life of Martha Chapman, now dec, d' of J. C, also reciting another 
indenture of Lease between the same parties of " Pryor's Mead," dated 
25 Jan., 1721, determinable with life of John Chapman, son of J, C, 
clerk, now this Indenture witnesseth that for the sum of i'200 John 
Chapman, clerk, assigns to Nath^ Houlton all his estate in " Pryor's 

Signed John Chapman. Sealed (not armorial). 

Endorsed with receipt for £200. Witnesses Walt. Hanry, Cha^ Aland. 

I. 3. 24 Aug., 1758. Indenture of Lease of this date between John 
Walker, of Lyneham, and Mary Houlton, of Seagry, widow, ex. of last 
will of Nath. Houlton, of Seagry, James Frampton, of Moreton, co. 
Dorset, Esq., and Henry Walters, of Bath Easton, co. Som., Esq., 
Devizees, of s^ last will, whereby on surrender of Leases dated 10th 
Oct., 1717, and 25 Jan., 1721, and payment of Fine £26 5s. Od., a 
new Lease of " Prior's Mead " is granted to Mary Houlton, &c., at 
yearly rent 10s., determinable with deaths of Elizabeth now wife of 
. . . Hungerford, co. Berks, late Eliz<^^ Chapman aged about 50, 
John Chapman, of Newton St. Loe, clerk, aged about 47, and Joseph, 
son of Robt Houlton, of Bristol, grocer, aged about 9. 

Signed John Walter. Seal " a chev. engr. between 3 bezants, &c " 

Endorsed witnesses Wad. Locke, Harry Willoughby. 

Seagry House Estate. 

S. E. 1 28 and 29 March, 1723. M^ Nath' Houlton's settlement 
on marriage with Miss Newnton. Deeds of Lease and Release 
of these dates, the latter being an Indenture Quadripartite the parties 
being (i.) Jos. Houlton, of Grittleton, and Nath. H. of Trowbridge, his 
s., (ii.) Francis Newton, of Taunton, and Mary his d^^ (iii) Rob<^ H. of 
Trowbridge; Jos. H. jun., of Hungerford Farley, s. of s*i Jos. H. ; 
Francis Newnton, y of Bishopps Hull and John N., of Tiverton, sons 
of s*^ Francis N., (iv.) Benj. Jarvis, clothier, of Trowbridge and John 
Blake, sergemaker, of St. James, n"* Taunton. . • . in consideration 
of a marriage portion of ^2,500 on part of Mary Newton, Jos. Houlton 
puts into settlement for his son (i.) the Hide, the Knapps, the Wood, 
Mead Piatt, and the Coppice around which all adjoin 180 ac. together 
with the messuage and outhouses erected thereon by him Jos. Houlton, 
also the Heath 7 ac, the Five Acres 5 ac, Downfields 7 ac, in Common 
Mead called Starchfield in Nether Seagry 11 ac. and comons for 20 
beasts in Starchfield, &c, all these in Nether and Upper Seagry and 
Staunton (ii.) 3 parts in 4 of Messuage with Dove house and lands in 
Tilshead, sometime parcel of the Manor of Steeple Ashton, two parts 
were purchased by Jos. H., gr. f. of Nath. H., from W^ Wallis, 
of Grovely, and one was purchased by Jos. H., f. of N. H. from 
Thos Stevens, of Stowerpaine, (iii.) Wildings, 23 ac in Seagry . . . 
the trustees for these properties being Benj. Jarvis and John Blake, 
one of the parties in the above Lease. 

By Cano7i F. H. Manley. 307 

Besides these properties there is put into Settlement the leasehold 
for 99 years of "All that new erected Mess, in Trowbridge adjoining 
the Mess, now in poss^ of s<^ Jos. Houlton, the elder, with all work- 
houses, &c., made use of in the clothing trade, &c., one chamber over 
the panteryes in the old buildings lately enjoyed by the s^ Joseph 
Houlton, dec, and the little roome called the Smoakeing room lately 
built, &c." ... A Lease of this property had been granted 28 
Feb., 1723, for 99 years by Jos. Houlton the father, and Jos. Houlton 
his son, to Nathaniel Houlton, . . . the trustees in respect of the 
settlement of this property being the third parties in this Indenture of 

Jos, H., the father undertakes to pay off the Mortgages on Wildings 
and a charge on the Tilshead Estate. . . . mention of the Galley 
living in Trowbridge. 

Signed and sealed by all the parties, seals mostly armorial. 

Endorsed with receipt for £2,500 by N. Houlton. 

Witnesses John Grant, of Taunton, fuller ; Peter Courtenay, Olark 
of Pauls ; Geo. Hellier, Clerk to Mr. Jeane, of Taunton ; Tho^ Lucas, 
a Baptist minister ; W™ Wraxall, merchant in Bristol ; Tho^ Willeet, 
Attorney-at-Law ; John Jeans, of Taunton. 

S. E. 2 29 Sept 1766. Indenture Tripartite of this date between 
(i.) Mary Houlton, of Bath, widow, of Nath' H., late of Seagry, Esq. 
dec, Thos Putt, of Coombe, co. Devon, Esq., and Benj" Incledon, of 
Pilton, CO. Devon, Esq., (ii.) John Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., (iii.) 
Thos Pollok, of Grittleton, D>- of Laws, and Edmund Wilkins, of 
Malmesbury, Esq. By virtue of her Marr. Settlement, 29 March, 
1723, and last Will of her husband N. H., dec, dated 12th Jan., 1754, 
Mary Houlton is in poss" for life of the messuages and lands herein- 
after mentioned and she agrees to let them for her life to John Houlton 
on payment of an annual rent of £140. 

The Seagry House Estate consisting of (i ) the Mansion House 
commonly called Seagry House with app*^ late in occup" of s*^ M, H., 
(ii.) Four closes, viz,, the Hide, the Knapps, the Wood, the Meadsplatt 
and a Coppice or Wood ground together 180 ac, also the Northfields 
28 ac, the Heath 7 ac, the Five Acres 5 ac, the Field Grounds als 
Downfields 7 ac, also 11 ac in Starchfield, n"" Dodford Mill and 
commons of pasture for 20 Beasts in Starchfield, &c. ... all these 
purchased by Joseph Houlton, father of Nath' H. from Robert 
Stratton, of Nether Seagry, gent, and others and are now in occup" of 
W™ Latham as tenant, (iii.) Three closes 20 ac, " Wildings," formerly 
" Alcroft," purchased by s*^ J. H. from Nath. Godwin, of St. Giles in 
the Fields, founder, and Jos. Holborough, of Luckinton, freemason, 
now in the occup" of W™ Latham, as tenant, (iv.) Messuage in Nether 
Seagry, and applaud Home Close 4 ac. adjoining, " Brewers " 4 ac, 
the New Inclosures 8 ac, Shadwell 2 ac, 13 ac. inclosed out of North- 
field, Meadplott 2 ac adjoining, the Heath 4 ac, 10 ac dispersed in 
Down Mead, 28 ac in the Commonfield of Seagry and Common of 
pasture for 17 Beasts in the same. ... all these purchased by s** 
Jos. H., 2 May, 1715, from Edward Piott, gent., and now are in 

308 The Society s MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House. 

occn of Mary Benjamin as tenant, (v.) close called " the lower Croft '* 
10 ac. in Broad Somerford, purchased 26 Jan., 1725, by Nath* Houlton 
from Rich Knapp and others, now in occ" of W"^ Latham as tenant, 
(vi.) Messuage with close 2 ac. in Broad Somerford on South side of 
Lower Marsh, purchased 23 Sept,, 1738, by NatW * Houlton from 
Kich<^ Knapp and Mary his wife, now in occ" of Edmund Ball as tenant^ 
(vi.) Brobbins Close 2 ac. in Nether Seagry, purchased 15 July, 1731, 
by Naty Houlton from Jasper Hibberd and others now in occ" of Mary 
Benjamin as tenant, (viL) 20 ac. called " the Breach " in Great Somer- 
ford and commons for 20 Bother Beasts in the same purchased 6th Jan., 
1738, by Nath^ Houlton, from Ayliffe Keynes, gent., now in occ" of 
W™ Latham as tenant, (viii.) close called Long-hedge Leaze 7 ac. in 
Seagry purchased 16 Oct, 1734, by Nath Houlton from Thos Crew 
and others now in occ" of W^i Latham as tenant, (ix.) Leasehold 
meadow ground " Prior's Mead," held under Lease dated 24 Aug., 1758, 
with all rights pertaining to these various properties. 

A Fine to be levied. 

Signed Mary Houlton, Thos Putt, Benj. Incledon, Thos Pollock, 
Edm** Wilkins, and sealed . . . the first three seals armorial. 

Endorsed. Witnesses James Terry, Jos. Smith, W™ Putt, Edm*^ 
Cran, John Rogers, John Jury, Jos. Bradley, Jos. Ayliflfe. 

Also with statement that on 28 Nov., 1766, seisin was taken of above 
premises by Edm<^ Wilkins for Mary Houlton and delivered by him 
for her to John Houlton. 

29 Sept., 1766. Counterpart of Lease of Seagry House Estate. 
Signed John Houlton, seal armorial. 

Endorsed witnesses James Terry, Jos. Smith. 

S.E. 3. 7 Geo. IIL in 15 days of St. Martin (1766). Fine between 
John Houlton, Esq., Pit., and Mary Houlton, widow, Def ore. of 3 mess. 
1 Cottage, 1 toft, 1 dove house, 3 barns, 3 stables, 3 gardens, 5 orchards, 
100 ac. land, 50 ac. meadow, 250 ac. pasture, 20 ac. wood, pasture for 
57 beasts and 200 sheep, commons of pasture and free fishery in the 
River Avon with app^ in parishes of Seagry, Broad Somerford, and 
Stanton St. Quintin, in terms of previous deed, J. H. paying to M. H. 
£360 sterling. 

(in duplicate). 

S.E. 4. 1 and 2 Deer. 1766. Lease and Release of these dates of 
the Seagry House Estates the parties being (i) Robert Houlton, of 
Grittleton, Esq., brother of Nath. H., late of Seagry, Esq., dec, and 
John H., of Grittleton, esq., nephew of s* N. H., (ii) Geo. Green, of 
Fleet St., London, gent. The Lease for one year is signed by the first 
parties and sealed (armorial) and endorsed with witnesses, John 
Hewett and Isaac Jaques. The Release being a deed to lead to the 
uses of a Recovery for purpose of docking entail has lost the signature 
of the parties but is endorsed with the witnesses to the signatures — 
John Hewett, Isaac Jaques, Fra% Spratt, Tho'. Wale, Jos. Bradley, and 
Jos. Ayliffe. This deed is an Indenture Tripartite, the parties being 
(i) and (ii) as before, (iii) Jos. Smith, of Bradford, co. Wilts. 

By Canon F. R, Manley. 309 

S.E. 5. 5 and 6 Nov., 1770. Lease and Release of these dates of 
the Seagry House Estate. 

The parties are the same as in the previous deeds. 

The Lease for one year is signed Robt. Houlton, John Houlton, Geo. 
Green, and sealed and endorsed with signatures of witnesses Edm"*. 
Wilkins. Dan». Clutterbuck, Fra^ Spratt, Robt. Spottiswoode. 

The Release being a deed to make a tenant to the proecipe and to lead 
to the uses of a Recovery is an Indenture Tripartite for purpose of dock- 
ing entail, the parties being (i) and (ii) as in Lease, and (iii) Jos. Smith of 
Bradford, co. Wilts. This deed is signed and sealed (not armorial) by 
all the parties and endorsed with witnesses— Edm*^. Wilkins, Dan'. 
Clutterbuck, Fra^ Spratt, Robt. Spottiswoode. 

S.E. 6. 1770. A survey of part of the Lands of Seagry in the 
County of Wilts belonging to Capt. Houlton, surveyed &c. by John 

A map of the Garden and five fields about 18 acres. 

S.E. 7. 1771. A survey of part of Seagry belonging to Capt. 
Houlton &c., by John Powell. 

A map of the Avenue and five woods, about 21 acres. 

K. 1. 1 Jan , 1772. An Indenture of this date between (i.) Geo. 
Searle Bayliflfe, John Lloyd, Esq., and M^s Susanna Lloyd, (ii.) John 
Houlton, Esq., of Seagry, being an exchange of land, by the first parties, 
part of the estate of Cha^ Bayliflfe, dec, now in poss" of the first parties, 
in Seagry for land in Langley Burrell, the poss" of John Houlton. The 
land in Seagry is the Garden Heath 2ac. 3r. 27^p. withSr. 17p. garden, 
late part of it, together with cottage in occup" of Tho* Miles Ir. 14p., 
also Goss-croft Sac. 15p., and Little Heath adjoining Sac. lejp., and 
the land in Langley Burrell is Oldborow lOac. 3r, 5p. A Fine to be 

Signatures and seals of the four parties and duly witnessed. 

K. 2. Feb. 1772. Copy of the Fine levied at this date, 1 mess., 2 
gardens, 10 ac. meadow, 10 ac. pasture with app. in Seagry, ^£60. 

Ii. 1. 6 June, 1772, Surrendered on receipt of £10/10/0 by Tho' 
Miles, he being put into a cottage in Seagry Street for his own life and 
that of his wife Grace, a Lease with Counterpart dated 1 March, 1758, 
this being an Indenture between (i.) Cha' Bayliflfe late of Chippenham, 
eld. s. and h. of Cha" B. late of Seagry, dec. gent, and Geo. B. another 
s., (ii.) Tho' Miles of Seagry, yeo., in respect of a cottage in Hen Lane, 

Signed and sealed by the parties and duly witnessed. 

M. 1. 6 April, 1773. Counterpart of Release in Fee, being an 
Indenture of this date between (i.) John Houlton of Seagry, Esq, (ii.) 
Joseph Colborne of Hardenhuish, Esq., whereby J. H. sells to J. C. for 
i£803 14s. 6d. the following lands in Langley Burrell — White's 8 ac, 
Little Goare 4 ac, Lower White's 6 ac, Bullock's Patch 1 ac. 

Signed Joseph Colborne and sealed (not armorial). 

Witnesses Gab. Goldney, Sarah Goldney. 

N. 1. 16 Dec, 1777. Deed to lead to the uses of a Fine, being an 

310 The Society s MSS. The Deeds of Seagry House, 

Indenture of this date, the parties being (i.) Bob. Hollis of Seagry, 
woolstapler, and Eliz. his wife, (ii ) John Houlton, Esq., of Seagry, 
(iii.) W"^ Latcham of Grittleton, gent, and John Hiscock of Rowde, yeo. 
R. H. and E. his wife covenant with John Houlton that they will levy 
a Fine in respect of a newly-erected messuage in Upper Seagry with 
stables, &c., and Heath Leaze 2 ac. adjoining, mention is made of an 
Indenture of Bargain and Sale dated 14th March, 1761, the parties being 
(i.) Rob. Hollis, (ii.) Edward Duck of Notton, timber merchant, and 
Eliz. Hollis, then Eliz. Duck, sp., (iii.) W«^ L. and J. H. 

Signed Rob. Hollis, Eliz. Hollis, John Houlton, and sealed. 

Witnesses G. S. Bayliffe, Wm Beak. 

M". 2. 21 March, 1778. Deed of Exchange, being an Indenture of 
this date between (i.) John Houlton of Seagry, Esq., (ii.) Rob. Hollis of 
Seagry, woolstapler, and Eliz. his wife, W^i Latcham, and John 
Hiscock, . . A certain Indenture of Bargain and Sale dated 14 March, 
1761, as in previous deed, is recited being the Marriage Settlement of 
Robert Hollis and Eliz. Duck, among the property settled was the 
newly-erected messuage, &c., mentioned in previous deed . . this 
Indenture witnesseth that W. L. and J. H. with consent of R.and E. H. 
grant the above property to John Houlton in exchange for the close 
' Hedge Leaze ' 7 ac. in Seagry. See Deed H 1. 

Signed and sealed by all the parties. 

No signatures of witnesses. 

In map on page 290 /or " Ayliffe Kaynes's " read " Cromwell's." 



Mr. a. D. PASSMOEE. 

By Sir Arthur Keith, M.D., F.R.S. 

Conservator of\the Museum, Royal College of Surgeons. 

[. — Cremated remains from Barrow, Wanborough, Wilts {W.A.M., xxviii., 

All that can be said from an examination of the fragments is that 
only one individual is represented, an adulc, of small size, under 5ft. 
4in. in height, no certain indication of sex, but from the presence of a 
dagger suspect the remains to be of a man. 

2. — Remains from Smeeth Ridge, Ogbourne, with Pottery Vase of Bronze 
Age ( W.A.M., xxxviii,. 588). 

A complete skeleton is represented but there is not a single long 
bone unbroken, From a comparison of the fragments w^ith skele- 
tons in this museum I infer that they are the remains of a man of 
small stature, about 5ft. 2|in. or Sin. Only the right half of the 
forehead and the right parietal and the right temporal bones of 
the skull were found, but from these fragments one can infer 
that the original total length of the skull wras 180— 182mm., its width 
was 145mm ; the height of the roof above the ear holes II 8mm. The 
relation of width to length of skull was approximately 80 : 100 : the 
cephalic index being thus about 80, and the individual thus falling 
within the round-headed group. The supra-orbital ridges are strongly 
developed. The ankle bone, or astragalus, shows the short neck and 
extended articular facets seen in pre- Roman inhabitants of Britain ; 
the " squatting" facet is present on the lower end of the tibia. The 
upper shaft of the thigh bone is flattened from back to front (31mm. 
by 25mm.), while the upper part of the leg bone shows a moderate 
amount of side-to-side flattening (34mm, X 19mm.). The most re- 
markable character lies in the smallness of the teeth. A fragment of 
the lower jaw is present, bearing the lower incisor teeth, and the 
canine, premolar, and first molar of the right side. So small are 
the teeth, relatively to the size of the jaw, that the canine is isolated 
from the other teeth— the space between the canine and first premolar 
measuring 5'5mm., while that between the canine and lateral incisor 
measures 3*5mm. The first molar has the enamel worn from its chew- 
ing surface, the dentine being exposed within a rim of enamel. This 
individual has the stature so often seen in the Neolithic British, but 
his head form — so far as one can infer — approximates to that of the 
" beaker " people. 

3.— Human remains from Swindon, now at the British Museum, Nat. 

A complete skeleton is represented, but unfortunately the skull has 
been broken, compressed, and distorted by earth pressure, and large 

' Found with Cup No. I , illustrated WA.M., xxxviii., 42. This is an 
important find, being one of the few authenticated cases of a Beaker 
occurring with a dolichocephalic skull. — A. D. P. 

312 Report on Human Remains received from Mr. A. D. Fassmore. 

parts of the face and base are missing. The skeleton is that of a 
woman, probably 22 — 23 years of age, the wisdom teeth being fully 
erupted but unused ; all the growth lines in the long bones are closed 
save along the crests .of the pelvis and between the sacral vertebrae. 
All the sutures between the bones of the skull are open, the thickness 
of bone in the vault measuring from 4 to 5mm. There is in this 
museum the skeleton of a modern woman 5ft. 2in. in stature, with 
bones of rather delicate build, probably the skeleton of a woman of 
easy virtue. The stature of this " Barrow " woman is slightly greater 
than that of this modern individual— 5ft. 2^in. I have instituted a 
very full comparison of these two skeletons but it would take us too 
far afield to discuss the results here. The points of difference are 
numerous and significant and I suspect most of them indicate structural 
changes which have resulted from the difference between ancient and 
modern conditions of life. The ancient woman is more robustly built 
in all her bones, her pelvis is smaller, while the femora and humeri of 
both are of about the same length. The bones of the leg and of the 
forearm are nearly 10mm. longer in the ancient woman. The fingers 
of the latter woman were longer and stronger. 

As regards head form one is compelled to resort to inference owing 
the post-mortem distortion. The occipital bone is prominent and con- 
vex, not flattened as is usual in women of the " Beaker " people — but 
as is the rule in Neolithic British people. I infer that the original 
length of the skull was 179mm., its width 133mm., the height of the 
vault above the ear-holes (in the Frankfort plane) 115mm. The 
cephalic index was thus about 74, bringing the skull within the long or 
dolichocephalic group. 

The teeth are perfect and the palate symmetrically developed. The 
width of the dental arcade, measured between the outer surfaces of the 
second molar teeth is 60mm. — a moderate amount, while the front-to- 
back diameter of the arcade, measured from the upper middle incisors 
to a line joining the posterior borders of the third molar or wisdom 
teeth is 49mm. — rather above the average measurements. 

The supra-orbital ridges are robust, the supra-orbital width being 
106mm., the minimal frontal 99mm. 

The squatting facets are seen at the ankle joint and flexion facets at 
the lower end of the radius. The tibia is remarkably straight, shows 
no side-to-side flattening, being pyramidal in form ; the upper part of 
the thigh bone on the other hand shows back to front flattening- The 
impression given by a survey of all the features is that of a woman 
with straight limbs and body of robust but not ungraceful build. 
4. — Remains of a child from Swindon of the " Beaker " age (found with 
" Beaker " No. 2, illustrated W.A.M., xxxviii., 42. 

The child was aged about 15 months, the first milk molar being in 
use while the second one was still uncut. It is impossible to recon- 
struct the skull from the cranial fragments found. It is remarkable to 
note that the upper part of the shaft of the femur shows the same 
degree of flattening as in the adult woman described above ; the tibia 
^Iso, like that of the woman, shows no side-to-side flattening, the side- 
to-side diameter being almost as great as the back to front diameter. 



By R. C. a Clay, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A.' 

In Goddard's List of the Prehistoric, &c., Antiquities of Wilts, under 
Bowerchalke, is found " Barrows 5, 6. Above Woodhouse Hanging, ^-mile 
S.W. of Woodminton, O.M. 6in. 70 Wilts S.W., shows two barrows close 
together, apparently not in A. W. I. Station VIII., IX." These barrows are 
four and not two in number, and they lie more than half-way down the 
steep northern escarpment of this spur. Situated as they are, close together 
on such a slope, they have suffered much from weathering and spreading, 
so that they now appear as low mounds of indefinite outline, running one 
into another, but all having a decided creep downhill. They lie in a line 
€ast and west, an ancient sunken road skirting them on the east. For the 
sake of convenience in this report they have been numbered from the west. 

Barrow 1. 

This barrow appeared to have suffered least from weathering and had 
preserved an almost circular outline with a radius of approximately 21ft. 

A trench 4|ft. wide (afterwards increased to 9ft.) was dug from the 
south-western edge through the estimated centre. Almost immediately 
under the turf appeared the undisturbed chalk. Within 6ft. the first of a 
group of 21 cinerary urns was discovered. They will be described later. 
Near the centre of the barrow was a large heap of flints mixed with earth, 
covering a wide area. The topmost flints reached up to the turf. The 
trench was widened out to 14ft. so that a large rectangular space was 
cleared and all the " hard " beneath the heap of flints was thoroughly 
searched. No burial, however, was found. From the fact that the flints 
in the heap were interspersed with so much earth, and from the evidence after- 
wards obtained from the other three barrows, the conclusion was drawn 
that this barrow had originally contained a burial, probably by inhumation, 
which had been disturbed. Beyond this heap the 4^ft. trench was con- 
tinued to the north-eastern fringe of the barrow. 

Twenty-one cremations in urns were found in the south-west segment of 
this barrow. In most cases portions of the urns were in the turf, and none 
of the shallow cists were deeper than 1ft. 2ins. below ground level. The 
pottery was in a very friable and fragmentary condition, and often most of 
the cremation was missing. It is possible to reconstruct the history of 
I these burials. They were interred at a time when the barrow was much 
higher and had not yet suffered greatly from the consequences of its position 
on the steeply falling slope. A hole was made through the barrow mould 
until the hard undisturbed chalk was reached when a shallow basin-shaped 
cist only a few inches deep was excavated. In this cist the flat bottom of 

^ All the urns and other objects mentioned in this paper are now in the 
Society's Museum at Devizes. 

' ir.^.i/., xxxviii., p. 153. 

314 The Woodmiiiton Group of Barrows, Bowerchalke, 

one of the cinerary urns was forcibly placed and a flat slab of sandstone 
or purbeck was placed over the mouth of the vessel. It is very probable 
that these slabs were level with the surface of the barrow, for the reason 
that unless there were some visible indications of these burials, subsequent 
ones would not have been so evenly spaced, for the chances are against all 
these urns having been interred at one and the same time. These slabs be- 
came still more evident in the process of time and were noticed by people 
living in the Romano- British period, who carried away all but three of them 
for use as hearths, as they squatted in the depressions to the south of bar- 
rows 2, 3, and 4. The continual walking over the ground by this people 
further damaged the urns, which being unprotected and exposed to the 
action of the weather began to disintegrate. All this time the barrow 
mould was gradually slipping further down the slope and therefore it is 
only to be expected that we should now find fragments of the urns and 
of their contents at the sides of the barrow and beyond it to the north. 

A few important features of these secondary interments can be sum- 
marised as follows. The cists were all basin-shaped, shallow in the hard 
chalk and, on an average, 2^ft. apart. They all originally contained urns 
full of cremated bones. The urns, of which three were globular and the 
others barrel-shaped, stood upright and were all within the area of the 
barrow. Slabs of sandstone and purbeck probably covered the mouths of 
all the urns. The urns were much damaged by the roots of the turf grow- 
ing into and through them. In two instances a fragment of Romano- 
British pottery was found in the cist with the remains of an urn. A burnt 
ox tooth lay amongst the cremated human bones in one cist. Whereas the 
original urns stood 16 or 17 inches high, and as, at the time of excavation, 
the bottoms of the cists were on an average only 1ft. below the turf-line, 
there must have been much weathering of the barrow, and it is only to be 
expected that in most cases not many shards of pottery remained. 

Barrow 2. 

This barrow appeared to be higher than it really was on account of hollows 
on the upper side, caused by the removal of soil there in order to build the 
mound ; but, as in the other barrows, this wide ditch was absent on the 
northern side. The barrow mould had to a great extent " crept " down the 
hill, for the ground sloped in two directions, to the north and to the east. 
In the ditch on the south side were found many pieces of pottery similar to 
that found in the secondary interments in barrow 1 , and a few large slabs 
of sandstone and purbeck that had probably covered the mouths of the 
urns from which these shards came. 

Trenching inwards towards the centre of the barrow, we came upon a 
group of three urns at a distance of 6ft. from the southern edge. The 
larger one (Plate 3, fig. 1) had been pushed aside to allow for the subse- 
quent burial of another (Plate 3, fig, 2). A small finger tipped vessel (Plate 
3, fig 3) touched the larger urn on the western side. The weight of the soil 
and the gradual creeping of the barrow had smashed the urns and tele- 
scoped them. Their rims were just under the turf and their bases rested 
in a well-formed cist. 

By B. C. C. Clay. 315 

Two feet further towards the estimated centre we discovered a shallow 
cist containing the remains of a similar type of urn. The upper parts were 
missing. The cremated bones with it were those of an adult. In all like- 
lihood this was the primary burial in the original centre of the barrow, for 
no traces of any other were discovered in spite of diligent search. Over 
the centre of the present mound the soil was only nine inches thick above 
the undisturbed chalk, and in the turf there a few shards of IJomano- 
British pottery and one of the Early Iron Age were found. Many of the 
former were discovered in the barrow ditch, some in contact with portions 
of a tall finger-tipped urn lying on its side. 

Barrow 3. 

The material of which this barrow was built consisted of chalk rubble, 
which was 2ft. deep around the estimated centre. Here there were signs 
of the soil having been disturbed and several fragments of human leg bones 
were found in the rabbit holes that honeycombed this portion of the barrow 
No cist, however, was discovered. 

The ditch to the south was 2^it. deep, and in it were many fragments of 
Romano-British pottery at and above the 2ft. level. At a depth of l|ft. 
portions of a human ulna and humerus were found. Possibly they be- 
longed to the same skeleton as the leg bones in the barrow, and it is 
probable that this skeleton was the primary burial which had been dis- 
turbed by the people who left traces of hearths made of flat stones taken 
from the secondary interments in barrow 1, and also left fragments of 
Romano-British pottery in the ditch. 

The barrow had slipped from its centre towards the north and east. 

Barrow 4. 

This barrow was situated on the western side of the sunken road and 
consequently much of it had silted down the slope, . 

Trenching was begun on the southern edge and directed towards the 
estimated centre, A thick mass of Romano- British pottery was soon found 
under and in the turf. This mass was 14in. deep in places and stretched 
for 6ft. and 3Jft. in opposite directions to form an irregular rectangle. 
There were about two bushels of these shards, most of which were quite 
small and represented very many different vessels. Bowls of the wheel 
turned bead rim type prevailed, whilst Samian and other better quality 
wares were absent. No metal or bone objects were found. 

On the northern edge of this heap of pottery were two fragments that 
were exactly similar to those from the secondaries in Barrow I. Nearly 
2 feet further towards the centre of the barrow a smashed urn lay on its 
side on the undisturbed chalk. It was of the finger-tipped barrel-shaped 
variety. Two feet to the north-west we came upon a clean cut cist contain- 
ing ashes and burnt human bones and a single fragment of Homa no- British 
pottery. There can be no doubt that these remains were once contained in 
the damaged urn and that the single shard of Romano- British pottery, like 
the finger-prints in a detective story, gives the clue to the identity of the 
culprits. This interment was without question the primary burial of the 


316 The Woodminton Group of Barrows, Bowerchalke. 

Plate 2 

Fig. 1. Typical barrel-shaped urn of dark to reddish brown ware, rather 
rough to the touch. Height IBjins. Diam. at lip 11 Jins. Diam. at 
base 7^ins. Him slightly expanded and ornamented with a row of 
finger-tip impressions on the outside. Neck somewhat concave and 
sloping outwards. A raised horizontal moulding or fillet, decorated 
with finger-tip impressions separates the neck from the body. 

Fig. 2. Urn of very friable medium brown ware. Height 17ins. Diam. 
at rim llins. Diam. of base 6|ins. Rim very much rounded and 
slightly everted. Slightly concave neck terminating in a horizontal 
raised moulding ornamented with notches evidently cut with a knife. 
Body convex and curved strongly inwards to meet the base. 

Fig. 3. Globular urn of dark to reddish brown gritty ware. Height 8|ins. 
Diam. at lip. T^ins. Diam. at base 5^ins. Greatest diam. (at 
shoulder) logins. The rim is slightly rounded and ^in. thick. On 
the shoulder are four equally spaced lugs with vertical perforations, 
:|in. in diameter. Owing to the weathered condition of the pottery 
the ornamentation can be determined only when the urn is viewed 
in a strong side light. It consists of a line of zig-zags or chevrons 
below the rim, and parallel lateral chevrons with their apices on the 
shoulder and with their upper arms prolonged to near the upper band 
of chevrons, whilst the lower arms rest on a horizontal incised line 
that encircles the urn a short distance.beneath the lugs. This is the 
only known urn of this type with vertically pierced lugs. 

Fig. 4. Globular urn of light to dark brown gritty ware. Those fragments 
that are best preserved show a well smoothed hard surface that 
difi"ers greatly from that of accredited Bronze Age urns and compares 
favourably with domestic pottery of the beginning of the Early Iron 
Age. Height 7|ins. Diam. at lip G^ins. Diam. of base 4|ins. Rim 
slightly rounded. A straight neck slopes downwards and outwards 
and is separated from the globular body by a moulded cordon of tri- 
angular section that encircles the vessel 2ins below the lip. There are 
no lugs. 

Fig. 5. Globular urn, a few fragments only of which remain. Gritty 
ware, medium brown on the outside. Height 6ins. Diam. at rim 
5|ins. Diam. of base 4fins. Rim slightly rounded. Five girth 
furrows, made by a blunt tool, encircle the neck. The shoulder is 
carinated and bears a row of vertical furrows Jin. in length. 

Fig. 6. Barrel-shaped urn of dark brown, very gritty ware. In places it 
does not exceed 1/10 inch in thickness. Height 15jins. Diam. at 
rim 9fins. Diam. of base 6|ins. The rim is flat-topped and fin. 
wide. A horizontal raised moulding is in the middle of the neck at 
a distance of l^ins. below the lip. The shoulder or widest part is 
3jins. below the lip. From there to the base the sides are more or 
less straight. Compare an urn from outside Barrow 24, Handley 
Down {Ahercromhy II., fig. 385). 

Plate 3. 
Fig. 1. Barrel urn of dark to red brown gritty ware. Height 20ins. 

By B. C. G. Clay. 317 

Overall diam. of rim 15ins. Diam. of base 8fins. Greatest diam. 

{6ins. below lip) IG^ins. It is very friable, chiefly owing to natural 

causes, but the clay in the paste does not appear to bind. There can 

be no doubt, however, that the urn was originally well baked, because 

otherwise the heavy rim could not have been supported. Rim flat, 

lin. wide, spreading both ways, ornamented with the impressions of 

the pad of a small finger on the outer edge. At a distance of 2|in, 

below the lip is a horizontal applied (not moulded) finger-tipped band 

or cordon, upon which rest ten applied finger-tipped horse shoes 

which are not evenly spaced nor equal in size. Below the horizontal 

band hang nine vertical applied ribs. They are not straight and they 

have been ornamented by the impression of the tip of a finger, the 

mark of the nail dividing the hollow. One of these ribs runs up to 

the rim, and it is from this mark that the potter began to apply the 

horseshoes. The association of finger-tip and finger-nail impressions 

on the same urn demonstrates that, in this case at any rate, the two 

motifs are contemporary. Fragments of a similar urn were found at 

Horton Heath and are now in the Dorchester Museum (No. 1Q). On 

the inside of the base of the urn under discussion is an applied cross 

with equal arms. So loosely was it applied that most of it fell ofif 

during the removal of the base. The cross is not a complete unit ; 

the potter first laid a band of paste across the base and then applied 

a second one at right angles. 

Although incised crosses have been found on the bases of food vessels,^ 

and a cross of impressed cord ornament on the inside of the base of an urn 

of the collared type from Barrow 17, Woodyates,^ it is only in the case of urns 

of the vertically ribbed, finger-tipped, barrel-shaped type that raised crosses 

or stars, either applied or moulded, are met with. The following additional 

examples are known : — 

1. Burial 37, flat cemetery outside Barrow 24, Handley Hill.^ Plain raised 
cross, equal arms, " applied after base was made." Upper part of 
urn missing. 
2 South liOdge Camp.'* Bottom of ditch. "Wheel of 8 spokes." Large 
barrel urn with two horizontal finger-tipped fillets and sixteen plain 
vertical ribs. 

3. Barrow near Woodyates.^ Wheel or star with six rays. " Equal in 

size to the Stonehenge Urn and nearly of the same form." 

4. Cave at Berry Head, near Brixhain. ^ Cross with expanded and in- 

dented centre. Base only. Associated with flat-topped urns with 
finger-tipped horizontal fillets. 

^ B.M. Guide to the Bronze Age, p. 70. 
'^ A. W., p. 241. Archseologia xliii., fig. 35, p^ 357. Cat. Stowhead Coll. 
Devizes, No. 253. 

^ Ex. Crayiborne Chase, iv., pL 301, fig. 4. 
^ Ihid, iv., pi. 240. 
^ A.W., p. 243. Archxologia, xliii., p. 356. 
^ Archsed. Jouriial, ix., p. 93. 

Y 2 

3] 8 The Woodminton Group of Barrows, Boiverchalke. 

5. Cist adjoining chamber of barrow at Tregeseal, Cornwall.^ Plain raised 

cross. Urn of Type 3 Group I (Abercromby). 

6. Barrow at Worgret, near Wareham, Dorset.^ " Cross partly raised and 

partly grooved." Type of urn unknown. 

7. Barrow on King's Down, near Badbury, Dorset.^ Plain raised cross. 

Type of urn unknown. 

8. Barrow on Barrow Hill, Ebbesbourne Wake, Wilts."* Plain raised cross. 

moulded not applied. Barrel urn with finger-tipped horizontal 
mouldings and nine plain vertical ribs. 

9. Hut No. 2, Yeo Tor Bottom, near Princetown.^ Cross on inside of base 

(diam. Uin.). Type of vessel unknown. 
These ornaments consisted of a raised wheel of 4, 6. or 8 equal spokes, 
which were sometimes moulded from the clay of the base and sometimes 
applied afterwards. They certainly did not strengthen the vessel, there- 
fore they must have been intended as ornaments or as sacred symbols. 
The omphaloid base to domestic pottery was without doubt contemporary 
with these cinerary urns,^ and is the only other example of ornamentation 
inside the base of a prehistoric pot. This is interesting in regard to the 
fact that prehistoric fashions among the same people were uniform and 
general. It is reasonable to suppose, however, that ornamentation inside 
the base of a cinerary urn was not desired. In all probability this wheel 
is connected with the swastika, which Dechelette says "fut I'embleme du 
soleil en mouvement, 1' equivalent de la roue dont il n'est que le derive et 
le doublet."'' The swastika amulet has been found at Meare, associated 
with La Tene I. fibulae, but the sun disk dates from Bronze Age 11.^ What 
more suitable place for a symbol of religious significance than beneath, the 
ashes in a cinerary urn. 

Fig. 2. — Barrel urn of dark to reddish brown, gritty ware with smooth 
surface. Height l7|in. Diam ofHim, ll^in. Diam. of base, 7|in. 
Greatest circumference (at 5|in. below rim), 39in. Bim slightly 
rounded, fin. in thickness, ornamented with finger-tip impressions 
on its outer edge. There is a slightly raised moulding or fillet below 
the lip with similar ornamentation. From this moulding run seven 
plain vertical ribs which are not equidistant and do not follow a 
straight course. A long irregular crack with repair holes reaches 
from the rim to near the base. Cracks and repair holes are common 
in cinerary urns of the finger-tipped and Deverel-Rimbury types. 
The softness of the paste may have been the primary cause. 
Fig, 3.— Small urn of medium brown ware. Height 5:^in. Diam. at lip, 

^ Lukis, pi. xvii. 

2 Warne., Celtic Tumuli of Dorset, iii., p. 29. 

^ Archseologia, xliii., p. 357, fig. 34. 

"^W.A.M., current number, p. 325. 

^ Trans. Devon Assoc, xxx., Pt. L, 1«98, p. 101. 

^ Bx. Hengisthury Head, p. 36. 

^ Manuel. Bronze, p. 454. 

' B.M. Guide to Bronze Age, p. 90. 

By R, G. (7, Clay. 319 

3Jin. Diam. of base, 2|in. Slightly rounded rim, ornamented on 

the outside with a row of fingernail impressions. The sides 'are 

slightly convex. Found with figs. 1 and 2 in the same cist. This 

vessel appears to be unique. 

In the Deverel Barrow, near Milborne St, Andrew, Dorset,' urns of the 

globular type were found associated with those of the bucket or pail 

variety. At South Lodge Camp, in the flat cemetery outside barrow 24, 

Handley Hill, and now at Woodminton Down the globular urns have been 

proved to be contem.porary with those of the barrel shape. Therefore the 

barrel and bucket varieties are of the same date. 

The typical barrel-shaped urn {see Plate III., 1) is from 15 to 22 inches 
in height, with slightly convex sides ending in a raised horizontal fillet or 
moulding which may or may not be ornamented with finger-tip impressions. 
Above this a short, slightly concave neck runs up to meet a flat or rounded, 
and somewhat expanded rim. The bucket-shaped urn, on the other hand, 
has straight sides, a horizontal raised fillet usually at the junction of the 
upper and middle thirds, above which the straight neck may be inclined 
slightly inwards {see Abercromby II., 415) or else be continued upwards and 
outwards in a straight line with the sides {see Abercromby II., 410). The 
rim may be flat or slightly rounded, but is not expanded. It sometimes 
has solid knobs in place of the fillet and occasionally has neither. 

The true barrel-shaped urn has been found only within a limited area, 
comprising the eastern side of Dorset, South Wiltshire, and Western Hamp- 
shire, although perhaps the specimen from Nether Swell, Gloucestershire,^ 
and the example from Lambourne, Berkshire,^ should be included in the 
same category. 

It is suggested by the evidence at our disposal that the barrel urns, with 
their finger-tipped fillet close up to a slightly spreading rim, and the 
globular urns were made by invaders who reached these shores in the 
neighbourhood of Hengistbury and Weymouth. Mr. O. G. S. Crawford 
considers them to have been Goidels who introduced the leaf-shaped swords 
and winged celts between 800 and 700 B.C."^ The same people, in all 
probability, constructed the rectangular earthworks on the Wilts and Dorset 
boundary, such as South Lodge Camp,^ Martin Down Camp,^ and the 
camps on Handley Hill,^ Knighton Hill,^ and Fifield Bavant Down,^ and 
introduced the bronze razor of maple leaf pattern, The two former camps 
yielded pottery of the Deverel- Rimbury and finger-tipped barrel types, and 
bronze razors. The camp on Knighton Hill, called Wuduburh in the 

' Miles. The Deverell Barrow. 

2 British Barrows, p. 446. Abercromby II., fig. 376, 

Abercromby, II., fig. 388. Archaeological Journal, xxviii., p. 43. 

^ Antiquaries Journal, ii., p. 27. 

* Ex. Cranborne Chase, iv., p. 1. 

Wbid, iv., p. 185. 

7 Ibid, iv., p. 46. 

^ To be published shortly. 

»fr.i.i/., xlii.p. 457. 

320 Tfie Woodminton Growp of Barrows, Bovjerchalke. 

Saxon charters, was constructed by users of finger-tipped pottery, whilst 
the earthwork on Fifield Bavant Down was contemporary with the La 
Tene I. village site that abuts it on the north and west. The inhabitants 
of the south and south-east of England, at this time, were employing the 
cinerary urn with more or less straight sides and an overhanging rim of 
considerable depth that reached the shoulder and in so doing had eliminated 
the neck of the earlier collared type. They now evolved the bucket urn by 
substituting a finger-tipped fillet for the edge of the collar, that is to say^ 
at approximately the level of the junction of the upper and middle thirds, 
and preserving sometimes the straight but inwardly inclined portion 
between the lower edge of the collar and the rim. The raised and finger- 
tipped handles or horseshoes often seen between the fillet and the rim in 
barrel urns, finally degenerate in the bucket type into a simple impressed 
loop of widely spaced finger-tip marks. ^ The globular urns of the Deverel- 
Rimbury class (Abercromby, Type 4, Group 1.) have been compared with 
the Lausitz pottery and it has been suggested that they were derived from 
the latter.^ Attention should be called to an urn from Foissac^ which 
closely resembles some of the Dorset forms. Mrs. Cunnington has stated 
that "the prototypes of much of the All Cannings pottery are to be found 
in the Continental wares of the Lausitz group and its allied types." ^ The 
plain rounded rim, the straight neck ornamented with horizontal furrows^ 
and the globular body of many of her examples, particularly PI. 28, figs. 6 
and 16 ; PI. 39, fig. 1 ; and Pi. 28, fig. 3 ; show a striking affinity to urns from 
the Deverel Harrow,^ from Hoke Down,^ and from Handley Hill, Dorset,-^ 
while PI. 28, fig. 16 is comparable with our PI. 2, fig. 5. Another link in 
the chain is the finding of fragments of pottery ornamented with triangles 
filled with circular punch marks, identical with All Cannings PL 49, fig. 2, in 
the flat cemetery at Pokesdown associated with finger-tipped and globular 
urns ^ Again, the discovery of bronze maple-leaf razors at All Cannings* 
and South Lodge Camp'° correlates the All Cannings pottery with the 
Deverel- Rimbury types from the latter. Further confirmation of this 
theory is afi'orded by the association of the bronze leaf-shaped sword from 
Figsbury, and now in the Ashmolean Museum, with the pottery of the All 
Cannings type found]there by Capt. and Mrs. Cunnington.'' Mr. A. L. A» 
Armstrong has lately found bucket domestic ware in a Hal Istatt floor on 
top of a filled in mine shaft at Grimes Graves. All this indicates that the 

^ Report of Colchester Museum, 1924-5, pi. VL, fig. 1. 

2 Abercromby, IL, p. 50. 

^ Dechelette, Bronze, pi. 148, fig. 2. 

^ All Cannings Cross, p. 37. 

^ Abercromby, IL, fig. 389b. 

^ Ibid, fig. 393. 

5^ Ibid, fig. 397. 

® In Mr. Druitt's private museum at Christchurch. 

^ All Cannings Cross, PI. 19, fig. 2. 

^" Ex Cranborne Chase, iv., PI. 238, Fig. 4. 

'» W.A.M , xliii., p. 48. 

By R. a C, Clay. 321 

globular-barrel-bucket complex cannot be assigned only to the end of the 
Bronze Age, as it is equated with sites that belong to the full Early Iron 
Age. The finding of an iron spearhead in a bucket urn at Colchester' lends 
strength to this theory. It has been suggested that the Bronze Age did 
not reach its climax until past the dawn of the Early Iron Age. 

There is in the Blackmore Museum a large fragment of a haematite 
coated vessel labelled "from Bowerchalke." Colt Hoare has recorded.^and 
a recent air photograph has verified, a village site half a mile south of 
V\'oodminton Farm. Probably the fragment came from that place. Its 
proximity to the VVoodminton group of barrows is significant. The urn 
(Abercromby II., fig. 379) in all likelihood came from Ansty Barrow 3 
(Goddard's List), that adjoins the La Tene I inhabited site on Swallowcliffe 
Down. Further, in Ebbesbourne Wake Barrow 2 (Goddard's List) at 
the edge of. the La Tene I. village at Fifield.Bavant, I discovered fragments 
of a finger-tipped urn with incised chevrons and filled lozenges, very 
.similar to a fragment in the British Museum from a cave at Berry Head, 
near Brixham.^ This was a secondary interment. The presence of two and 
possibly three villages of La Tene L date and at least thirty urns of this 
class in seven different barrows within the space of four parishes may not be 
a mere coincidence. 

The handled urns from Cornwall (Abercromby I'ype 3, Group I.) were 
evidently the product of a different but allied and probably contemporary 
wave. The raised cross on the inside of the base of the specimen from 
Tregeseal equates them with the barrel urns. 

Flint implements are common on domestic sites where bucket-shaped 
vessels with finger-tip ornament are found. The early La Tene inhabitants 
of South V\ ilts were not flint users. During the excavation of two hundred 
pit dwellings at Swallowclifi'e and Fifield Bavant, the only flint tools found 
were two scrapers and a strike-alight of inferior workmanship. At All 
Cannings there was a similar scarcity of flint implements. Presuming that 
the inhabitants of the Swallowcliffe and Fifield Bavant villages interred 
the ashes of their dead in urns of the finger-tipped barrel type — a hypothesis, 
as 1 have shown above, not without support— then the following conclusion 
may be considered safe. The people who employed the bucket urns were 
the direct descendants of the flint-working Middle Bronze Age dwellers in 
this country ; whereas, those who used the cinerary urns of the barrel type 
were fresh invaders who used no flint except for pot-boilers and strike-a- 

There is no doubt that at this time great and important changes were 
taking place. Burials were no longer isolated primary interments in barrows 
(there are exceptions to every rule), but either multiple secondary burials 
in pre-existing barrows or communal burials in flat cemeteries. Great 

1 No. P.C. 617, Colchester Museum. This and the three bronze beads 
from l^arton Common, Hants, are the only instances of objects found with 
burials of this type. 

' A.W.,l,2Ab. 

^ Archxological Journal, ix , p. 93. 

322 The Woodminton Growp of Barrows, Bowerchalke. 

chains of hill-top camps were being thrown up all over the country ; for 
excavation has proved that those with triple ramparts, are contemporary 
with the dawn of the Early Iron Age, and that most of those of a more 
simple structure, belong to the same period. ^ This testifies to the success 
of the invasions of the people who brought with them the finger-tip moii/, 
and who consolidated their positions as they penetrated. 

Barrow 5. 

This barrow is not shown on the Ordnance Map, Wilts LXX., S.W., 6in. 
It is situated near the crossing of the modern field boundary by the 700ft. 
contour line in Lat. 50° 59' 47", Lon. 2° 0' 7". As its height was only a 
few inches and its outlines rather indefinite, there was some doubt at first 
as to the nature of the mound. To ascertain the quality of the soil of which 
it was composed, a square sod was removed from over the estimated centre 
and the base of an inverted urn was exposed. 

The barrow mould consisted of top soil. There was no ditch and the urn 
had no covering of stones and rested not in a cist but on the natural ground. 
As most of the base of the urn was missing, it can be inferred that at some 
time the barrow had been ploughed over, and that its original height was 
greater than at present. Roots of plants had grown into and through the 
urn, breaking it into 70 fragments. It covered the cremated bones of a 
woman and a small bronze awl. 

The urn is a late example of Abercromby's Type I. ; the overhanging rim 
is deep and the neck has disappeared. Height of urn 12Jin., depth of rim 
3ins., diam. of lip lOins , diam. of bottom of rim 12|ins , diam. of shoulder 
12in., diam. of base G^ins. The top of the rim is Jin. wide and slopes down- 
wards and inwards. The body is shaped like an inverted and truncated 
cone. In colour it varies from medium to a reddish brown. The surface 
is uneven and the paste soft, badly baked and containing very few particles 
of grit. The outside of the rim is ornamented with five horizontal rows of 
oat-shaped marks, caused by stabs with a pointed implement. Another 
line ornaments the top of the rim. 

A similar urn was found in Barrow 0. 94, at Blanch,^ in Yorkshire, with 
an incense cup inside it, and by the side of a crushed food vessel and a flint 
borer. A small urn from Sutton Poyntz has a similar rim.^ 

The bronze awl has a flat tang and measures ifins. in length. It falls 
into Thurnam's type I.^. Similar awls have been found in Barrow 64 at 
Garrowby Wold associated with the skeleton of a woman and a jet necklace^ : 
in a barrow at Sutton Veny^ ; in a barrow at Upton LoveF ; in Barrow 3 

' See also Crawford, Observer, 4th Oct., 1925. 

■^ Mortimer, Forty Years' Researches, p. 324. 

^ Abercromby, II., fig. 32. Cat. of Sepul. Pot. in Dorset Mus., No. 22. 

"* Archseologia, xliii., p. 464. 

* Mortimer, Forty Years' Researches, p. 138. 

^ A.W., 103. Cat. of Stourhead Coll. Dev. Mus , 66. 

' Ibid., 76. Ibid.lL 

Plate If.— Cinerary Urns from Barrow I., Woodminton, Bowerchalke. h- 


i'M- ^ 

j^' " ' ' #,' ^ T '•>^ 

. t 

*di&«r 4- 

Plate I la. Cinerary Urns from Barrow I., Woodminton, Bowerchalke. 










• • 



• • 








O -^3 

^ o 

O +3 

•s a 

O ^ 03 

M > 

03 03 

t-i O 

ft M 

03 03 








■4^ ft C 

® ^ c 

e 03 .is 

S HH a. 


"73 03 


; I ,#-^-s 




■ ^ 

A-. : ^- 

V- -- 





£ ^ a3 

^ S I 

By R. G. C. Clay. 323 

near Amesbury Park^ ; in a barrow at Rudstone, E. Riding,^ Yorks; in a 
barrow at Goodmanham, E. Riding, Yorks^ ; and with a crouched skeleton 
in Barrow 23 at Handley Hill, Dorset.'' 

List of Localities where Barrel and Bucket Cinerary Urns have 
BEEN FOUND (see map). 

Berkshire — Wallingford, Sulham, Lambourne. 

Cornwall — St. Just. 

Cambridgeshire — Chesterton. 

Devonshire — Berry Head near Brixham. 

Dorsetshire— Bagber, Blackdown Hill, Came, Chaldon Herring, Chaldon 
Down, Chesilbourne, Dewlish, Dorchester, Friar's Waddon, Handley, 
Horton, Little Puddle, Melcombe Horsey, Milton Abbas, Milbourne St. 
Andrew, Pokeswell, Portland, Puddleton, The Ridgeway, Rimbury, 
Roke Down, Tarrant Monkton, Wareham, Weymouth, Winterbourne 
Clenston, Winterbourne Whitchurch, Woodyates, Ulwell. 

Essex— Alresford, Rocking, Colchester, Great Bentley, Fingerhoe, Manning- 
ton, Shoebury, Southchurch, White Colne, Wix. 

Gloucestershire — Nether Swell. 

Hampshire— Afton Down (I. of W.), Barton Common, Bratley, Broughton, 
Cranbury Common, Dummer, Petersfield, Pokesdown, Shalcombe 
Down (I. of W.), Stoney Cross, Rollesdown, Winchester. 

Hertfordshire— Letch worth. 

xMiddlesex— Ashford, Mill Hill. 

Norfolk — Lakenheath. 

Oxfordshire — Standlake. 

Somerset — The Mendips. 

Suffolk — Brantham, Nay land, Troston Heath, Greeting St. Mary. 

Surrey— Chobham Park, Kingston Hill, Sunningdale, Walton-on-Thames, 
Wonersh, Worplesdon. 

Sussex — Hassocks. 

Wiltshire — Beckhampton, Bedwyn, Bishopstone, Bowerchalk, Collingbourne 
Ducis, Ebbesbourne Wake, Fifield Bavant, Idmiston, Kingston Deverill, 
Lake, Shrewton, near Stonehenge, near Swindon, Tan Hill, near 
Wardour, Winterbourne Stoke, Winterbourne Monkton. 

List of the Localities where Globular Cinerary Urns have 

been found. 
Berkshire— Lambourne, Walbury. 

Dorset — Came, Chiselbourne, Handley, Keynston, Little Puddle, Littleton 
Down, Milbourne St. Andrew, Milton Abbas, Plush, Pokeswell, Ridge- 
way, Rimbury, Roke Down, Sturminster Marshall, Winterbourne 

^ Cat. Stourhead Coll., 270b. 
^ British BsLvrows, xlii. 
' Ibid., cxv. 
* Ex. Cranhorne Chase, iv., p. 146 and 23. 

324 Barroios of Ehheshourne Wake, etc. 

Middlesex— Ashford. 1 

Wiltshire — Bowerchalk, nr. Salisbury, nr. Swindon, Winterbourne Stoke. 

Another in the Bristol Corporation Museum labelled " from a Wiltshire 




A disc barrow in a state of excellent preservation is situated on the sum- 
mit of Callow's Hill, Alvediston (O.M. 69 S.E.). Several Scotch pines 
grow there, some within the ditch. The trunk of the most northerly of 
these is shaped like an inverted L and without doubt was the " gallows'^ 
tree," for on the horizontal portion can be seen the marks of chains or ropes 
and on the vertical half steps or footholds, now barked over, cut in zig-zag 
fashion on either side. 

The central mound is 18ft. in diameter and 3ft. high. There is an 
encircling bank Ift. high with an outer ditch 1ft. Sins. deep. The external 
diameter of the structure is 56 feet. Excavation proved that the mound, in 
spite of its regularity, had been disturbed by man and rabbits. A few 
pieces of burnt bone and of (?) Bronze Age pottery, and many fragments of 
fairly recent pottery and wine bottles were found. The latter were probably 
the remains of the refreshments of the sightseers at the hangings of the 
malefactors. An ill defined cist was discovered under the centre of the 

About 50 years ago a dew-pond was made just south of the clump of trees 
and it is stated that during its construction a human skeleton was found. 
This was probably an executed criminal. B. C. C. Clay. 


JULY, 1924. 

Situated on the slope of the downs, this barrow has been disturbed by 
rabbits. Its height is 3 feet, its diameter 44 feet. A 6ft. wide trench was 
cut from the north towards the estimated centre. Scattered human bones 
were found in the old rabbit holes soon after the start of the excavations. 
At 18ft. a clean cut hole, Ift. lin. deep and measuring 2ft. 2in. by 1ft. 9in.,. 
was found in the " hard." At the centre of the barrow there was a shallow 
cist 2ft. Sin. by 5ft. 3in. and about 1ft. deep. It ran W.N. W. and E.S.E. and 

1 This globular urn without lugs was associated with bucket types, and 
like the specimen with " fern " ornamentation lately discovered by Mr. 
Garnet H. Wolseley at Park Brow, Sussex, and considered by him to be of 
Late Bronze Age date, has certain affinities to the IJeverel-Rimbury types 
and appears to be derived from a common ancestor with them, along a 
different branch. 

By E. C. C. Clay, 325 

was deepest at the western end. In it were the bones of one man, three 
women, and one child. Rabbits had burrowed along the floor of the cist and 
had displaced most of the bones of three of the skeletons. There were no 
objects or pottery, but in the " barrow earth " we found many blue-white 
flakes. This barrow was later than the " chess-board " lynchets on which 
it was placed, and may be of early Bronze Age date. 

Report on the Human Bones, by Sir Arthur Keith. 

From this barrow Mr. Clay unearthed the remains of one man, three 
women, and a child. There was only one skull sufficiently complete for 
measurement. In this specimen the face, all save the lower jaw, was missing. 
Only two thigh bones were intact — one of a man, the other of a woman. 
The stature of the man I estimate at 5ft. 6in., of slender build, the upper 
end of his femur showing no flattening. The stature of the woman was 
only 4ft. 9iin. and of slender make. The upper part of her thigh bone 
showed a slight degree of flattening. The two other i women are represented 
by only the upper part of their thigh-bones. These showed platymeria — or 
front to back flattening ofjthe upper shaft of the femur to a high degree. 
In one the transverse diameter was 36mm., the front to back 24mm., the 
second diameter representing 66'6/o of the first. In No. 4 the flattening 
was equally great. 

The skull is that of a man between 40 and 50 years of age, with the teeth 
of the lower jaw much worn but apparently free from disease. He was 
narrow-headed, the greatest width being 136mm. and the greatest length 
192mm, the width index being 70.8%. 'J'lie supraorbital ridges are well 
marked, the supraorbital width of the forehead being lOrSmm., its minimal 
width 95mm , and its greatest frontal width 119mm. The chin was deep 
and prominent. 

So far as concerns the shape of the skull, it is of the narrow type found 
in both Saxon and Neolithic burials, but is more common in the second 
than the first. The thigh bones are not like those found in the neighbouring 
Saxon cemetery at Broadchalk. 

Report on the Mollusca from inside the Skulls by A. S. Kennard, 
F.L.S., AND B. B. Woodward, F.L.S. 
Twelve species were obtained, viz.: — PolUd cellaria (Mull.), Arion sp., 
Goniodiscus rotundatus (Mull.), Hijgromia hispida (Linn.), Helix nemoralis 
{lAuw.), Helix hortensis ( .\l nil ), Cochlicopa lubrica (.Mull ), Pupilla muscorum 
(Linn.), Acanthinula acideata (Mull.), Clausilia rugosa {Drap ), Carychium 
minimum (M ull.), Pomatias elegans (.M ull.). These shells certainly indicate 
damp conditions and a scrub growth. R. C C. Clay. 



A description of this unrecorded barrow was given in W.A.M.. vol. cxli., 
p. 598. Mr. Burroughs, the owner and occupier of the site, readily gave me 
permission to excavate — no easy task owing to the indefinite character of 
this barrow which in no part could have been as much as a foot in height. 

326 The Excavation of the Barrow on Barroiv Hill. 

We cut a trench from the west side towards the estimated centre and 
within 10ft, came upon charcoal and burnt bones immediately under the 
surface. We found a cinerary urn standing upright with charcoal, wood 
ashes, and burnt bones inside and around it. The urn was somewhat tele- 
scoped and most of the rim and half of the body had been destroyed by the 
plough. The rim was only 4in. under the turf-line. The barrow was situated 
on a wide band of clay containing a few flints, which ran in an easterly 
direction over the crest of the hill. A small hole had been dug in this clay 
into which the lower half of the urn had been fitted. Owing to the heavy 
rains and the nature of the soil, the urn was in a porridge-like condition 
and came away in about 100 fragments. The depth of the bottom of the cist 
from the turf-line was 20 inches. 

Mrs. Cunnington, who so skillfully restored the urn, has sent me the 
following description of it : — Height 20in., rim diam about II., base 8|in. 
Cinerary urn of coarse friable pottery freely mixed with flint particles : 
the rim and upper parts are chocolate in colour, light red to biscuit colour 
below. Nine vertical ribs running from rim to base divide the surface of the 
vessel into panels of rather flat profile : the ribs are slight, irregular, and 
formed by pressure on the soft clay and do not show on the inside. About six 
inches below the rim there is a double row of finger tip impressions, also 
placed irregularly : the two rows appear to have been made simultaneously 
by the pressure of the first and second fingers of a small right hand. Be- 
tween these finger markings and the rim are a series of six or seven (the 
number varies) shallow horizontal furrows that look as though produced by 
fingers drawn across the soft clay : the furrows were made after the vertical 
ribs, but always stop at the ribs and begin again on the other side : this 
can be seen in the photograph below the undamaged rim, The rim is flat. 
There are two raised ribs forming the figure of an equi-lateral cross on the 
inside of the base : the ribs are formed out of the base itself, not laid on as 
noticed in one instance by Pitt-Rivers. A similar feature occurs on the 
large cinerary urn from Woodyates, No. 253 in the Stourhead Collection at 
Devizes, and on a large vessel from Beachy Head in the British Museum* 
Similar figures of four, six, or eight rays have been recorded in a number 
of cases usually, but not invariably, on tub-shaped vessels with finger 
markings. See Thurnam Archeeologia, vol. xliii., p. 356: Fitt- Rivers, 
Excavations, iii., pp. 30, 150, 169. R. C. C. Clay. 

[This Urn is illustrated in Plate V.]. 





By K. de C. Nan Kivell. 

The objects here illustrated and listed are the discoveries of the second 
years' systematic excavation on the Romano-British site at Cold Kitchen 
Hill, Brixton Deverell, Wilts. (For objects found in 1924 see Wilts Arch, 
Mag , vol. xliii., pages 180 — 191). 

Although great care has been taken to note the approximate position and 
depth of all the objects found, the results on sites like these avail but little 
in determining the various stratas of the places and their corresponding 

The soil on most of these sites is very shallow, apart from theheaped-up 
mounds, and in many places consists of a loose loam in which the objects, 
in the course of centuries, have become entirely transposed from their 
positions when lost ; thus we find British coins, pottery, and La Tene 
brooches near, and sometimes on the surface, and late Roman coins, objects, 
and pottery, at the bottom of the moveable earth. 

We have, therefore, to judge m.ore or less from the sum of the objects 
found, the approximate dates of formation and abandonment of these 
villages, and to unravel out of chaos the types of pottery and objects 
characteristic of each period and people. 

It was estimated by studying last year's " finds," and from various com- 
parisons with similar objects found on other dated sites, that this site was 
of pre-l»oman foundation, and was abandoned towards the end of the fourth 
century A.D., and the results of this year have so far substantiated this by 
the discovery of the fourth La Tene brooch, the third British coin, and 
more pre- Roman pottery, and no coins, objects, or pottery have been found 
that could with certainty be assigned to a later date than that given. 

All the objects found will eventually be placed in the Devizes Museum to 
accompany those from this site already there. 

Plate L 
A. Iron La Tene II. brooch. Length 4 5/16in. Complete. This brooch 
is unusual in having only two upright coils to the spring, (cf. Wilts Arch. 
Mag., vol. xliii., 182, PI. iv. A.). 

Plate II. 

A. Bronze spring-pin, T-shaped, bow brooch with open-work catch- 
plate. Round bow, ornamented with three ring and dot designs at head. 
Spring, pin, and part of catch-plate missing. Length 2 ll/16in. 

B. Bronze triangular hinge-pin brooch with suspension loop and sunken 
cavity for enamel or stone. Oval projection at foot covering catch-plate. 
Pin missing. Size 1 3/4in, X 1 l/8in. 

328 Objects found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton DeverelL 

C. Ikonze oval spring-pin enamelled broocL, with central mounting for 
stone, now missing. Fragments of emerald green enamel with divisions of 
yellow remaining. Pin missing. Size 1 l/16in. x7/8in. 

D. Hronze spring-pin bow brooch, all in one piece, two transverse in- 
cised lines encircle the top of the bow. Perfect. Length 1 13/16in. 

E. Bronze oval spring-pin brooch, with mounting of conical-shaped 
onyx (?). Apparently the two encircling cavities have contained enamel, 
but no traces remain. Size 1 1/4 x 15/16in. 

F. Bronze pin with writhen knob. J^ength 3 3/4in. 

Plate III. 

A. Bronze spring-pin, T-shaped bow brooch. Hollow round bow . 
Spring, pin, and part of catch -plate missing. Length 2in. 

B. Bronze spring-pin bow brooch, all in one piece. Turn-up of catch- 
plate missing. Length 1 l/4in. 

0. Bronze spring-pin bow brooch, all in one piece. Pin and one spring 
missing. Length 1 V/8in. 

D. Bronze spring-pin bow brooch, all in one piece. Thin fiat bow. 
Catch-plate missing and spring distorted. Length 1 5/16in. 

E. Bronze spring-pin bow brooch, all in one piece. Pin and one coil of 
spring missing. Length 2 l/8in. 

F. Circular bronze enamelled spring-pin brooch, with mounting for 
stone in centre, now missing. Fragments of red and blue enamel remain- 
ing. Diam. 1 l/4in. 

G. Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch. Shallow concave groovings from 
head to top of bow, where it is waisted and then continues plain to the 
termination at the foot. All thickly " tinned." Point of pin worn away. 
Length 2 l/4in. 

Plate IV. 

A. Bronze dagger with projecting flanges and slightly bevelled edges 
Two rivet holes. No ornament. Length 3 3/4in. Width 7/8in. Excellent 

B. Large bronze ring with three coils. Both ends ornamented with two 
small transverse grooves. Diam. lin. Perfect. 

C. Small bronze ring of round wire, unjoined. Diam 9/16in. 

D. Bronze ear-ring (?) with pointed ends. Notched from end to end. 
Diam 7/16in. 

\l. Bronze ear-ring (?) with pointed ends. One notch at top. Diam. 

F. Bronze ring of round wire. Diam. Il/I6in. 

G. Bronze ring of round wire, unjoined. Diam. 3/4in. 

H. Flat triangular piece of bronze, perforated at two corners. All sides 
1 l/4in. 

1. Bowl of bronze spoon. Size 1 l/2in. x 1 1/1 6in. 

J. Part of semi-circular bronze binding, for mirror (?). Rivet holes at 
regular intervals. Length remaining 5 l/2in. 

By 11. de C. Nan Kivell 329 

K. Fragment of bronze bangle, ornamented with projecting square knobs 
at regular intervals. Transverse grooves cut along the middle section. 
Length I 7/8in. 

L. British silver uninscribed coin. Diam. 3/4in. 

M. Part of bronze stylus. Length 1 5/8in. 

N. Bronze pin with head broken off. Length Sin. 

0. Ditto. Length Sin. 

(16 fragments of bronze were found, mostly identifiable as parts of 
brooches, bangles, rings, and pins). 

Plate V. 

A. Bow of iron brooch. Length 2in. 

B. Ditto. Length 1 7/8in. 

C. Large iron hinge-pin bow brooch. Wide flat bow. Length 3 l/8in. 

D. Iron spring of a La Tene brooch, with four coils. Width 9/16in. 

E. Iron oblong buckle with clasp. Size 1 l/4in. x 3/4in. 

F. Iron oval cleat Size lin. x ]/2in. (18 of these were found of a 
uniform size.) 

G. Iron ring of round wire, ends overlapping. Diam. 3/4in. 

H. Iron staple- like object, with pointed ends, and rounded knobs in 
middle of both sides. Length 1 7/8in. Width 1 l/8in. 

1. Iron object of round wire, pointed at both ends and doubled back. 
Small handle (?). Length as now 2 l/4in. 

Plate VI. 

A. Iron strigil (?) with flat blade. V-shaped slot in shaft for insertion 
of handle. Length 5in. Widest part of blade 7/8in. 

B. Iron awl, square tang, and tapering in a round to a very sharp point. 
Length 2 3/16in. 

C. Ditto. Length 2 l/2in. 
I). Ditto. Length 5 3/4in. 

E. Iron stylus, projecting fan-shaped eraser, reduced extended writing 
point. Slightly bent. Length 5 l/4in. 

F. Iron stylus, fan-shaped eraser, shaft reduced to a writing point. 
Length 4 7/8in. 

G. Iron stylus, fan-shaped eraser, collar at other end of shaft with 
reduced extended writing point. Length 3 7/8in. 

H. Fragment of twisted square iron wire. Length 4 1 /2in. (8 fragments 
of varying thicknesses have been found). 

I. Iron pin with head bent to form loop. Length 3 l/8in. (4 of these 
were found, average length 3in.). 

J. Ox goad, ferule with pointed pin. Diam. 3/8in. Length of pin 7/8in. 

K. Large iron hook and eye, ends of both parts broken. Length re- 
maining 3in. 

Plate VII. 

A. Iron tool, with round socket for handle. Hammer one end, adze (?) 
the other. Length 7 l/2in. Perfect. 

330 Objects found at Gold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell. 

B. Iron knife with long tang and transverse collar at beginning of 
blade. Length 6 3/4in. 

C. Ring of iron. Diam. 2 l/4in. 

D. Large iron nail with projecting head, square at top tapering to a 
rounded point. Length 6 3/4in. (Four pounds of nails of various sizes 

E. Iron spoon-like object, all beaten out of one piece. Hole in centre 
of bowl. Length 3 3/8in. Width 1 l/8in. 

Plate VIII. 

A. Bone pin with double knobbed head. Length 3 3/8in. Perfect. 

B. Ditto, with small flat round head. Length 3in. Perfect. 

C. Ditto, with knobbed head. Length 2 l/2in. Point broken off. 

D. Ditto, with flat round head. Length 2 3/4in. Perfect. 

E. Ditto, with round conical shaped head. Length 3in. Perfect. 

F. Top of bone pin with head carved with crossed notchings. Length 
1 l/4in. 

G. Bone needle. Length 3 l/4in. Perfect. 

H. Ditto, top of eye missing. Length 2 8/16in. 

I. Ditto, top of eye missing. Length 1 3/4in. 

J. Ditto, top of eye and point missing. Length 2in. 

K. Ditto. Stained green. Top of eye missing. Length 3 3/4in, (18 
fragments of various sizes of bone pins and needles found). 

L. Bone tool, worked to a point, unworked at butt. Length 3 l/2in. 

M. Bone implement, worked to a gouge-shape one end and perforated 
the other. The shaft is ornamented on three sides with cross cuttings. 
Length 6 l/2in. (2 more of these found but unornamented). 

N. Bone tool (?) with notches cut to the shape of a star one end and to 
an oblong the other. Pottery decorator (?). Length 4 l/2in. 

O. Bone tube made from the metatarsal bone of a sheep. Length 3 1 /2in. 
(3 of these were found, average length 3in.), 

P. Plain bone disc. Diam. 5/8in. 

Q. Bone disc worked with radiating V-shaped grooves. Plain under- 
neath. Diam. 3/4in. 

R. Bone disc. Plain. Diam. 3/4in. 

S. Faience, melon-shaped bead, bluish-green in colour. Diam. 5/8in. 
Height 11 /16in. 

T 1. Glass bead, green, 3 notches. Length 5/8in. 

T 2. Ditto, black, 3 notches. Length l/2in. 

T 3. Ditto, green, 2 notches. Length 3/8in. 

T 4. Ditto, emerald green, 1 notch. Length l/4in. 

T 5. Ditto, turquoise, twisted without becoming notched. Length 3/4in. 

T 6. Ditto, blue, 1 notch. Length 3/16in. 

T 7. Ditto, green, 2 notches. Length 5/16in. 

T 8. Ditto, green, 1 notch 3/16in. 

T 9. Fragment of coral, partly pierced lengthways for a bead. Length 

(This now makes a total of 409 beads found during 1924 and 1925). 




Romano-British Bronze Brooches. Cold Kitchen. -- 

Komano-British Bronze Brooches. Cold Kitchen. -L 

Bronze Dagger and other objects, and Silver British Coin. 
Cold Kitchen, -j- 


Romano-British Iron objects. Cold Kitchen. — 


Romano- British Iron objects. Cold Kitchen. ^ 




PLATE YKo ^^^ ^u^^ ^™ 

Romano-British Iron objects. Cold Kitchen. % 

Romano-British Objects of Bone, Glass Beads, &c. Cold Kitchen, y 

By B. cle 0, Nan KivelL 331 

U. Part of Kimmeridge shale bangle. Diam. 2 3/4in. (11 fragments 
found of various thicknesses and diameters). 

Fragments of Glass Found not Illustrated. 
Fourteen fragments were found recognisable as parts of bottles, cups, and 
Tases, chiefly of a light green colour, a few white. One white fragment 
of a lip of a vase has an added spiral twist outside. 

Pottery not illustrated. 

Vase of New Forest ware with indented sides. Brownish-purple in 
<colour. I'ieced together and not complete. Height 4in. Diam. at top 
i 3/4in. 

Identical with above but more incomplete. 

Bowl or porringer with straight sides obliquely outset, and a thick 
rounded flange just below a small upright lip. Diam. including flange 
5 l/2in. Height Sin. Pieced together. 

Ditto. Diam. 7 l/2in. Height 3 l/2in. Pieced together. 

Small open bowl with bead rim. Of coarse brown ware. Diam. 4 l/2in. 
Height 2in. Pieced together. 

Oval cooking pot with two handles. Of coarse black ware. Scored with 
trellis pattern. Length 9in. Width 6in. Height 1 3/4in. Pieced together. 

Fragments of bowl of Samian ware, form 9, plain. Diam. 7in. Height 
2 l/2in. 

Fragments of bowl of Samian ware, form 37, decorated in relief with 
band of and tassel design, hunting scene, and ivy-leaf pattern. Part 
of base with stamp missing. Diam. 6 l/2in. Height 3 l/2in. 

Part of a perforated bowl, colander (?) with horizontally set lip. Of a 
soft grey paste. Diam. 6in. Height 3in. 

Fragments of a shallow bowl ornamented with ribs or cordons. Coated 
inside and out with haematite. Approx. size diam. 7in. Height 2in. 

Fragment of thin pot of hard light grey ware, coated inside and out with 
a greenish-brown glaze. 

Fragments of New Forest ware painted with different designs in white 

Fragment of pot decorated with rosette pattern and upright lines of 
small sunken oblongs. 

Ditto, but with larger rosettes. 

Fragments of pottery of a soft light brown paste, with incised designs 
bearing a close resemblance to those on the pottery found on the late Celtic 
site at All Cannings Cross, (cf. Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxxvii., pages 526— 

(22 decorated fragments of this type of pottery found ) 

Chalk whorl. Diam. 3/4in. Height 3/4in. 

Ditto. Diam. 1 3/8in. Height 5/8in. 

Ditto. Diam. lin. Height lin. 

Ditto. Diam. 3 l/2in. Height 3/4in. 

Half of circular chalk object. Ornamented with a series of holes in 
outside edge of circumference, and also on top face. Raised ring in centre, 


332 Ohjeds found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell. 

and incised lines. On reverse incised lines with part of a zig-zag pattern. 
Diam. 2 5/8in. Thickness 5/8in. 

Pottery whorl. Diam. 2in. Height 3/8in. 

Pottery disc. Diam. Tin. Height l/4in. 

Sling bullet of baked clay. Length 1 l/2in. Diam. 3/4in. 

Ditto. Length 2in. Diam. 1 l/Sin. (Four of these found. Average 
length 1 l/2in). 

Ball of chipped chalk. Diam. 3/4in. 

Ball of chipped flint. Diam. 2 l/2in. 

Ditto. Diam. 2 l/4in. (Four of these found of varying roundnesses- 
Average diam. 2 l/2in). 

Chipped flint object. Partly natural. Length 2 3/4in. Width 5/8in. 

Fragment of hypocaust flue, with deep incisions, brick-red in colour. 
(Twelve fragments found). 

Tube of baked clay. Length 2in. Diam. 3/8in. 

Fragments of sawn deer horns. (Six fragments sawn and twelve natural 
parts found). 

List of Coins Found. 



Small silver 




Small silver 






Antoninus Pius. 



Small brass, tinned 




Middle brass 

Constantinus I. 



Small brass 

















Claudius Gothicus. 












Constantinus I. 




Type Urbs Roma. 









63 Total 

With the coins found last year the total is now 169. 



The Great Bustards in Salisbury Museum. The 

Museum possesses four of these birds, three undoubtedly Wiltshire speci- 
mens, and the fourth possibly so also. These have now been collected into 
one .case and re-set by Messrs. Rowland Ward, of Piccadilly, in natural 
attitudes and surroundings at a cost of i80, including a gift from Mr. 
William Wy ndham,of W illiton of £50, which made the enterprise a possibility. 
Of the four Bustards one was shot and wounded by one of Lord Ailesbury's 
keepers named King, at Henswood, in January, 1856. Home days later a 
little boy of seven came across the bird with a broken leg and in spite of 
the fact that the bird showed fight and bit his fingers he draggled it a 
quarter of a mile to the farm where his brother was working. Mhere the 
bird's neck was broken, and the small boy carried it home to his mother. 
It was a young cock weighing IS^lbs., and measured 6ft. Sin. across the 
wings. Later in the day two young men out shooting bought the bird for 
1/-. It was stuffed by Mr. Leadbeater for Mr. Rowland, of Hungerford 
and was subsequently bought for Mr. M. H. Marsh, MP. for Salisbury, who 
paid £20 for it. It came to the museum with the whole of the Marsh col- 
lection in 1882. Two others, a cock and a hen, were shot in 1871, the hen 
bird at Maddington on July 23rd by a bird-keeping boy named Stephen Smith, 
who seeing three birds together and having no shot, loaded his gun with a 
small stone and winged the bird at 300 yards. This bird was stuffed at 
Warminster for the Salisbury Museum, and its flesh provided a dinner at 
Salisbury to which ten privileged guests sat down. It weighed 7^1bs. and 
measured 5ft. 2in. across the wings. The cock bird was shot three days 
later at Berwick St. James, by a keeper employed by Mr. Erlysman 
Pinkney. It weighed l71bs. and measured 6ft. Sin. across the wings. On 
Mr. Pinckney's death, it was presented to the Salisbury Museum. The 
third bird of this party of Bustards escaped The fourth example at 
Salisbury was purchased for the Museum at the Dinton House sale a few 
years ago, when it was catalogued as " a Large Goose in case," for Jil 10s. 
Nothing is known as to where it came from, but it may well be a Wiltshire 
specimen. The above particulars are given by Mr. Frank Stevens, F.S.A., 
in the Wiltshire Gazette, July 9th, 192n. It would be a happy thing if 
some generous bird lover would enable our society to do as much for the 
Wiltshire Bustards in Devizes Museum as has now been done for those at 

The Field, January 14th, 1926, reports the shooting of two Great Bustards, 
a hen bird in Ireland on December 9th, 1925, and another at Cockfield, 
Suffolk, which was mistaken for a wild goose and sold as such to a butcher, 
who wondered why its feet had no webs. 

A Wiltshire Polecat. Under this heading in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, February 4th, 1926, Mr. Alfred Williams, of South Marston, writes 

z 2 

334 Notes. 

that during 1925 a labourer at Bradenstoke, named Ernest King, setting a 
trap for a Badger at the mouth of an earth caught a Polecat which weighed 
5lbs. 4ozs. He sold the animal to a Mr. Hawkins, of Swindon, who most 
unfortunately did not take measures to have it stufifed until it was too late 
to do so, and this interesting survival of an animal long believed to be ex- 
tinct in Wiltshire was lost. Mr. Williams, however, maintains that he 
saw one alive near Cricklade in 1914, and that he heard from friends of one 
at Fairford in 1910. He heard of another at Witney two years ago, and 
"a shepherd near Boars Hill, Oxford, had one under observation for several 
weeks last summer (1925)," and a keeper at Pusey, near Faringdon, in the 
spring of last year saw a Polecat close to his cottage, which escaped him. 
Mr. Williams therefore believes that in the Upper Thames district a few 
polecats are still in existence. [A few particulars in the above account 
which do not appear in the paper are derived from a letter of Mr. Williams' 
to myself .] Ed. H. Goddard. 

Romano-British Interment at Stanton St. Quintin. 

The Rev. Canon the Hon. B. P, Bouverie, formerly Rector of Stanton St. 
Quintin, writes Dec. 4th, 1924, " I send you a fibula and also a glass tear 
drop found at the same time. It was in some year between 1870 and 1880. 
I was poking about in a quarry between Upper and Lower Stanton St. 
Quintin when I saw what I believe was a cinerary urn of red-brown 
pottery among the stones. I tried to get it out, but unfortunately it fell to 
pieces so small that I could not put it together again, but in it I found 
this fibula and also the tear drop. When I got them the pin was still in 
the brooch, but was so rusted at the point, it fell off, and alas I have lost 
that. I can't make out what metal it is made of." The fibula is a plain 
T-headed one of strong make, 2|in. long, the spring of seven coils being 
protected by the T-shaped head and attached to it by the wire being run 
through a hole in the base of the bow. The catch plate is pierced with a 
large triangular opening, a reminiscence of the earlier pre- Roman fibulae in 
which the front was turned back to meet the bow. It much resembles one 
found at Newstead, nr. Melrose, and figured by Curie (Plate Ixxxv., 4) 
which was definitely dated by associated objects " not earlier than the middle 
of the second century." It also resembles one found by Gen. Pitt Rivers at 
the Romano- British village of Woodcuts, and figured in Excavations, Vol. 
I., Plate xii., fig. 9, except that in the Woodcuts specimen the catch plate is 
not pierced. Pitt Rivers notes that "it appears to be of white metal having 
a considerable alloy of tin," and this curiously is true also of the Stanton 
specimen, which is of a silvery white metal, yellower in some places, very 
hard and uncorroded, and is not merely of bronze silvered over or plated as 
many brooches are. The " tear drop " mentioned in the letter is a small 
drop-shaped lump of clear glasss, probably a glass bead fused in the funeral 
fire. In view of the known existence of the considerable villa in Stanton 
Wood it is not remarkable that Roman burials should occur there. The 
exact spot where the pot was found is a quarry in a hollow about half-way 
along the first stretch of straight road on the left hand side on the way from 
the Church to Lower Stanton. Canon Bouverie did not notice any burnt 

Notes. 335 

bones or ashes in the pot. The objects have been placed in Devizes 
Museum. Ed. H. Goddard. 

Romano-British Site in Savernake Forest. The 

Rev. A. Joyce Watson reports that in the open valley in Savernake, known 
as " Ked Venn," the whole hillside is covered with low banks and sunken 
tracks, with low mounds, where quantities of pottery sherds, and small iron 
and bronze articles, cleats, nails, etc., occur. The site is just W. of the line 
of the Koman road, about half-way between the London road and the 
Grand Avenue, N.W. of Ashlade Firs. No real excavation of this site haa 
been attempted. 

Roman Objects found at Box, 1922—1926. The 

following coins have been found : — An Aureus of Galba, a denarius of Julia 
Sosemias ; Second Brass of AUectup, and Diocletian ; and third Brass of 
Claudius Gothicus, Aurelian, Constantine I., Constantine junr., and 
Constans (I). Of pottery, numerous fragments of the commoner wares, 
tiles, etc., a few fragments of Castor ware, and about 30 small fragments of 
Samian, including a base with the potter's mark ATILIANUS (?). Also 
the handle of an amphora. Two pieces of plain stone columns were found, 
and a small fragment about 10 inches long of the upper right hand corner 
of what seems to have been a tablet or relief of figures within an ornamented 
border. Only a hand holding a trident remains, ? part of a figure of 
Neptune. This was found on the site of the villa N. of the Church, and is 
now deposited on loan at Devizes Museum. A. Shaw Mellor. 

Modern use of Sarsens as Tombstones. The Duke of 

Somerset was buried on the top of the hill above Maiden Bradley. His 
grave has now been marked by a large natural unworked Sarsen at the 
head, 8ft. high, and four smaller ones at the corners, having much the ap- 
pearance of a ruined dolmen. The Sarsens came from Bushey Penning, 
just S. of East Kennet. Ed. H. Goddard. 

Rows of Sarsens round Celtic Lynchets. An article 

entitled "Giants' Hedges," by O. G. S. C(rawford), in the Wiltshire Gazette, 
Nov. 13th, 1924, calls attention to the fact that "on the Marlborough 
Downs, in the Sarsen region, the Celtic lynchets are lined with rows of 
large boulders. Some of these still stand upright, proving that they were 
once intentionally set up in a row. On Totterdown the lines are remark- 
ably clear, and a few were noticed and inserted on the 25in. map (first 
edition). The He v. H. G. O. Kendall informs me that some were exposed 
not long ago at the foot of Winterbourne Monkton Down ; and they were 
most certainly placed intentionally to form a kind of retaining wall to the 
lynchet. I have seen others along the very fine series of lynchets in 
Winterbourne Monkton Pennings close by. Unfortunately they are now 
all being broken up to make " paving stones for the Swindon streets." Mr. 
Crawford believes, no doubt rightly, that when the ground was originally 
cleared for cultivation the sarsens lying on it were dragged (precisely as they 
are to this day on the arable land, when they come in contact with the 

336 Notes. 

ploughshare) to the side of the field and there set up as a hedge or fence. 
Similar walls or fences of boulders are still being made in Cornwall and 
in Wales. xMr. Crawford even suggests that some of the "Stone Rows" on 
Dartmoor may have been fences or boundary marks. 

Evidences of Prehistoric trade between Wiltshire 

and France. Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, in an interesting article on 
" Prehistoric trade between England and France," in V Anthropologies in 
1913, mentions several objects which are now in the Society's Museum at 
Devizes. The first of these is the remarkable highly polished celt of green 
stone which belonged to the Brook collection. An outline drawing of this 
was given. Mr. Crawford notes two other instances of highly polished 
greenstone implements of Brittany type found near Beaulieu (Hants), one 
belonging to Mr. Dale, of Southampton, the other to Lord Montagu. Sir 
John Evans in recording a similar example from Guernsey (Evans' Stone 
1897, p. 107) says " should authenticated instances of the finding of celts 
of this class in our southern counties be adduced, they will be of interest 
as aflfording prima facie evidence of intercourse with the Continent at an 
early period." Mr. Brooks' example was found at Breamore, just outside 
the Wiltshire border, but the actual circumstances of its finding seems not 
to have been recorded. Mr. Crawford also cites the ginger jar shaped urn 
of burnished red pottery found by Sir R. C. Hoare in a Bronze Age barrow 
at Winterbourne Stoke, the surviving fragments of which are in the 
Stourhead collection at Devizes {Ancient Wilts, plate xv., fig. 1.) as being 
apparently of a French type. This urn is unlike anything else found in 
Wiltshire, But the most important evidence of prehistoric trade across 
the Channel in the Bronze Age seems to be that afforded by the straight- 
sided square socketed Bronze Celts of a well-known Breton type, described 
by Sir John Evans {Bronze 1881, p. 115), of which there were four examples 
in the Brooke collection (See W.A.M., xxxix., 482), three of which from 
Wiltshire are now at Devizes, and one from Berks in the Newbury Museum. 
From the fact that many of these celts still have their sockets filled with 
the clay plug used in casting, and that the edge of their blades have never 
been sharpened it seems probable that they were imported as a medium of 
exchange, a species of currency. Mr. Crawford gives a map showing the 
distribution in Southern Britain of greenstone polished celts, and bronze 
socketed celts of Breton type. 

Barrow at Winterslow Hut opened 1844. The 

Rev. A. B. Hutchins, Curate of Ludgershall, writing to The Antiquarian 
and Architectural Year Book for 1844, published by T. C. Newby, 72, 
Mortimer Street, Cavendish Square, 1845, gives on pp. 23 — 26 a full 
description of the opening of a barrow at Winterslow Hut. An urn 18in. X 
18in. was found inverted. It was ornamented both outside and inside 
the neck with " victors' laurel " pattern. There was a linen covering over 
the mouth of the urn, and it contained an amber solitaire bead, 23 beads of 
amber, etc. On the floor a bronze pin, a small rounded two-edged lance 
head highly fluted ;a small earthenware vessel, and an urn 12 X IH inches 

Notes. 337 

with imitation handles, containing burnt bones. Another burnt inter- 
ment was accompanied by a mixed metal spearhead bent towards the top, 
4 iron arrowheads, and a small circular earthen vase. In the centre of the 
barrow 4ft. below ground level was found a skeleton, head to north, with 
metal spearhead, slate gorget with three holes at each end, a red earthen 
vase of three pints capacity, with ornamentation, found between the knees 
and the feet of the skeleton, containing two flint arrowheads. 

A Prehistoric Hearth at Dinton. In the chalk pit near 

the Field Barn of East Farm, Dinton, a dark mass was seen at the level of 
the top of the hard chalk. Above this was the section of a lynchet of two 
distinct periods. The bottom of the basin-shaped hearth was 1ft. Sin. 
below the level of the top of the chalk. Its length was 5ft. 6in., and width 
approximately 3ft. No pottery, bones, or worked flints were found, simply 
charcoal, pot-boilers, and " dirt." R. C. 0. ChkY. 

Avebury Church Rood Loft Lights. Mr. Aymer Vallance, 

F.S.A., writing to the editor, August 24th, 1920, says: — "Did you know 
that when I went up the most precipitous and dangerous roodstair at 
Avebury I found, along the top surface of the handrail of the parapet traces 
of the round holes or sockets where the lights before the rood had been 
fixed. There had been 10 holes at (distances of) about 1ft. Gin. I suppose 
these held bowls with prickets. I have rarely found so complete a set of 
holes for this purpose. 

Wiltshire Yeomanry Cavalry and Militia Papers. 

Two letter box files of letters and papers were given to the library in 1924 
by Miss Eyre Matcham through Lord Heytesbury. The large majority are 
letters from Lord Pembroke, as Lieutenant of Wilts, to " Mr. Winch, 
Attorney at Law, Crane Street, Salisbury," " the Clerk of the Lieutenancy/' 
dating from 1794 to 1821, but there are many also from Lt.-Col. Lord 
George Thynne, of Baycliflfe, Warminster, and from Sir C. H. Malet, of 
Wilbury, and other Deputy Lieutenants who seemed to have had much to do 
with the raising of the forces in those days, and oflScers, such as Lt.-Col. 
Robert Humphrys, of The Ivy ; Col. Lord Bruce ; J. T. Batt, of New Hall; 
J. H. Penruddocke, of Compton ; J. T. Egerton, of Winterslow ; W. W. 
Salmon, of Devizes ; John Eyre, of Marlborough ; Henry Ashe ; Lord 
Henry Petty, &c. On December 20th, 1806, the Volunteer Corps is re- 
turned by Lord George Thynne as consisting of 1 Lt.-Col., 1 Major, 6 
Captains, 4 Lieuts., 3 Ensigns, 1 Sergeant- Major, 20 Sergeants, 20 Corporals, 
12 Drummers, and 380 Privates ; whilst the Lavington and Cheverell 
Company of Volunteer Infantry, commanded by Capt. Garrett, consisted 
on April 4th, 1809, of 83 men with " Firelocks and Accoutrements " and 
none with " pikes." On March 2nd in the same year the total for the county 
of the " Volunteer Cavalry " was 536, and of the " Volunteer Infantry " 
1313, whilst the " Local Militia " in the various divisions were returned as 
Avon and Bourne 288, Devizes 671, N.-West Wilts 700, S.-West Wilts 405, 
W. Wilts 720, Blackland 46, a total of 2830, so that 823 men were still 
*' wanting " to complete the three establishments. 

338 Notes. 

In 1814 the Militia possessed two brass field pieces which had been pro- 
vided by the general subscription of the county. In spite of this it seems that 
the War Office claimed them— for Lord Pembroke writes that he had with re- 
gard to them, " the longest of the many dull correspondences to which I 
have been exposed in my various callings. Upon that occasion I mastered 
the Master-Gen^ of the Ordnance in defence of the guns of the county, 
to which they belong." In 1798 Lord Bruce writes that "a barrel of blank 
cartridges and some flints had been received at Marlborough, by Mr, Tayler^ 
Quartermaster," for tBe use of the troop of Yeomanry. Lists of oflacers, and 
in some cases of men, the amounts paid by officers on receipt of their com- 
missions, from £3 3s. by Colonels, down to 10s. 6d. by Ensigns, the plan 
approved at the county meeting on January 27th, 1809, for the division of 
the county for the purpose of supplying the five local militia battalions, and 
many other matters, occur in the correspondence, the great mass of which, 
however, really only deals with routine details and is not of much interests 
There is no doubt on one point ; whenever anything went wrong, and things 
not infrequently did so, it was always poor Mr. Winch's fault. Lord 
Pembroke makes this clear. 

Discovery of a hoard of English Silver Coins at 

Allington (All Cannings). In the course of building some 
cottages at Allington in September, 1925, on the site where, some ten 
or twelve years ago, there stood two very old houses, the workmen found 
it necessary to remove the capstone of a disused well in the garden. Under 
one of the corners of this stone they found over one hundred silver coins in 
a heap. They were brought to me for examination and were found to 
consist of : — 

10 Shillings of Queen Elizabeth. 

18 Sixpences ditto. 

6 Shillings of King James 1st. 

7 Sixpences ditto. 

33 Half-Crowns of King Charles 1st. 
25 Shillings ditto. 

7 Sixpences ditto. 

Most of these coins are in a poor state of preservation, much worn, and> 
especially in the case of the half-crowns of Charles, very much clipped. 
There were about ten more in the hoard, but some were lost, and two or 
three given away before the finders realised that the find might be con- 
sidered as " Treasure Trove." Of those given away there was one half* 
crown of Charles 1st dated 1643, so it seems possible that the original 
owner hid his savings under this well-stone during the time of the Civil 
War in Wiltshire, and never returned to enjoy the benefit of it. The 
Treasury were communicated with as to the disposal of the find. 


Stonehenge. Burial of Ashes of. " Latter Day 

Druids." Following on a question asked in Parliament by the mem* 
ber for Salisbury, and the answer of Mr. Jowett, First Commissioner of 

Notes. 339 

Works, that he did not propose to object to the burial by the " Latter Day 
Druids " of the ashes of their dead at Stonehenge, and the protest against this 
passed by the Wilts Arch. Society at their Salisbury meeting, many letters 
appeared in the Time^' On August 28th Lord Crawford and BalcarreSj 
President of the Society of Antiquaries, appealed to the " Druids" them- 
selves not to press their claims, and to the First Commissioner of Works to 
reconsider his decision, whilst Sir Will. Boyd Dawkins protested more 
forcibly, declaring that the "Druids" had nothing whatever to do with 
Stonehenge, On August 31st weighty letters of protest appeared from 
different points of view from Mr. J. H. Hound and Mr. J. U. Powell, 
Senior Tutor of St. John's Coll., Oxford. In the end it was understood 
that the permission which had been given had been withdrawn. 

The Tropenell Cartulary, This remarkable MS. volume, 
begun by order of Thomas Tropenell, the builder of Great Chalfield Manor 
House, in 1464, and added to until his death in 1488, was purchased by Mr. 
W. Heward Bell, F.S.A., in order that it might be available for publication 
and was edited for the Wilts Archaeological Society by the late Rev. J. 
Sylvester Davies, and published in two volumes in 1908, From that date 
until the end of 1923 the stout quarto volume remained in Mr. Bell's 
possession. At that date he sold it to Mr. Robert Fuller, of Great Chal- 
field, for the amount which he himself had given for it, and the book once 
more returned to the house in which it was originally compiled some 460 
years ago. 

Box, Haselbury, & Ditcheridge Rate & Valuation, 

1628.^ A rate and valuation of every livinge in the pishes of Box, 
Haselbery, and Ditcheridge agreed upon k made, and likewise consented 
unto, by us the inhabitants of the pishes afforesayed, and whose names are 
under subscribed this 12th dale of August 1628: for to remayne in the 
Churtch coffer of the pish Church of Box, as allso one coppy mdented 
therwth ^w*'' George Speke of Haselbery Esq"" and those to be psidents 
wherby to gather & collecte what every man's pt shale be pportionabelly to 
theire livinges for W*" they are liabel), towards any payment that these 
pishes or livings or any of them shall or may be chardged w^'' all. 

Box. li. 

George Speke for the psonadge 110 

John Pinchin for the psonadge bowse & stitchings 15 

George Speke esq'' for the farm and divers other lands in Box 157 
Mr. Coren for his Vicaridge ^ 80 

Mr. Hery Long for his lands 140 

Mr. Zacharias Pouer for Rudlowe farme 80 

Peeter Webb for his farmes and land in Box 72 

Thomas Pers of fford for his grounds 36 

William Sumtion for his mill and grounds thir unto belongi^ 36 
Willia Pinchin for his mills & grounds therunto belonginge 36 

Gifford Hulbert for Slade livinge 36 

^ In possession of Mr. Peter Pinchen, of Box, (1888). 

340 Notes. 

John Taylor for Mr. Hunts wormwood & the grounds and land 

beloginge 36 

Mr. John Longe for his lande _^ 34 

Thomas West for Week & hardigs 30 

John Pinell for Hill Howse _ 28 

Widowe Curtise for her tenemt 28 

Thomas Broade for his tenemt_& divers other lands besids 24 

Lorance Cottell for beasars_tent 22 

John Smith for Simons tenet 21 10s« 

Widowe ffisher for her lande 20 

ilichard ffilx for butlers tenement of Rudlowe 20 

Anthony Baldwine for his tent 18 

Willia Butler of Midelhill for his tenent _ 18 

[Wormclift] William Sandall for Coxes tent 16 

Willia Butcher of Rudlo for his tenement 15 

Willia Jeffery for his tenet __ 14 

[Ducket] Michell Cuffe for Vinsies tenet 14 

[Jo. Bay lie] Willia Rawlins for his tenet_ 13 

[W" Eyre] Klement_England for his tenet 13 

[Henly] Thomas Adla for Joanses tenet 12 

John Moxa for his land H 

John Pers for his grounds _ 10 

Robert Butcher for his tenet 10 

Robert ReynoUs for his house and groundes 10 

[D' Haris] Widowe Newman for her tenet att Kingsdoune 10 

Anthony Balden & Richard ffilx for_Cottels bargayne 10 

Henry butler of rwd. ( — ?) for his tent 10 

[s collets] Thomas flPord for his tenet 9 

[Henslows] John head for his liowse^ grounds 7 

Thomas Hiller for M' hunt^ tenet att an greene 7 

Widowe harden for her tenet 7 

Thomas West jun' for Coxes tenet & divers other grounds 6 

JohnBolwell for his mill 6 

Willia NichoUs for hjs^ tenet 6 

John Newman of flfoga for his tet . 6 

John Pinchen for bur yate 2 grounds 5 

John Jeflfery for his tenet 5 

Anthony Moxa for his tenent 5 

Gills Bayly for his tenet 4 

John_Woodman for his grounds 4 

Willia Nowell for his_teneT 4 

John Love for his tenet and the ground under Cleeves 4 

Thomas Blanchard for his bargayne 3 

Michaell Bolwell for his Meade - 3 

Willia F . . elHor his ground 2 

The Lady Corwallis, her tenants for her lande in Box 2 

The su of Box 1360 

Notes. 341 

The su of the psonadg 125 

The su of the Vicaridg 80 

George 8peke for haselbury 63 


The psonadge 24 10 

Michael Bolwell and Richard Chapman for there farme 34 

Willia Element for his fare _ 27 

Michaell Chelnam for his tenet 20 

Willia Klement for wests 18 
Peeter Webb for filx 8 

Gifford Hulbert for hollies 7 

The su of dicheridg psoadge 24 

The su of the rest of the pish 114 

Su totalis 1 38 
The totall sum of Box 1360 10 

The su of Hasebery 063 

The_sum of Ditcheridge 138 10 

Suma totalis 1562 


George Speke 
Zachaeias Power 
Anthonie Balden his marke 
William Clement his marke 
William Pinchen. 
[Note. — The marginal annotations were doubtless made subsequently to 
the valuation, and give the names of the then owners of the lands in 
question]. [Transcribed by A. St. J. Story Maskelyne]. 

Avebury^ A new stone in the Kennett Avenue. 

In the dry summer of 1921 I walked the line of the Kennett Avenue lead- 
ing in an irregular straight line to the S.E. from the great circle at Avebury 
with the idea of finding buried stones by observation of the burnt-up turf. 
By the aid of a steel probe a large stone was located in the east of West 
Kennett village. In November, 1922, by the kind permission of Capt. R. 
Edwards, I was able to excavate the site. O.M. Sheet 28 S.W. (6-inch) 
shows four fallen stones of the avenue lying in the bank of the Bath Road 
over the hedge. On the south side, 77ft. east from the most easterly of 
these is the newly discovered stone lying in the same straight line. 

Work was commenced on the 25th November, 1922, and after taking off 
the turf a large stone was struck at the depth of 1ft, and on being cleared 
revealed a new avenue stone 10ft. 7in. long and just under 5ft. wide and 
2ft. thick at the edges and thickening considerably towards the centre. It 
was lying E. and W., with the larger end to the west. At the latter end 

' The Society is indebted to Mr. Passraore for half the cost of the blocks 
illustrating these notes. 



were two large packing blocks and in the space between them was a layer 
of flints and small sarsens from 6in, to about 1ft in diameter extending for 
about 4ft. under the fallen monolith. It is obvious that the large stone 
was brought into position from the east side, the larger end was placed on 
the hard pavement and the other end raised up so as to bring the lower 


Plan of Stone as excavated. The small packing blocks were only partly 


part of one edge between the two large packing blocks which were doubt- 
less already in position. It thus stood with its broad side facing the 
avenue. In falling, the stone fell on its edge, and then turned over on to its 
flat face. It is simply a rough sarsen such as occur locally, and no marks of 
tooling were noticed. As the stone lies in a valuable pasture near the river^ 
only a small excavation was made, nothing was moved except a few of the 
paving stones, these were replaced and everything was covered up exactly as 
it was before work started. 

One small piece of black pottery too small for determination was found 
on the pavement. Two flint flakes came out of a curious natural groove 
which crosses transversely the upper face of the stone. The excavation 

Plate I.— Objects of Early Iron Age from N. Wilts (Passmore Collection). 






Notes. 343 

was visited by the Rev. H. G. O. Kendall, F.S.A., and others, while the 
work was done by H. Tuck, of Avebury, and the writer. 

The stone now lies at the foot of the low causeway which carries the 
Bath Road at this spot, its N. edge is 18ft. from the south edge of the 
metalled road ; its west end is exactly 77ft. from the nearest point of the 
stone to the west, allowing for rainwash and modern movement of the 
ground only about 2ft. of the stone could have been underground. 

A. D. Passmore. 

Early Iron Ag^e Antiquities from N. Wilts. The 

antiquities described and illustrated on Plates I. and II. have been 
found by chance while exploring ancient sites or by men employed in 
excavating for road material or rabbits. 

Plate I. (i). The earliest in point of date is the ring-headed bronze pin of 
Hammersmith type, length 5cms., formed from a thin circular bar of metal ; 
the head is not in the same plane as the pin. A rare type of the 4th — 3rd 
cent. B.C. Found at Upper Upham, in Aldbourne parish. 

(2). A ring-headed pin of iron llcms. in length found near Kussley. 

(3). La Tene I. brooch of bronze ; these brooches are of great interest 
and rarity except in Wiltshire where about thirty have been found. The 
present specimen was found near the pin last described in 1905, it is 4lmm. 
long and 13 wide at the coils. In ancient times the pin has been broken and 
replaced, it still works on a bar of metal thrust through the coils. 

(4). A penannular ring brooch with moveable pin, of bronze with flat 
spiral ends, it is oval in outline and formed of round wire, the pin is of the 
same form except the ring joint ; in this the metal has been beaten flat and 
bent over the ring of the brooch. This form was found in the Glastonbury 
Lake Dwelling but is rare elsewhere ; greatest length 29mm. Found near 
Nos. 2 and 3 but not actually associated with them. 

(5). A bronze brooch of La Tene III. type with solid catch plate and 
with bow, spring, and pin in one piece, length 51mm. Found near Russley. 

(6). Bronze brooch similar to No. 5 and from the same locality, 47mm. 

(7). A bronze earring (?) illustrated full size, a Hallstatt form but pro- 
bably of La Tene 1. date, found in Liddington Castle. 

(8). A solid cast ring of bronze illustrated full size found with Nos. 1 
and 9 at Upper Upham. 

(9). A bronze pin of a well-known Lake Dwelling type, was straight 
when found but was bent by finder, length 92mm. Of round bronze except 
the head which has been hammered flat and then coiled ; found with Nos. 
i and 8 at Upham. 

Plate II. (10). A bead rim pot of grey brown pottery with black patches, 
liandmade of thick ware, height 5|ins., diameter Q\m. at mouth and 3^in. at 
base, roughly in the centre of which a hole 19mm. in diameter has been bored, 
ijrreatest diameter 7^ins. This specimen was found in a pit in the garden 
of drovelands, Westlecott Road, Swindon, due south of the railway bridge 
in that road. It was surrounded by ashes and much broken pottery ; these 
were collected and taken away by one entirely ignorant of ancient pottery 

344 Notes. 

and unfortunately lost. In any case they could not be found when the 
owner applied for them, thus much interesting material has disappeared. 
The mouth of the pot is slightly oval. 

(11). A large elegantly shaped hand-made pot of reddish brown thin 
pottery with a bead rim, lip 8in., middle lOin., base Sin, in diameter, found in 
fragments by a flint digger near Russley and restored. 

(12). A large bead rim hand-made vessel of hard grey pottery 7|in. high, 
7| in. in greatest diameter, base 3jin., the mouth is somewhat oval in shape 
being 5|in. one way and 6Jin. the other ; found by flint diggers on White- 
field Hill, Aldbourne, together with much pottery of an early character. 

All the above-mentioned objects are in my own collection. 

A. D. Passmore. 

A new site for Naturally Polished Flints. About 

1921 a flint digger working on the N. face of Whitefield Hill in the parish 
of Aldbourne, close to and East of the Swindon — Marlborough road, found 
three highly lustrous flints exactly similar to those from Collingbourne 
described by the writer in W.A.M., xli., p. 183. They were treasured as 
curios till sold to the writer in 1925. 

(1) A rod-like water worn flint the size of a small finger lustred all 
over including the ends. (2) A thin much water-worn flint roughly 4in. X 
2in. and ^in. thick, lustred all over except where it has been broken in 
modern times. (3) A natural flint nodule still retaining (as the others) its 
white skin. Several flakes have been naturally broken away from the base. 
The whole of the specimen is highly lustred except two spots caused by 
an accident when foutid. There is now very little doubt that this extra- 
ordinary lustre was caused by a flow of fine mud and sand over the flints 
when lying in water. A. D. Passmore. 

Pits at Winterbourne Stoke. On February 7th, 1925, Mr. 

R. S. Newall, F.S.A., wrote as follows :— " My friend, Mr. R. Courage, of 
Scotland Farm, Winterbourne Stoke, asked me to come and dig out the 
remains of a skeleton found at Parsonage Down while digging holes for 
posts. The site is now pasture after plough, and there are no signs of 
banks, ditches, or holes, but many burnt flints and pieces of pottery, too 
weathered to be of any use, are lying on the surface. I found a pit 3ft. 
deep by 4ft. in diameter. In the chalky earth were animal bones, ox and 
sheep, and some small pieces of pottery. This chalky earth came to within 
ISin. of the surface, then 6in. of clean moved chalk, and above this had 
evidently been a layer of large flints and earth. On the N. side of the pit 
was a recess ISin. deep filled with the same earthy chalk and two hands and 
one foot of a skeleton m situ. What had happened was that the original ' 
pit had been filled up, or had silted up to within ISin. of the surface; that ' 
then a cutting had been made in the north side and the chalk from this ! 
had been thrown into the middle of the original pit. The crouched skeleton ; 
was buried only ISin. below the surface, lying, I think, on the left side with 
head to N.W. The skeleton had been covered over with large flints. 
There were about 18 small pieces of pottery, no rim fragments. Dr. R. 0. : 
C. Clay confirmed my opinion as to its being probably of Early Iron Age^ 

.<^tsH Wl^>. 


■: -. :J 

-•-•^--y ^./<f 

'^ '*' k'^^^^^S 

. '^li^'^^^^^^^ 

V '^ *'^-'^*' ^^^™F 

,•':;. ■'••?; ,^^' -^■>;^-'^^^P^ 






Stone perforated Mace Head (?), about ^. Found near Bilbury Camp, 
Wylye. In possession of R. S. Newall, F.S.A. 



Notes. 345 

La Tene I. or II. 1 The pottery above or near the skeleton was the same 
as in the pit. This might be caused by covering the skeleton with earth 
from the pit. Dr. Clay thought the skeleton that of a boy of about 7 or 8 
years of age. Another pit was found, but the ground was in too bad a 
state to dig it out." The importance of the find is that it locates a new pit 
site. It lies in the middle of the large field to the N. of the Amesbury 
Road, VV. of Scotland Farm, between the farm and the sixth milestone from 
Amesbury, rather nearer the latter. 

Medieval Gravestones at Trowbridge. The Wiltshire 

Times, of Sept. 27th, 1924, reported the discovery of several recumbent 
tombstones together with a great quantity of human bones in the course of 
excavating the foundations of the extension of the Co-operative Bakery in 
Court Street, Trowbridge. A stone coffin was also found. It was during 
the erection of the earlier premises of the Co-operative Society that the 
remarkable coped recumbent stone, with head and